Search results for 'rationale thinking' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paralogical Thinking (2005). Hans Rudi Fischer Rationality, Reasoning and Paralogical Thinking. In Friedrich Wallner, Martin J. Jandl & Kurt Greiner (eds.), Science, Medicine, and Culture: Festschrift for Fritz G. Wallner. Peter Lang. 240.score: 120.0
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  2. Gordon D. Lamb & Cecil R. Reynolds (2011). Rationale for Considering Typical Critical Thinking Skills. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 26 (2):21-29.score: 84.0
    This paper’s purpose is to provide a foundation for viewing critical thinking as both a maximal and typical performance construct. While maximal performance measures the best a person can do, typical performance measures what the person is most likely to do. An overview of maximal performance, including its history and limitations, will be given. The role of maximal and typical performance in cognitive development will be demonstrated through an exploration of the relationships between behavior, the environment, personality, crystallized intelligence, (...)
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  3. Michael Loughlin (2003). Critical Thinking Vs. Moral Expertise: A Commentary on 'The Rationale of Value‐Laden Medicine' (Kottow 2002; Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8, 77–84). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (1):92-94.score: 72.0
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  4. Kevin Groves, Charles Vance & Yongsun Paik (2008). Linking Linear/Nonlinear Thinking Style Balance and Managerial Ethical Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):305 - 325.score: 54.0
    This study presents the results of an empirical analysis of the relationship between managerial thinking style and ethical decision-making. Data from 200 managers across multiple organizations and industries demonstrated that managers predominantly adopt a utilitarian perspective when forming ethical intent across a series of business ethics vignettes. Consistent with expectations, managers utilizing a balanced linear/nonlinear thinking style demonstrated a greater overall willingness to provide ethical decisions across ethics vignettes compared to managers with a predominantly linear thinking style. (...)
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  5. Martin Davies (2012). Computer-Aided Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (2):15-30.score: 48.0
    This paper is in two parts. Part I outlines three traditional approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative, cognitive psychology, and educational approaches. Each of these approaches is discussed in relation to the influences of various methods of critical thinking instruction. The paper contrasts these approaches with what I call the “visualisation” approach. This approach is explained with reference to computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) which uses dedicated computer software to represent inferences between premise and conclusions. The (...)
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  6. Ruth Cigman (2013). How Not to Think: Medical Ethics as Negative Education. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (1):13-18.score: 42.0
    An implicit rationale for ethics in medical schools is that there is a perceived need to teach students how not to think and how not to act, if they are to avoid a lawsuit or being struck off by the GMC. However, the imperative to keep within the law and professional guidance focuses attention on risks to patients that can land a doctor in trouble, rather than what it means to treat a patient humanely or well. In this paper (...)
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  7. Lynn Sharp Paine (1996). Moral Thinking in Management. Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4):477-492.score: 42.0
    This paper argues that moral thinking is an essential management capability which strengthens organizations and contributes to theirperformance in the marketplace. The paper explains what moral thinking is, and addresses the most common reasons for considering it inappropriate or irrelevant to managerial practice. The argument provides a compelling rationale for the corporate ethics initiatives undertaken in recent years.
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  8. Jeong-Hyun Youn (2008). Non-Existent Existing God; Understanding of God From an East Asian Way of Thinking with Specific Reference to the Thought of Dasŏk Yoo Yŏng-Mo. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:881-905.score: 42.0
    This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is (...)
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  9. Alec Gordon (2008). Area Studies, Planetary Thinking, and Philosophical Anthropology. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 20:95-100.score: 42.0
    The aim of this paper is to consider the vicissitudes of “area studies” from the Second World War to the present focusing eventually on the normative imperative to develop a new paradigm of “planetary thinking.” First an overview of the history of “area studies” will be given from the start in the U.S. during the Second World War in response to the geostrategic imperative for America to know its new geopolitical responsibilities in a world divided by war. This security (...)
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  10. Connie Romig Bradley J. Morris, Steve Croker, Corinne Zimmerman, Devin Gill (2013). Gaming Science: The “Gamification” of Scientific Thinking. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 42.0
    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we (...)
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  11. Matthew W. McKeon (2013). On the Rationale for Distinguishing Arguments From Explanations. Argumentation 27 (3):283-303.score: 30.0
    Even with the lack of consensus on the nature of an argument, the thesis that explanations and arguments are distinct is near orthodoxy in well-known critical thinking texts and in the more advanced argumentation literature. In this paper, I reconstruct two rationales for distinguishing arguments from explanations. According to one, arguments and explanations are essentially different things because they have different structures. According to the other, while some explanations and arguments may have the same structure, they are different things (...)
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  12. FransH Eemeren & Rob Grootendorst (1988). Rationale for a Pragma-Dialectical Perspective. Argumentation 2 (2):271-291.score: 30.0
    Starting from a concept of reasonableness as well-consideredness, it is discussed in what way science could serve as a model for reasonable argumentation. It turns out that in order to be reasonable two requirements have to be fulfilled. The argumentation should comply with rules which are both problem-valid and intersubjectively valid. Geometrical and anthropological perspectives don't meet these criteria, but a critical perspective does. It is explained that a pragma-dialectical approach to argumentation which agrees with this critical perspective is indeed (...)
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  13. Barry Bozeman & Daniel Sarewitz (2011). Public Value Mapping and Science Policy Evaluation. Minerva 49 (1):1-23.score: 24.0
    Here we present the framework of a new approach to assessing the capacity of research programs to achieve social goals. Research evaluation has made great strides in addressing questions of scientific and economic impacts. It has largely avoided, however, a more important challenge: assessing (prospectively or retrospectively) the impacts of a given research endeavor on the non-scientific, non-economic goals—what we here term public values —that often are the core public rationale for the endeavor. Research programs are typically justified in (...)
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  14. Christopher Peacocke (2005). Rationale and Maxims in the Study of Concepts. Noûs 39 (1):167-78.score: 24.0
    Is there any good reason for thinking that a concept is individuated by the condition for a thinker to possess it? Why is that approach superior to alternative accounts of the individuation of concepts? These are amongst the fundamental questions raised by Wayne Davis.
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  15. Steven Ravett Brown (2000). Peirce and Formalization of Thought: The Chinese Room Argument. Journal of Mind and Behavior.score: 24.0
    Whether human thinking can be formalized and whether machines can think in a human sense are questions that have been addressed by both Peirce and Searle. Peirce came to roughly the same conclusion as Searle, that the digital computer would not be able to perform human thinking or possess human understanding. However, his rationale and Searle's differ on several important points. Searle approaches the problem from the standpoint of traditional analytic philosophy, where the strict separation of syntax (...)
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  16. Dorit Barchana-lorand & Efrat Galnoor (2009). Philosophy of Art Education in the Visual Culture: Aesthetics for Art Teachers. Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (1):133-148.score: 24.0
    This paper describes an experimental course in the preparation of art teachers. The goal of the course was to engage final-year art students in thinking about the fundamental questions in aesthetic education and in considering various views of their roles as teachers of art. The classes presented a dialogue between two teachers: a philosopher of art and an artist. We discussed the social justification of art, the place of art in education and more generally the portrayal of visual culture (...)
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  17. François Schroeter (2005). Normative Concepts and Motivation. Philosophers' Imprint 5 (3):1-23.score: 24.0
    Philip Pettit, Michael Smith, and Tyler Burge have suggested that the similarities between theoretical and practical reasoning can bolster the case for judgment internalism – i.e. the claim that normative judgments are necessarily connected to motivation. In this paper, I first flesh out the rationale for this new approach to internalism. I then argue that even if there are reasons for thinking that internalism holds in the theoretical domain, these reasons don’t generalize to the practical domain.
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  18. Jason M. Byron (2005). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 24.0
    The term 'sociobiology' was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies. This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology. Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing. It takes sociobiology as (...)
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  19. Ted Honderich, Conservatism: Burke, Nozick, Bush, Blair?score: 24.0
    What follows here is the first chapter, 'Change and Reform', of a book that inquires into the distinctions and rationale of the political tradition of conservatism. The book, now much enlarged and revised, was originally Conservatism, published in 1989 as a contribution to an election. Now, in particular, each chapter ends with a sizeable section on what replaced the Labour Party in Britain, the New Labour Party. For good measure, the final section of the second chapter, partly on something (...)
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  20. Des Gasper (2012). Development Ethics – Why? What? How? A Formulation of the Field. Journal of Global Ethics 8 (1):117-135.score: 24.0
    The paper assesses the rationale, contributions, structure, and challenges of the field of development ethics. Processes of social and economic transformation involve great risks and costs and great opportunities for gain, but the benefits, costs, and risks are typically hugely unevenly and inequitably distributed, as is participation in specifying what they are and their relative importance. The ethics of development examines the benefits, costs, risks, formulations, participation, and options. The paper outlines a series of ways of characterizing such work, (...)
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  21. Erik Malmqvist (2014). Are Bans on Kidney Sales Unjustifiably Paternalistic? Bioethics 28 (3):110-118.score: 24.0
    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller (...)
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  22. Matthew William McKeon (2009). A Plea for Logical Objects. Synthese 167 (1):163 - 182.score: 24.0
    An account of validity that makes what is invalid conditional on how many individuals there are is what I call a conditional account of validity. Here I defend conditional accounts against a criticism derived from Etchemendy’s well-known criticism of the model-theoretic analysis of validity. The criticism is essentially that knowledge of the size of the universe is non-logical and so by making knowledge of the extension of validity depend on knowledge of how many individuals there are, conditional accounts fail to (...)
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  23. Richard Brook (2005). Berkeley, Bundles, and Immediate Perception. Dialogue 44 (3):493-504.score: 24.0
    I argue in this article that, contrary to some recent views, Berkeley’s bundle theory of physical objects is incompatible with the thinking that we immediately perceive such objects. Those who argue the contrary view rightly stress that immediate perception of ideas or objects must be non-conceptual for Berkeley, that is, the concept of the object cannot be made use of in the perception, otherwise it would be mediate perception. After a brief look at the texts, I contrast how a (...)
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  24. Rom Harré (2004). Modeling: Gateway to the Unknown: A Work. Elsevier.score: 24.0
    Edited by Daniel Rothbart of George Mason University in Virginia, this book is a collection of Rom Harré's work on modeling in science (particularly physics and psychology). In over 28 authored books and 240 articles and book chapters, Rom Harré of Georgetown University in Washington, DC is a towering figure in philosophy, linguistics, and social psychology. He has inspired a generation of scholars, both for the ways in which his research is carried out and his profound insights. For Harré, the (...)
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  25. James Wood Bailey (1998). mIs It Rationale to Maximize? M. Utilitas 10 (2):195-.score: 24.0
    Most versions of utilitarianism depend on the plausibility and coherence of some conceptionof maximizing well-being, but these conceptions have been attacked on various grounds. This paper considers two such contentions. First, it addresses the argument that because goods are plural and incommensurable, maximization is incoherent. It is shown that any conception of incommensurability strong enough to show the incoherence of maximization leads to an intolerable paradox. Several misunderstandings of what maximization requires are also addressed. Second, this paper responds to the (...)
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  26. Don Locke (1980). The Illusion of Stage Six. Journal of Moral Education 9 (2):103-109.score: 24.0
    Abstract Kohlberg's developmental theory of moral reasoning postulates a supremely adequate form of moral thinking to which all other stages are tending, labelled Stage Six. Kohlberg identifies this with a principle of justice, though without adequately justifying the elimination of other autonomous universal principles. The claim that this principle provides consistent, reversible and universalizable moral judgements is criticized: by itself a purely formal principle of justice can provide no particular moral judgements at all; for that we need independent values, (...)
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  27. Aaron Stalnaker (2004). Rational Justification in Xunzi. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (1):53-68.score: 24.0
    Thinkers justify their views in a variety of ways. Operating in an alien intellectual milieu, the early Confucian Xunzi (c. 310–215 B.C.E.) provides an intriguing counterpoint to familiar contemporary options for such reasoned support. This essay examines an idea thatis crucial to Xunzi’s justification of his larger philosophical vision, and which has been the object of incompatible and misleading interpretations. This key term of art is li, meaning “order” or “pattern,” which some scholars have translated as “principle,” and others more (...)
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  28. Chris Mason & John Simmons (2014). Embedding Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: A Stakeholder Systems Approach. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (1):77-86.score: 24.0
    Current research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) illustrates the growing sense of discord surrounding the ‘business of doing good’ (Dobers and Springett, Corp Soc Responsib Environ Manage 17(2):63–69, 2010). Central to these concerns is that CSR risks becoming an over-simplified and peripheral part of corporate strategy. Rather than transforming the dominant corporate discourse, it is argued that CSR and related concepts are limited to “emancipatory rhetoric…defined by narrow business interests and serve to curtail interests of external stakeholders.” (Banerjee, Crit Sociol (...)
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  29. Carlos Antonio Mendes de Carvalho Buenos Ayres (2008). Hannah Arendt: O querer E a liberdade. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 11 (2):215-246.score: 24.0
    This paper aims of this to describe, from Hannah Arendt’s point of view the theoretical and historical route that provide the emergence of one at the three faculties of the spirit: the faculty of the will or want. Drawing initially on ancient Greece, the paper also deals with contributions of classic, mediavel and modern thinkers. In a retrospective approach Arendt examines the perception and installation process of the faculty of the will, by correlating it with the advent and consolidation of (...)
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  30. Donald W. Shriver Jr & E. Richard Knox (1985). Taxation in the History of Protestant Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 13 (1):134 - 160.score: 24.0
    Taxation and government policy related to it have only episodic appearance in classical Protestant ethical sources. Of the early sixteenth century reformers, Luther gave most attention to the subject, justifying taxation in general as necessary for the just service of government to the public good and calling the princes to spend tax monies for that good rather than their own luxury. Calvin made much the same claims but called more clearly for official church scrutiny of all government than did Luther. (...)
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  31. Jeong-Hyun Youn (2008). 없이 계시는 하느님; 다석 유영모의 절대자 이해. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:1209-1230.score: 24.0
    This paper is an interpretation of the thought of the twentieth century Korean religious thinker, Yoo Yŏng-mo (柳永模, 1890-1981), a pioneer figure who sought to re-conceptualise a Christian understanding of the Ultimate Reality in the light of a positive openness to the plurality of Korean religions. Yoo Yŏng-mo considered that it was possible to present an overall picture of harmony and complementarity between the three traditions of Korea and Christianity, and this is endorsed by the present thesis. This essay is (...)
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  32. Muhammed Haron (2014). South[Ern] Africa's Dar Ul-'Ulums: Institutions of Social Change for the Common Good? Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (3):251-266.score: 24.0
    Muslim communities in principally non-Muslim nation states (e.g. South Africa, United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands) established a plethora of Muslim theological institutions. They have done so with the purpose of educating and reinforcing their Muslim identity. These educational structures have given rise to numerous questions that one encounters as one explores the rationale for their formation. Some are: have these institutions contributed towards the growth of Muslim extremism as argued by American and European Think (...)
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  33. Patrick Hayden (2004). Constraining War: Human Security and the Human Right to Peace. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 6 (1):35-55.score: 24.0
    The explicit articulation of a cosmopolitan conception of human security and a corresponding right to peace is a positive development in global politics, inasmuch as it decenters the state in our understanding of the human community and delegitimizes organized violence as the generally accepted means for the “continuation” of realist politics. I have argued that just war theory, when defined in suitably narrow fashion, helps to contribute to our thinking on issues of human security in several ways. First, it (...)
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  34. David Macauley (2010). Head in the Clouds. Environment, Space, Place 2 (1):147-184.score: 24.0
    The sky proclaimed Emerson is “the daily bread of the eyes.” Despite the apparent truth of this observation, we often fail to appreciate the complex canopy of air above and around us in considerations of environmental aesthetics and ecological awareness. I examine the sky and aerial phenomena that are bound to, closely allied with, or materially emergent from, this ocean of blue. In the process, I develop a perspective for thinking about some of the aesthetic characteristics and dimensions of (...)
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  35. Christine Stephen (2012). Looking for Theory in Preschool Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 31 (3):227-238.score: 24.0
    This paper sets out to examine the place of theory in preschool education, considering the theories to which practitioners and providers have access and which provide a rationale for everyday practices and shape the experiences of young children. The paper reflects the circumstances of preschool provision, practices and thinking in the UK in general and in Scotland in particular. The central argument is that while there may be little obvious recourse to theorising and limited exposure to explicit theory (...)
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  36. Rom Harré & Roy Harris (eds.) (1993). Linguistics and Philosophy: The Controversial Interface. Pergamon Press.score: 24.0
    As hopes that generative linguistics might solve philosophical problems about the mind give way to disillusionment, old problems concerning the relationship between linguistics and philosophy survive unresolved. This collection surveys the historical engagement between the two, and opens up avenues for further reflection. In Part 1 two contrasting views are presented of the interface nowadays called 'philosophy of linguistics'. Part 2 gives a detailed historical survey of the engagement of analytic philosophy with linguistic problems during the present century, and sees (...)
     
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  37. Lizzy Lewis & Nick Chandley (eds.) (2012). Philosophy for Children Through the Secondary Curriculum. Continuum International Pub. Group.score: 24.0
    Philosophy for Children (P4C) is an approach to learning and teaching that aims to develop reasoning and judgement. Students learn to listen to and respect their peers' opinions, think creatively and work together to develop a deeper understanding of concepts central to their own lives and the subjects they are studying. With the teacher adopting the role of facilitator, a true community develops in which rich and meaningful dialogue results in enquiry of the highest order. Each chapter is written by (...)
     
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  38. J. R. Lucas (1995). Responsibility. Clarendon Press.score: 24.0
    Responsibility is a key concept in our moral, social and political thinking, but is not itself properly understood. In this book J R Lucas elucidates it in terms of answerability - the obligation to answer the question 'Why did you do it?' He develops this account to include negative responsiblity - 'Why did you not do something about it?' - and share responsibility, which together yield the rationale of political responsibility. In disentangling these two strands of argument, he (...)
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  39. B. E. Morton (2012). Behavioral Laterality of the Brain: Support for the Binary Construct of Hemisity. Frontiers in Psychology 4:683-683.score: 24.0
    Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: Hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one’s first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person’s binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs) exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each (...)
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  40. Susanna Siegel (forthcoming). How is Wishful Seeing Like Wishful Thinking? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.score: 18.0
    This paper makes the case that when wishful thinking ill-founds belief, the belief depends on the desire in ways can be recapitulated at the level of perceptual experience. The relevant kinds of desires include motivations, hopes, preferences, and goals. I distinguish between two modes of dependence of belief on desire in wishful thinking: selective or inquiry-related, and responsive or evidence-related. I offers a theory of basing on which beliefs are badly-based on desires, due to patterns of dependence that (...)
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  41. Helena Knyazeva (2004). The Complex Nonlinear Thinking: Edgar Morin's Demand of a Reform of Thinking and the Contribution of Synergetics. World Futures 60 (5 & 6):389 – 405.score: 18.0
    Main principles of the complex nonlinear thinking which are based on the notions of the modern theory of evolution and self-organization of complex systems called also synergetics are under discussion in this article. The principles are transdisciplinary, holistic, and oriented to a human being. The notions of system complexity, nonlinearity of evolution, creative chaos, space-time definiteness of structure-attractors of evolution, resonant influences, nonlinear and soft management are here of great importance. In this connection, a prominent contribution made to system (...)
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  42. Peter Carruthers (1998). Conscious Thinking: Language or Elimination? Mind and Language 13 (4):457-476.score: 18.0
    Do we conduct our conscious propositional thinking in natural language? Or is such language only peripherally related to human conscious thought-processes? In this paper I shall present a partial defence of the former view, by arguing that the only real alternative is eliminativism about conscious propositional thinking. Following some introductory remarks, I shall state the argument for this conclusion, and show how that conclusion can be true. Thereafter I shall defend each of the three main premises in turn.
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  43. John Danaher (2013). Kramer's Purgative Rationale for Capital Punishment: A Critique. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-20.score: 18.0
    Matthew Kramer has recently defended a novel justification for the death penalty, something he calls the purgative rationale. According to this rationale, the death penalty can be justifiably implemented if it is necessary in order to purge defilingly evil offenders from a moral community. Kramer claims that this rationale overcomes the problems associated with traditional rationales for the death penalty. Although Kramer is to be commended for carving out a novel niche in a well-worn dialectical space, I (...)
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  44. Jose Luis Bermudez (2003). Thinking Without Words. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    In Thinking without Words I develop a philosophical framework for treating some animals and human infants as genuine thinkers. This paper outlines the aspects of this account that are most relevant to those working in animal ethics. There is a range of different levels of cognitive sophistication in different animal species, in addition to limits to the types of thought available to non-linguistic creatures, and it may be important for animal ethicists to take this into account in exploring issues (...)
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  45. Jennifer Wilson Mulnix (2010). Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (5):464-479.score: 18.0
    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting them to critical scrutiny. I also distinguish critical thinking from other forms of mental processes with which it is often conflated. Next, I present my (...)
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  46. Dieter Lohmar (2012). Non-Language Thinking in Mathematics. Axiomathes 22 (1):109-120.score: 18.0
    After a brief outline of the topic of non-language thinking in mathematics the central phenomenological tool in this concern is established, i.e. the eidetic method. The special form of eidetic method in mathematical proving is implicit variation and this procedure entails three rules that are established in a simple geometrical example. Then the difficulties and the merits of analogical thinking in mathematics are discussed in different aspects. On the background of a new phenomenological understanding of the performance of (...)
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  47. Marie-France Daniel & Emmanuelle Auriac (2011). Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children1. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (5):415-435.score: 18.0
    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the classroom, suggesting that the discussions it fosters are not philosophical in essence. In this text, we argue that P4C is philosophy.
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  48. David Hunter (2003). Is Thinking an Action? Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (2):133-148.score: 18.0
    I argue that entertaining a proposition is not an action. Such events do not have intentional explanations and cannot be evaluated as rational or not. In these respects they contrast with assertions and compare well with perceptual events. One can control what one thinks by doing something, most familiarly by reciting a sentence. But even then the event of entertaining the proposition is not an action, though it is an event one has caused to happen, much as one might cause (...)
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  49. Peter Carruthers (1998). Distinctively Human Thinking. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought. Cambridge. 69.score: 18.0
    This chapter takes up, and sketches an answer to, the main challenge facing massively modular theories of the architecture of the human mind. This is to account for the distinctively flexible, non-domain-specific, character of much human thinking. I shall show how the appearance of a modular language faculty within an evolving modular architecture might have led to these distinctive features of human thinking with only minor further additions and non-domain-specific adaptations.
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  50. Christopher Winch (2006). Education, Autonomy and Critical Thinking. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The concepts of autonomy and of critical thinking play a central role in many contemporary accounts of the aims of education. This book analyses their relationship to each other and to education, exploring their roles in mortality and politics before examining the role of critical thinking in fulfilling the educational aim of preparing young people for autonomy. The author analyses different senses of the terms 'autonomy' and 'critical thinking' and the implications for education. Implications of the discussion (...)
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