Search results for 'reciprocity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alejandro Rosas (2010). Reciprocity, Altruism and the Civil Society: In Praise of Heterogeneity , Luigino Bruni. Routledge, 2008, XIII + 158 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):108-114.score: 24.0
    Economic theory has tended to reduce all social bonds and relations to forms of contract, whereas social theory has seen contracts as opposed to, and destructive of, genuine social bonds. Bruni sees these contrapositions as ideological (‘left’ against ‘right’, p. xi). His main goal is to overcome them; to show that three forms of reciprocity, covering the ideological spectrum from left to right, are complementary and simultaneously required in a healthy society. These three forms are, in his words: ‘(1) (...)
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  2. A. P. Martinich (2011). Reason and Reciprocity in Hobbes's Political Philosophy: On Sharon Lloyd's: Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes Studies 23 (2):158-169.score: 24.0
    Lloyd's book, Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes , correctly stresses the deductive element in Hobbes's proofs of the laws of nature. She believes that “the principle of reciprocity” is the key to these proofs. This principle is effective in getting ego-centric people to recognize moral laws and their moral obligations. However, it is not, I argue, the basic principle Hobbes uses to derive the laws of nature, from definitions. The principle of reason, which dictates that all similar (...)
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  3. Andrew Lister (2011). Justice as Fairness and Reciprocity. Analyze and Kritik 33 (1):93-112.score: 24.0
    This paper tries to reconcile reciprocity with a fundamentally 'subject-centred' ethic by interpreting the reciprocity condition as a consequence of the fact that justice is in part a relational value. Duties of egalitarian distributive justice are not grounded on the duty to reciprocate benefits already received, but limited by a reasonable assurance of compliance on the part of those able to reciprocate, because their point is to constitute a valuable relationship, one of mutual recognition as equals. We have (...)
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  4. Ben Fraser (2011). Explaining Strong Reciprocity: Cooperation, Competition, and Partner Choice. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 6 (2):113-119.score: 24.0
    Paul Seabright argues that strong reciprocity was crucial in the evolution of large-scale cooperation. He identifies three potential evolutionary explanations for strong reciprocity. Drawing (like Seabright) on experimental economics, I identify and elaborate a fourth explanation for strong reciprocity, which proceeds in terms of partner choice, costly signaling, and competitive altruism.
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  5. R. Delbourgo & D. Lashmar (2008). Born Reciprocity and the 1/R Potential. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):995-1010.score: 24.0
    Many structures in nature are invariant under the transformation pair, (p,r)→(b r,−p/b), where b is some scale factor. Born’s reciprocity hypothesis affirms that this invariance extends to the entire Hamiltonian and equations of motion. We investigate this idea for atomic physics and galactic motion, where one is basically dealing with a 1/r potential and the observations are very accurate, so as to determine the scale b≡mΩ. We find that an Ω∼1.5×10−15 s−1 has essentially no effect on atomic physics but (...)
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  6. Lawrence C. Becker (1986). Reciprocity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 24.0
    In one form or another, social norms governing reciprocal behavior between individuals exist in all human societies of record. Such norms are institutionalized in social, political, and legal practices; they are internalized as expectations and behavioral dispositions in individuals. But the content of those norms differs widely from society to society, individual to individual. This book gives a normative argument for a particular content for the norms of reciprocity – a particular account of the meaning of making a fitting (...)
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  7. John R. Deckop, Caril C. Cirka & Lynne M. Andersson (2003). Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):101 - 113.score: 24.0
    Reciprocity is a fundamental aspect of social life, and a phenomenon studied from a wide variety of philosophical, theological, and social scientific perspectives. In this study, we use social exchange theory to investigate why employees help other employees. We hypothesize, based on the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), that a significant cause of an employee''s helping behavior is how much organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the employee has received from coworkers. To provide evidence of the discriminant validity of OCB (...)
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  8. Yves Fassin (2012). Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):83-96.score: 24.0
    Stakeholder theory advocates that firms bear responsibility for the implications of their actions. However, while a firm affects or can affect stakeholders, stakeholders can also affect the corporation. Previous stakeholder theorising has neglected the reciprocal nature of responsibility. The question can be asked whether—in a spirit of reciprocity, loyalty and fairness—stakeholders should treat the corporation in a fair and responsible way. This study based on different definitions of stakeholders argues that various stakeholder attributes differ for different categories of stakeholders. (...)
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  9. A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures (...)
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  10. Caroline Nevejan & Frances Brazier (2012). Granularity in Reciprocity. AI and Society 27 (1):129-147.score: 24.0
    Witnessing in merging biological, social and algorithmic realities is crucial to trust, as modelled in the YUTPA framework. Being witness and bearing witness is fundamental to human interaction. System participation in human communities of practice challenges the notion of witnessing and therefore the ability to build trust. Nevertheless, through trial and error, people in a variety of practices have found ways to establish the presence and develop trust in merging realities. This paper presents the results of 20 in-depth interviews with (...)
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  11. Marit Helene Hem & Tove Pettersen (2011). Mature Care and Nursing in Psychiatry: Notions Regarding Reciprocity in Asymmetric Professional Relationships. Health Care Analysis 19 (1):65-76.score: 24.0
    The idea behind this article is to discuss the importance and to develop the concept of reciprocity in asymmetric professional relationships. As an empirical starting point for an examination of the possible forms of reciprocity between patients and nurses in psychiatry, we chose two qualitative in-depth interviews with two different patients. The manners in which these two patients relate to medical personnel—one is dependent, the other is independent—show that this presents challenges to nurses. The theoretical context is provided (...)
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  12. Lorenzo Sacconi (2007). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77 - 96.score: 24.0
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper (Sacconi, L.: 2006b, this journal), in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a (...)
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  13. Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gächter (2002). Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms. Human Nature 13 (1):1-25.score: 24.0
    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity “strong reciprocity” and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those (...)
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  14. Meena Krishnamurthy & Matthew Herder (2013). Justice in Global Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Analysis Based on the Values of Contribution, Ownership and Reciprocity. Public Health Ethics (3):pht027.score: 24.0
    In December 2006, Indonesia decided to stop sending influenza virus specimens to the World Health Organization’s Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). Indonesia justified its actions by claiming that they were in protest of the injustice of GISN. Its actions stimulated negotiations to improve the workings of GISN by developing and implementing a more just framework for ‘sharing influenza viruses and other benefits’. These negotiations eventually led to the adoption of a new framework for virus and benefit sharing in May 2011, (...)
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  15. Xueming Luo & Qinqin Zheng (2013). Reciprocity in Corporate Social Responsibility and Channel Performance: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):203-213.score: 24.0
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is more and more important in the supply chain. Drawing from the stakeholder theory and channel relational reciprocity literature, we develop and empirically support a theoretical framework. Our framework predicts that CSR reciprocity between buyer and seller firms in a supply chain affects channel tie intensity and channel sales performance (main effects) and that market competition may amplify these influences (moderated effects). The framework reveals important implications regarding the role of reciprocal CSR for channel (...)
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  16. Veikko Pelto-Piri, Karin Engström & Ingemar Engström (2013). Paternalism, Autonomy and Reciprocity: Ethical Perspectives in Encounters with Patients in Psychiatric in-Patient Care. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):49.score: 24.0
    Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real (...)
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  17. Deborah S. Mower (2009). Sex Differences in Moral Interests: The Role of Kinship and the Nature of Reciprocity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):111-119.score: 24.0
    Although moral psychologists and feminist moral theorists emphasize males’ interest in justice or fairness and females’ interest in care or empathy, recent work in evolutionary psychology links females’ interests in care and empathy for others with interests in fairness and equality. In an important work on sex differences in cognitive abilities, David Geary (1998) argues that the evolutionary mechanism of sexual selection drives the evolution of particular cognitive abilities and selection for particular interests. I mount two main challenges to Geary’s (...)
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  18. Simon Cornée & Ariane Szafarz (2013). Vive la Différence: Social Banks and Reciprocity in the Credit Market. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.score: 24.0
    Social banks are financial intermediaries paying attention to non-economic (i.e., social, ethical, and environmental) criteria. To investigate the behavior of social banks on the credit market, this paper proposes both theory and empirics. Our theoretical model rationalizes the idea that reciprocity can generate better repayment performances. Based on a unique hand-collected dataset released by a French social bank, our empirical results are twofold. First, we show that the bank charges below-market interest rates for social projects. Second, regardless of their (...)
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  19. Philippe Rochat Erin Robbins (2011). Emerging Signs of Strong Reciprocity in Human Ontogeny. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny. Three- and five-year-old middle class American children (N=162) were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. (...)
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  20. Stefan Sütterlin, Cornelia Herbert, Michael Schmitt, Andrea Kübler & Claus Vögele (2011). Overcoming Selfishness: Reciprocity, Inhibition, and Cardiac-Autonomic Control in the Ultimatum Game. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index (...)
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  21. Francesco Guala (2012). Reciprocity: Weak or Strong? What Punishment Experiments Do (and Do Not) Demonstrate. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):1-15.score: 21.0
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  22. Laurie J. Barclay, David B. Whiteside & Karl Aquino (2014). To Avenge or Not to Avenge? Exploring the Interactive Effects of Moral Identity and the Negative Reciprocity Norm. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (1):15-28.score: 21.0
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  23. Friedel Bolle & Alexander Kritikos (2006). Reciprocity, Altruism, Solidarity: A Dynamic Model. Theory and Decision 60 (4):371-394.score: 21.0
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  24. Daniel Kahneman (1966). Time-Intensity Reciprocity Under Various Conditions of Adaptation and Backward Masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):543.score: 21.0
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  25. D. L. Schurman & R. L. Colegate (1970). Dark Intervals as Stimulus Events and Their Effect on Visual Masking and Time-Intensity Reciprocity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):278.score: 21.0
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  26. Donald L. Schurman, Charles W. Eriksen & John Rohrbaugh (1968). Masking Phenomena and Time Intensity Reciprocity for Form. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):310.score: 21.0
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  27. Karin van Marle (2003). `The Capabilities Approach', `The Imaginary Domain', and `Asymmetrical Reciprocity': Feminist Perspectives on Equality and Justice. Feminist Legal Studies 11 (3):255-278.score: 21.0
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  28. Emil Višňovský (2011). The Pragmatist Conception of Altruism and Reciprocity. Human Affairs 21 (4):437-453.score: 21.0
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  29. Long-Zeng Wu, Haina Zhang, Randy K. Chiu, Ho Kwong Kwan & Xiaogang He (2014). Hostile Attribution Bias and Negative Reciprocity Beliefs Exacerbate Incivility's Effects on Interpersonal Deviance. Journal of Business Ethics 120 (2):189-199.score: 21.0
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  30. Harry Adams (2001). Merleau-Ponty and the Advent of Meaning: From Consummate Reciprocity to Ambiguous Reversibility. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 34 (2):203-224.score: 18.0
    The three themes of perception, expression, and history proved to be significant and consistent concerns of Merleau-Ponty from his earliest to his latest writings. In turn, Merleau-Ponty was concerned to discover and show how meaning emerged within the context of each of these themes. My main goal in this essay will be to trace ways that Merleau-Ponty conceived of this emergence, and to how his conceptions underwent increasing sophistication from his earlier to later writings. In section I, I show how (...)
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  31. Ken Binmore (2004). Reciprocity and the Social Contract. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):5-35.score: 18.0
    This article is extracted from a forthcoming book, ‘Natural Justice’. It is a nontechnical introduction to the part of game theory immediately relevant to social contract theory. The latter part of the article reviews how concepts such as trust, responsibility, and authority can be seen as emergent phenomena in models that take formal account only of equilibria in indefinitely repeated games. Key Words: game theory • equilibrium • evolutionary stability • reciprocity • folk theorem • trust • altruism • (...)
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  32. Jonathan Quong (2007). Contractualism, Reciprocity, and Egalitarian Justice. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):75-105.score: 18.0
    Can contractualism yield a suitably egalitarian conception of social justice? G.A. Cohen has forcefully argued that it cannot - that one cannot be both a contractualist and an egalitarian. Cohen presents a number of arguments to this effect, the particular target of which is John Rawls’s version of contractualism. In this article, I show that, contra Cohen, the Rawlsian model of contractualism, and the ideal of reciprocity on which it relies, can coherently yield egalitarian principles of (...)
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  33. Michael D. Barber (2008). Autonomy, Reciprocity, and Responsibility: Darwall and Levinas on the Second Person. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (5):629 – 644.score: 18.0
    Stephen Darwall's The Second-Person Standpoint converges with Emmanuel Levinas's concern about the role of the second-person relationship in ethics. This paper contrasts their methodologies (regressive analysis of presuppositions versus phenomenology) to explain Darwall's narrower view of ethical experience in terms of expressed reactive attitudes. It delineates Darwall's overall justificatory strategy and the centrality of autonomy and reciprocity within it, in contrast to Levinas's emphasis on the experience of responsibility. Asymmetrical responsibility plays a more foundational role as a critical counterpoint (...)
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  34. Gabriel Wollner (2010). Framing, Reciprocity and the Grounds of Egalitarian Justice. Res Publica 16 (3):281-298.score: 18.0
    John Rawls famously claims that ‘justice is the first virtue of social institutions’. On one of its readings, this remark seems to suggest that social institutions are essential for obligations of justice to arise. The spirit of this interpretation has recently sparked a new debate about the grounds of justice. What are the conditions that generate principles of distributive justice? I am interested in a specific version of this question. What conditions generate egalitarian principles of distributive justice and give rise (...)
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  35. Andrew D. Lister, Justice and Reciprocity.score: 18.0
    This paper addresses the question of when and why duties are conditional on compliance on the part of others, by examining the role of reciprocity in Rawls's theory of justice. In particular, it argues that the idea of reciprocity and the relational nature of distributive justice can help explain three otherwise puzzling aspects of Rawls's view: (1) his claim that justice has to be "congruent" with the good; (2) his claim that the justification of a political conception of (...)
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  36. Gian Paolo Beretta (1987). Quantum Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium. Onsager Reciprocity and Dispersion-Dissipation Relations. Foundations of Physics 17 (4):365-381.score: 18.0
    A generalized Onsager reciprocity theorem emerges as an exact consequence of the structure of the nonlinear equation of motion of quantum thermodynamics and is valid for all the dissipative nonequilibrium states, close and far from stable thermodynamic equilibrium, of an isolated system composed of a single constituent of matter with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. In addition, a dispersion-dissipation theorem results in a precise relation between the generalized dissipative conductivity that describes the mutual interrelation between dissipative rates of a pair (...)
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  37. David A. Reidy (2007). Reciprocity and Reasonable Disagreement: From Liberal to Democratic Legitimacy. Philosophical Studies 132 (2):243 - 291.score: 18.0
    At the center of Rawls’s work post-1980 is the question of how legitimate coercive state action is possible in a liberal democracy under conditions of reasonable disagreement. And at the heart of Rawls’s answer to this question is his liberal principle of legitimacy. In this paper I argue that once we attend carefully to the depth and range of reasonable disagreement, Rawls’s liberal principle of legitimacy turns out to be either wildly utopian or simply toothless, depending on how one reads (...)
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  38. Marguerite la Caze (2008). Seeing Oneself Through the Eyes of the Other: Asymmetrical Reciprocity and Self-Respect. Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 118-135.score: 18.0
    Iris Marion Young argues we cannot understand others’ experiences by imagining ourselves in their place or in terms of symmetrical reciprocity (1997a). For Young, reciprocity expresses moral respect and asymmetry arises from people’s greatly varying life histories and social positions. La Caze argues there are problems with Young’s articulation of asymmetrical reciprocity in terms of wonder and the gift. By discussing friendship and political representation, she shows how taking self-respect into account complicates asymmetrical reciprocity.
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  39. Abraham A. Ungar (2000). The Relativistic Composite-Velocity Reciprocity Principle. Foundations of Physics 30 (2):331-342.score: 18.0
    Gyrogroup theory [A. A. Ungar, Found. Phys. 27, 881–951 (1997)] enables the study of the algebra of Einstein's addition to be guided by analogies shared with the algebra of vector addition. The capability of gyrogroup theory to capture analogies is demonstrated in this article by exposing the relativistic composite-velocity reciprocity principle. The breakdown of commutativity in the Einstein velocity addition ⊕ of relativistically admissible velocities seemingly gives rise to a corresponding breakdown of the relativistic composite-velocity reciprocity principle, since (...)
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  40. Matteo Bianchin (2003). Reciprocity, Individuals and Community: Remarks on Phenomenology, Social Theory and Politics. Philosophy and Social Criticism 29 (6):631-654.score: 18.0
    The contribution of Husserl's phenomenology to the foundations of social and political theory can be appraised at both the methodological and the normative level. First, it makes intersubjective interaction central to the constitution of social reality. Second, it stresses reciprocity as a constitutive feature of intersubjectivity. In this context, individuals can be seen to be both ‘constituting’ and ‘constituted by’ their participation in communities, under a constraint of mutual recognition as intentional agents. This view is in no way atomistic, (...)
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  41. Shlomi Segall (2005). Unconditional Welfare Benefits and the Principle of Reciprocity. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (3):331-354.score: 18.0
    Stuart White and others claim that providing welfare benefits to citizens who do not, and are not willing to, work breaches the principle of reciprocity. This, they argue, justifies placing a minimum work requirement on welfare recipients. This article seeks to rebut their claim. It begins by rejecting the attempt to ground the work requirement on a civic obligation to work. The article then explores the principle of reciprocity, and argues that the practice of reciprocity depends on (...)
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  42. Alejandro Rosas (2008). The Return of Reciprocity: A Psychological Approach to the Evolution of Cooperation. Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):555-566.score: 18.0
    Recent developments in evolutionary game theory argue the superiority of punishment over reciprocity as accounts of large-scale human cooperation. I introduce a distinction between a behavioral and a psychological perspective on reciprocity and punishment to question this view. I examine a narrow and a wide version of a psychological mechanism for reciprocity and conclude that a narrow version is clearly distinguishable from punishment, but inadequate for humans; whereas a wide version is applicable to humans but indistinguishable from (...)
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  43. Michael Blake (2002). Toleration and Reciprocity: Commentary on Martha Nussbaum and Henry Shue. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (3):325-335.score: 18.0
    Rawls's Law of Peoples has not gathered a great deal of public support. The reason for this, I suggest, is that it ignores the differences between the international and domestic realms as regards the methodology of reciprocal agreement. In the domestic realm, reciprocity produces both stability and respect for individual moral agency. In the international realm, we must choose between these two values — seeking stable relations between states, or respect for individual moral agency. Rawls's Law of Peoples ignores (...)
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  44. Benoît Dubreuil (2008). Strong Reciprocity and the Emergence of Large-Scale Societies. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (2):192-210.score: 18.0
    The paper defends the idea that strong reciprocity, although it accounts for the existence of deep cooperation among humans, has difficulty explaining why humans lived for most of their history in band-size groups and why the emergence of larger societies was accompanied by increased social differentiation and political centralization. The paper argues that the costs of incurring an altruistic punishment rise in large groups and that the emergence of large-scale societies depends on the creation of institutions that render control (...)
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  45. Peter Kosso & Cynthia Kosso (1995). Central Place Theory and the Reciprocity Between Theory and Evidence. Philosophy of Science 62 (4):581-598.score: 18.0
    Information about the prehistoric past is available only in the material remains. To be meaningful, these remains must be interpreted under the influence of a theory of some general or specific aspect of the past. For this reason, prehistoric archaeology clearly shows the reciprocity between theory and evidence and the tension between having to impose information on the evidence in order to discover information in the evidence. We use a specific case in the archaeology of Minoan Crete, a case (...)
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  46. Rory Smead (2010). Indirect Reciprocity and the Evolution of “Moral Signals”. Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):33-51.score: 18.0
    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. (...)
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  47. W. Michael Hoffman (1984). Ethics in Business Education: Working Toward a Meaningful Reciprocity. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 3 (4):259 - 268.score: 18.0
    This paper outlines and argues against some criticisms of business ethics education. It maintains that these criticisms have been put forward due to a misunderstanding of the nature of business and/or ethics. Business ethics seeks a meaningful reciprocity among economic, social and moral concerns. This demands that business organizations autonomously develop ethical goals from within, which in turn demands a reciprocity between ethical theory and practical experience. Working toward such a reciprocity, the ultimate goal of business ethics (...)
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  48. Anne Warfield Rawls & Gary David (2005). Accountably Other: Trust, Reciprocity and Exclusion in a Context of Situated Practice. [REVIEW] Human Studies 28 (4):469 - 497.score: 18.0
    The first part of this paper makes five points: First, the problem of Otherness is different and differently constructed in modern differentiated societies. Therefore, approaches to Otherness based on traditional notions of difference and boundary between societies and systems of shared belief will not suffice; Second, because solidarity can no longer be maintained through boundaries between ingroup and outgroup, social cohesion has to take a different form; Third, to the extent that Otherness is not a condition of demographic, or belief (...)
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  49. Julie K. Ward (1999). Reciprocity and Friendship in Beauvoir’s Thought. Hypatia 14 (4):36-49.score: 18.0
    : For Simone de Beauvoir, the opposition of subjects is not inescapable as it may be resolved by a relation of reciprocal recognition. I discuss formulations of reciprocity and the problem of the other as outlined in Beauvoir's 1927 diary and her memoir, La Force de l'âge, then turn to examine the account of lesbianism in Le Deuxième sexe.
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  50. Andrew Boucher, Proving Quadratic Reciprocity.score: 18.0
    The system of arithmetic considered in Consistency, which is essentially second-order Peano Arithmetic without the Successor Axiom, is used to prove more theorems of arithmetic, up to Quadratic Reciprocity.
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