Search results for 'reciprocity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  15
    Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gächter (2002). Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms. Human Nature 13 (1):1-25.
    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity “strong reciprocity” and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those (...)
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  2.  23
    Lawrence C. Becker (1986). Reciprocity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    In one form or another, social norms governing reciprocal behavior between individuals exist in all human societies of record. Such norms are institutionalized in social, political, and legal practices; they are internalized as expectations and behavioral dispositions in individuals. But the content of those norms differs widely from society to society, individual to individual. This book gives a normative argument for a particular content for the norms of reciprocity – a particular account of the meaning of making a fitting (...)
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  3.  31
    Lorenzo Sacconi (2007). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77 - 96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper (Sacconi, L.: 2006b, this journal), in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a (...)
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  4.  51
    Meena Krishnamurthy & Matthew Herder (2013). Justice in Global Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Analysis Based on the Values of Contribution, Ownership and Reciprocity. Public Health Ethics (3):pht027.
    In December 2006, Indonesia decided to stop sending influenza virus specimens to the World Health Organization’s Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). Indonesia justified its actions by claiming that they were in protest of the injustice of GISN. Its actions stimulated negotiations to improve the workings of GISN by developing and implementing a more just framework for ‘sharing influenza viruses and other benefits’. These negotiations eventually led to the adoption of a new framework for virus and benefit sharing in May 2011, (...)
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  5.  24
    Yves Fassin (2012). Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):83-96.
    Stakeholder theory advocates that firms bear responsibility for the implications of their actions. However, while a firm affects or can affect stakeholders, stakeholders can also affect the corporation. Previous stakeholder theorising has neglected the reciprocal nature of responsibility. The question can be asked whether—in a spirit of reciprocity, loyalty and fairness—stakeholders should treat the corporation in a fair and responsible way. This study based on different definitions of stakeholders argues that various stakeholder attributes differ for different categories of stakeholders. (...)
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  6.  11
    Caroline Nevejan & Frances Brazier (2012). Granularity in Reciprocity. AI and Society 27 (1):129-147.
    Witnessing in merging biological, social and algorithmic realities is crucial to trust, as modelled in the YUTPA framework. Being witness and bearing witness is fundamental to human interaction. System participation in human communities of practice challenges the notion of witnessing and therefore the ability to build trust. Nevertheless, through trial and error, people in a variety of practices have found ways to establish the presence and develop trust in merging realities. This paper presents the results of 20 in-depth interviews with (...)
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  7.  17
    A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures (...)
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  8.  19
    John R. Deckop, Caril C. Cirka & Lynne M. Andersson (2003). Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):101 - 113.
    Reciprocity is a fundamental aspect of social life, and a phenomenon studied from a wide variety of philosophical, theological, and social scientific perspectives. In this study, we use social exchange theory to investigate why employees help other employees. We hypothesize, based on the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), that a significant cause of an employee''s helping behavior is how much organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the employee has received from coworkers. To provide evidence of the discriminant validity of OCB (...)
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  9.  47
    Andrew Lister (2011). Justice as Fairness and Reciprocity. Analyze and Kritik 33 (1):93-112.
    This paper tries to reconcile reciprocity with a fundamentally 'subject-centred' ethic by interpreting the reciprocity condition as a consequence of the fact that justice is in part a relational value. Duties of egalitarian distributive justice are not grounded on the duty to reciprocate benefits already received, but limited by a reasonable assurance of compliance on the part of those able to reciprocate, because their point is to constitute a valuable relationship, one of mutual recognition as equals. We have (...)
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  10.  88
    Alejandro Rosas (2010). Reciprocity, Altruism and the Civil Society: In Praise of Heterogeneity , Luigino Bruni. Routledge, 2008, XIII + 158 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):108-114.
    Economic theory has tended to reduce all social bonds and relations to forms of contract, whereas social theory has seen contracts as opposed to, and destructive of, genuine social bonds. Bruni sees these contrapositions as ideological (‘left’ against ‘right’, p. xi). His main goal is to overcome them; to show that three forms of reciprocity, covering the ideological spectrum from left to right, are complementary and simultaneously required in a healthy society. These three forms are, in his words: ‘(1) (...)
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  11.  19
    Marit Helene Hem & Tove Pettersen (2011). Mature Care and Nursing in Psychiatry: Notions Regarding Reciprocity in Asymmetric Professional Relationships. Health Care Analysis 19 (1):65-76.
    The idea behind this article is to discuss the importance and to develop the concept of reciprocity in asymmetric professional relationships. As an empirical starting point for an examination of the possible forms of reciprocity between patients and nurses in psychiatry, we chose two qualitative in-depth interviews with two different patients. The manners in which these two patients relate to medical personnel—one is dependent, the other is independent—show that this presents challenges to nurses. The theoretical context is provided (...)
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  12.  23
    R. Delbourgo & D. Lashmar (2008). Born Reciprocity and the 1/R Potential. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):995-1010.
    Many structures in nature are invariant under the transformation pair, (p,r)→(b r,−p/b), where b is some scale factor. Born’s reciprocity hypothesis affirms that this invariance extends to the entire Hamiltonian and equations of motion. We investigate this idea for atomic physics and galactic motion, where one is basically dealing with a 1/r potential and the observations are very accurate, so as to determine the scale b≡mΩ. We find that an Ω∼1.5×10−15 s−1 has essentially no effect on atomic physics but (...)
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  13.  39
    A. P. Martinich (2011). Reason and Reciprocity in Hobbes's Political Philosophy: On Sharon Lloyd's: Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes Studies 23 (2):158-169.
    Lloyd's book, Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes , correctly stresses the deductive element in Hobbes's proofs of the laws of nature. She believes that “the principle of reciprocity” is the key to these proofs. This principle is effective in getting ego-centric people to recognize moral laws and their moral obligations. However, it is not, I argue, the basic principle Hobbes uses to derive the laws of nature, from definitions. The principle of reason, which dictates that all similar (...)
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  14.  28
    Ben Fraser (2011). Explaining Strong Reciprocity: Cooperation, Competition, and Partner Choice. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 6 (2):113-119.
    Paul Seabright argues that strong reciprocity was crucial in the evolution of large-scale cooperation. He identifies three potential evolutionary explanations for strong reciprocity. Drawing (like Seabright) on experimental economics, I identify and elaborate a fourth explanation for strong reciprocity, which proceeds in terms of partner choice, costly signaling, and competitive altruism.
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  15.  8
    Veikko Pelto-Piri, Karin Engström & Ingemar Engström (2013). Paternalism, Autonomy and Reciprocity: Ethical Perspectives in Encounters with Patients in Psychiatric in-Patient Care. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):49.
    BackgroundPsychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real (...)
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  16.  5
    Xueming Luo & Qinqin Zheng (2013). Reciprocity in Corporate Social Responsibility and Channel Performance: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):203-213.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is more and more important in the supply chain. Drawing from the stakeholder theory and channel relational reciprocity literature, we develop and empirically support a theoretical framework. Our framework predicts that CSR reciprocity between buyer and seller firms in a supply chain affects channel tie intensity and channel sales performance (main effects) and that market competition may amplify these influences (moderated effects). The framework reveals important implications regarding the role of reciprocal CSR for channel (...)
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  17.  3
    Deborah S. Mower (2009). Sex Differences in Moral Interests: The Role of Kinship and the Nature of Reciprocity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):111-119.
    Although moral psychologists and feminist moral theorists emphasize males’ interest in justice or fairness and females’ interest in care or empathy, recent work in evolutionary psychology links females’ interests in care and empathy for others with interests in fairness and equality. In an important work on sex differences in cognitive abilities, David Geary (1998) argues that the evolutionary mechanism of sexual selection drives the evolution of particular cognitive abilities and selection for particular interests. I mount two main challenges to Geary’s (...)
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  18.  1
    Emil Višňovský (2011). The Pragmatist Conception of Altruism and Reciprocity. Human Affairs 21 (4):437-453.
    The paper provides an account of the pragmatist philosophical conception of reciprocity and altruism based on the ontology of “panrelationalism”. The Deweyan concepts of transaction and cooperation are also outlined in some detail as well as the pragmatist idea of justice. The author attempts to show that altruism is not necessarily just reciprocal but demands as its supplement altruism without reciprocation.
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  19.  0
    Simon Cornée & Ariane Szafarz (2013). Vive la Différence: Social Banks and Reciprocity in the Credit Market. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    Social banks are financial intermediaries paying attention to non-economic (i.e., social, ethical, and environmental) criteria. To investigate the behavior of social banks on the credit market, this paper proposes both theory and empirics. Our theoretical model rationalizes the idea that reciprocity can generate better repayment performances. Based on a unique hand-collected dataset released by a French social bank, our empirical results are twofold. First, we show that the bank charges below-market interest rates for social projects. Second, regardless of their (...)
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  20.  5
    Francesco Guala (2012). Reciprocity: Weak or Strong? What Punishment Experiments Do Demonstrate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):1-15.
  21.  3
    Daniel Kahneman (1966). Time-Intensity Reciprocity Under Various Conditions of Adaptation and Backward Masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):543.
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  22.  3
    Long-Zeng Wu, Haina Zhang, Randy K. Chiu, Ho Kwong Kwan & Xiaogang He (2014). Hostile Attribution Bias and Negative Reciprocity Beliefs Exacerbate Incivility's Effects on Interpersonal Deviance. Journal of Business Ethics 120 (2):189-199.
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  23.  6
    Laurie J. Barclay, David B. Whiteside & Karl Aquino (2014). To Avenge or Not to Avenge? Exploring the Interactive Effects of Moral Identity and the Negative Reciprocity Norm. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (1):15-28.
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  24.  5
    Friedel Bolle & Alexander Kritikos (2006). Reciprocity, Altruism, Solidarity: A Dynamic Model. Theory and Decision 60 (4):371-394.
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  25.  2
    D. L. Schurman & R. L. Colegate (1970). Dark Intervals as Stimulus Events and Their Effect on Visual Masking and Time-Intensity Reciprocity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):278.
  26.  2
    Donald L. Schurman, Charles W. Eriksen & John Rohrbaugh (1968). Masking Phenomena and Time Intensity Reciprocity for Form. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):310.
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  27.  2
    Karin van Marle (2003). `The Capabilities Approach', `The Imaginary Domain', and `Asymmetrical Reciprocity': Feminist Perspectives on Equality and Justice. Feminist Legal Studies 11 (3):255-278.
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  28.  8
    Sarah E. Murray (2008). Reflexivity and Reciprocity with(Out) Underspecification. In Alte Grønn (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 12 (2007). ILOS 455--469.
    In languages like English, reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by distinct proforms. However, many languages, such as Cheyenne, express reflexivity and reciprocity with a single proform. In this paper I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg, 1996) to a draw a semantic parallel between reflexive and reciprocal anaphors in English. I propose that they contribute overlapping but distinct requirements on the relations introduced by transitive verbs, requirements which fully specify reflexivity and reciprocity. This parallel is then (...)
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  29.  14
    Sarah E. Murray (2007). Dynamics of Reflexivity and Reciprocity. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. ILLC/Department of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam 157--162.
    Plural reflexives and reciprocals are anaphoric not only to antecedent pluralities but also to relations between the members of those pluralities. In this paper, I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg 1996) to analyze reflexives and reciprocals as anaphors that elaborate on relations introduced by the verb, which can be collective, cumulative, or distributive. This analysis generalizes to languages like Cheyenne (Algonquian) where reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by a single proform that I argue is underspecified, not ambiguous.
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  30. Andrew Boucher, Created: 9 June 2003 12 November 2003 Version 1.1 Www.Andrewboucher.Com/Papers/Quadratic_reciprocity.Pdf.
    These notes are meant to continue from the paper on Consistency, in proving number-theoretic theorems from the second-order arithmetical system called FFFF. Its ultimate target is Quadratic Reciprocity, although it introduces and proves some facts about the least common multiple at the start.
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  31.  0
    Tove Pettersen & Marit Helene Hem (2011). Mature Care and Reciprocity: Two Cases From Acute Psychiatry. Nursing Ethics 18 (2):217-231.
    In this article we elaborate on the concept of mature care, in which reciprocity is crucial. Emphasizing reciprocity challenges other comprehensions where care is understood as a one-sided activity, with either the carer or the cared for considered the main source of knowledge and sole motivation for caring. We aim to demonstrate the concept of mature care’s advantages with regard to conceptualizing the practice of care, such as in nursing. First, we present and discuss the concept of mature (...)
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  32.  5
    Neema Sofaer (2014). Reciprocity‐Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic. Bioethics 28 (9):456-471.
    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: most are false. (...)
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  33.  6
    John Hendry (1999). Universalizability and Reciprocity in International Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):405-420.
    Most writers on international business ethics adopt a universalist perspective, but the traditional expression of problems in terms of a discrepancy between (superior) home country and (inferior) host country values makes it difficult to preserve the symmetry required by a universalizability criterion. In this paper a critique of Donaldson’s (1989) theory is used to illustrate some of the ways in which ethnocentric assumptions can enter into a supposedly universalist argument. A number of suggestions are then made for improving Donaldson’s approach (...)
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  34.  77
    Gian Paolo Beretta (1987). Quantum Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium. Onsager Reciprocity and Dispersion-Dissipation Relations. Foundations of Physics 17 (4):365-381.
    A generalized Onsager reciprocity theorem emerges as an exact consequence of the structure of the nonlinear equation of motion of quantum thermodynamics and is valid for all the dissipative nonequilibrium states, close and far from stable thermodynamic equilibrium, of an isolated system composed of a single constituent of matter with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. In addition, a dispersion-dissipation theorem results in a precise relation between the generalized dissipative conductivity that describes the mutual interrelation between dissipative rates of a pair (...)
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  35.  74
    Gabriel Wollner (2010). Framing, Reciprocity and the Grounds of Egalitarian Justice. Res Publica 16 (3):281-298.
    John Rawls famously claims that ‘justice is the first virtue of social institutions’. On one of its readings, this remark seems to suggest that social institutions are essential for obligations of justice to arise. The spirit of this interpretation has recently sparked a new debate about the grounds of justice. What are the conditions that generate principles of distributive justice? I am interested in a specific version of this question. What conditions generate egalitarian principles of distributive justice and give rise (...)
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  36.  35
    Alejandro Rosas (2008). The Return of Reciprocity: A Psychological Approach to the Evolution of Cooperation. Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):555-566.
    Recent developments in evolutionary game theory argue the superiority of punishment over reciprocity as accounts of large-scale human cooperation. I introduce a distinction between a behavioral and a psychological perspective on reciprocity and punishment to question this view. I examine a narrow and a wide version of a psychological mechanism for reciprocity and conclude that a narrow version is clearly distinguishable from punishment, but inadequate for humans; whereas a wide version is applicable to humans but indistinguishable from (...)
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  37.  51
    David A. Reidy (2007). Reciprocity and Reasonable Disagreement: From Liberal to Democratic Legitimacy. Philosophical Studies 132 (2):243 - 291.
    At the center of Rawls’s work post-1980 is the question of how legitimate coercive state action is possible in a liberal democracy under conditions of reasonable disagreement. And at the heart of Rawls’s answer to this question is his liberal principle of legitimacy. In this paper I argue that once we attend carefully to the depth and range of reasonable disagreement, Rawls’s liberal principle of legitimacy turns out to be either wildly utopian or simply toothless, depending on how one reads (...)
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  38.  10
    M. Faller (2007). The Ingredients of Reciprocity in Cuzco Quechua. Journal of Semantics 24 (3):255-288.
    In Cuzco Quechua, reciprocity is marked by means of two verbal suffixes, one of which is a marker of reflexivity, the other of which is a marker of pluractionality. The paper develops an analysis that composes reciprocity from these more basic notions. Two further ingredients that are needed will be argued to derive from independent principles: universal quantification over parts of the reciprocal plural agent derives from plural predication, as has been argued by other researchers for English (...), and distinctness of the participants in the reciprocal subevents derives from a semantic version of Condition B. This way of composing reciprocity is not universal, and other languages have dedicated reciprocal markers or make other reciprocal ingredients overt. The compositional derivation of reciprocity is therefore a clear candidate for cross-linguistic semantic variation. (shrink)
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  39.  88
    Michael D. Barber (2008). Autonomy, Reciprocity, and Responsibility: Darwall and Levinas on the Second Person. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (5):629 – 644.
    Stephen Darwall's The Second-Person Standpoint converges with Emmanuel Levinas's concern about the role of the second-person relationship in ethics. This paper contrasts their methodologies (regressive analysis of presuppositions versus phenomenology) to explain Darwall's narrower view of ethical experience in terms of expressed reactive attitudes. It delineates Darwall's overall justificatory strategy and the centrality of autonomy and reciprocity within it, in contrast to Levinas's emphasis on the experience of responsibility. Asymmetrical responsibility plays a more foundational role as a critical counterpoint (...)
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  40.  96
    Jonathan Quong (2007). Contractualism, Reciprocity, and Egalitarian Justice. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):75-105.
    Can contractualism yield a suitably egalitarian conception of social justice? G.A. Cohen has forcefully argued that it cannot - that one cannot be both a contractualist and an egalitarian. Cohen presents a number of arguments to this effect, the particular target of which is John Rawls’s version of contractualism. In this article, I show that, contra Cohen, the Rawlsian model of contractualism, and the ideal of reciprocity on which it relies, can coherently yield egalitarian principles of (...)
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  41.  44
    Abraham A. Ungar (2000). The Relativistic Composite-Velocity Reciprocity Principle. Foundations of Physics 30 (2):331-342.
    Gyrogroup theory [A. A. Ungar, Found. Phys. 27, 881–951 (1997)] enables the study of the algebra of Einstein's addition to be guided by analogies shared with the algebra of vector addition. The capability of gyrogroup theory to capture analogies is demonstrated in this article by exposing the relativistic composite-velocity reciprocity principle. The breakdown of commutativity in the Einstein velocity addition ⊕ of relativistically admissible velocities seemingly gives rise to a corresponding breakdown of the relativistic composite-velocity reciprocity principle, since (...)
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  42.  29
    Rory Smead (2010). Indirect Reciprocity and the Evolution of “Moral Signals”. Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):33-51.
    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. (...)
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  43.  6
    David Jenkins (forthcoming). Denying Reciprocity. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885115569513.
    When individuals receive benefits as a result of the burdens assumed by other people, they are expected to make a return in similar form. To do otherwise is considered as a failure to treat those other people with appropriate respect. It is this which justifies the expectation that individuals share in the labour that is necessary to preserve just institutions and productive practices that characterise complex schemes of social cooperation. In this paper, I argue that where benefits do not meet (...)
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  44. Lorraine Mayer (2007). A Return to Reciprocity. Hypatia 22 (3):22-42.
    : Feminist affiliation has long been suspect among Native American women whose memories survive the dishonor of colonialism. The idea of common struggles is simultaneously repugnant and alluring. Sadly, this has led to much confusion and rejection between Aboriginal women. I suggest "a return to reciprocity" to understand and come to terms with feminist rejection or affiliation. If we cannot come together, the fracturing that began with European ideology will continue to fragment and destroy the fabric of Native cultures.
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  45. Harry Adams (2001). Merleau-Ponty and the Advent of Meaning: From Consummate Reciprocity to Ambiguous Reversibility. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):203-224.
    The three themes of perception, expression, and history proved to be significant and consistent concerns of Merleau-Ponty from his earliest to his latest writings. In turn, Merleau-Ponty was concerned to discover and show how meaning emerged within the context of each of these themes. My main goal in this essay will be to trace ways that Merleau-Ponty conceived of this emergence, and to how his conceptions underwent increasing sophistication from his earlier to later writings. In section I, I show how (...)
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  46.  4
    Christopher Stephens (2005). Strong Reciprocity and the Comparative Method. Analyse & Kritik 27 (1):97-105.
    Ernst Fehr and his collaborators have argued that traditional explanations of human cooperation cannot account for strong reciprocity. They provide substantial empirical evidence that strong reciprocity is an important phenomenon that cannot be explained by the traditional models of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. In this note, however, I argue that it will be di cult to test speci c adaptive explanations of strong reciprocity because it is apparently unique to humans. Consequently, it is di cult to (...)
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  47.  98
    Ken Binmore (2004). Reciprocity and the Social Contract. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):5-35.
    This article is extracted from a forthcoming book, ‘Natural Justice’. It is a nontechnical introduction to the part of game theory immediately relevant to social contract theory. The latter part of the article reviews how concepts such as trust, responsibility, and authority can be seen as emergent phenomena in models that take formal account only of equilibria in indefinitely repeated games. Key Words: game theory • equilibrium • evolutionary stability • reciprocity • folk theorem • trust • altruism • (...)
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  48.  37
    Matteo Bianchin (2003). Reciprocity, Individuals and Community: Remarks on Phenomenology, Social Theory and Politics. Philosophy and Social Criticism 29 (6):631-654.
    The contribution of Husserl's phenomenology to the foundations of social and political theory can be appraised at both the methodological and the normative level. First, it makes intersubjective interaction central to the constitution of social reality. Second, it stresses reciprocity as a constitutive feature of intersubjectivity. In this context, individuals can be seen to be both ‘constituting’ and ‘constituted by’ their participation in communities, under a constraint of mutual recognition as intentional agents. This view is in no way atomistic, (...)
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  49.  26
    Max Albert & Hannes Rusch, Indirect Reciprocity, Golden Opportunities for Defection, and Inclusive Reputation. MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, reputation mechanisms can stabilize cooperation even in severe cooperation problems like the prisoner’s dilemma. Under certain circumstances, conditionally cooperative strategies, which cooperate iff their partner has a good reputation, cannot be invaded by any other strategy that conditions behavior only on own and partner reputation. The first point of this paper is to show that an evolutionary version of backward induction can lead to a breakdown of this kind of indirectly reciprocal cooperation. Backward (...)
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    Julie K. Ward (1999). Reciprocity and Friendship in Beauvoir’s Thought. Hypatia 14 (4):36-49.
    : For Simone de Beauvoir, the opposition of subjects is not inescapable as it may be resolved by a relation of reciprocal recognition. I discuss formulations of reciprocity and the problem of the other as outlined in Beauvoir's 1927 diary and her memoir, La Force de l'âge, then turn to examine the account of lesbianism in Le Deuxième sexe.
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