Search results for 'regulatory evolution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  117 DLs
    Stavros Ioannidis (2013). Regulatory Evolution and Theoretical Arguments in Evolutionary Biology. Science and Education 22 (2):279-292.score: 194.2
    The cis-regulatory hypothesis is one of the most important claims of evolutionary developmental biology. In this paper I examine the theoretical argument for cis-regulatory evolution and its role within evolutionary theorizing. I show that, although the argument has some weaknesses, it acts as a useful example for the importance of current scientific debates for science education.
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  2.  7 DLs
    Ariel D. Chipman (2010). Parallel Evolution of Segmentation by Co‐Option of Ancestral Gene Regulatory Networks. Bioessays 32 (1):60-70.score: 168.1
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  3.  12 DLs
    Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Does EvoDevo Equal Regulatory Evolution?: Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom Sean B. Carroll New York and London : Norton , 2005 (350 Pp; $25.95 Hbk; ISBN 0393060160); From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd Ed.) Sean B. Carroll , Jennifer K. Grenier , Scott D. Weatherbee Malden, MA : Blackwell , 2004 (258 Pp; $49.95 Pbk; ISBN 1405119500). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (1):102-103.score: 150.2
  4.  7 DLs
    Mika Skippari & Päivi Holmlund (2007). The Evolution of Non-Market Strategies in a Changing Regulatory Environment. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:412-415.score: 144.1
    In the earlier literature the importance of public policies and regulatory changes to firm performance and competitive position has been well established (e.g., Bonardi, 2004). However, little research has been done on the dynamics of this relationship. In this paper, we examine how and why regulatory changes can affect on the evolution of market and nonmarket strategies of a firm. We use a longitudinal case study on Finnish retail industry to illustrate the interactions between regulatory change, (...)
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  5.  8 DLs
    Guy Barry & John S. Mattick (2012). The Role of Regulatory RNA in Cognitive Evolution. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (10):497-503.score: 138.1
    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in the emergence of higher-order cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, planning and social awareness. Although there has been a concomitant increase in brain size and complexity, and component diversification, we argue that RNA regulation of epigenetic processes, RNA editing, and the controlled mobilization of transposable elements have provided the major substrates for cognitive advance. We also suggest that these expanded capacities and flexibilities have led to the collateral emergence of psychiatric fragilities (...)
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  6.  1 DLs
    Gareth M. Thomas & Takashi Hayashi (2013). Smarter Neuronal Signaling Complexes From Existing Components: How Regulatory Modifications Were Acquired During Animal Evolution. Bioessays 35 (11):929-939.score: 120.0
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  7.  0 DLs
    Douglas R. Cavener (1992). Transgenic Animal Studies on the Evolution of Genetic Regulatory Circuitries. Bioessays 14 (4):237-244.score: 120.0
  8.  0 DLs
    Nadege Philippe, Estelle Crozat, Richard E. Lenski & Dominique Schneider (2007). Evolution of Global Regulatory Networks During a Long‐Term Experiment with Escherichia Coli. Bioessays 29 (9):846-860.score: 120.0
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  9.  0 DLs
    Adam S. Wilkins (2007). Putting Transcriptional Network Evolution at the Heart of Evolutionary Biology. The Regulatory Genome: Gene Regulatory Networks in Development and Evolution. (2006). Eric H. Davidson. Academic Press, San Diego. Xi + 289 Pp. ISBN 978‐0‐12‐088563‐3. [REVIEW] Bioessays 29 (11):1175-1177.score: 120.0
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  10.  0 DLs
    Gregory A. Wray & David A. Garfield (2010). The Evolution of Gene Regulatory Interactions. BioScience 60 (1):15-23.score: 120.0
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  11.  2 DLs
    Edward B. Chuong (2013). Retroviruses Facilitate the Rapid Evolution of the Mammalian Placenta. Bioessays 35 (10):853-861.score: 90.0
  12.  6 DLs
    Scott Barolo (2012). Shadow Enhancers: Frequently Asked Questions About Distributed Cis‐Regulatory Information and Enhancer Redundancy. Bioessays 34 (2):135-141.score: 78.0
  13.  6 DLs
    Antónia Monteiro (2012). Gene Regulatory Networks Reused to Build Novel Traits. Bioessays 34 (3):181-186.score: 78.0
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  14.  6 DLs
    Lyudmila Trut, Irina Oskina & Anastasiya Kharlamova (2009). Animal Evolution During Domestication: The Domesticated Fox as a Model. Bioessays 31 (3):349-360.score: 78.0
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  15.  2 DLs
    James J. McKenna (1990). Evolution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Human Nature 1 (2):145-177.score: 66.0
    This paper and its subsequent parts (Part II and Part III) build on an earlier publication (McKenna 1986). They suggest that important clinical data on the relationship between infantile constitutional deficits and microenvironmental factors relevant to SIDS can be acquired by examining the physiological regulatory effects (well documented among nonhuman primates) that parents assert on their infants when they sleep together.I attempt to show why access to parental sensory cues (movement, touch, smell, sound) that induce arousals in infants while (...)
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  16.  26 DLs
    Matt J. Rossano (2011). Cognitive Control: Social Evolution and Emotional Regulation. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):238-241.score: 54.1
    This commentary argues that theories of cognitive control risk being incomplete unless they incorporate social/emotional factors. Social factors very likely played a critical role in the evolution of human cognitive control abilities, and emotional states are the primary regulatory mechanisms of cognitive control.
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  17.  10 DLs
    J. Aracena & J. Demongeot (2004). Mathematical Methods for Inferring Regulatory Networks Interactions: Application to Genetic Regulation. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (4):391-400.score: 54.1
    This paper deals with the problem of reconstruction of the intergenic interaction graph from the raw data of genetic co-expression coming with new technologies of bio-arrays (DMA-arrays, protein-arrays, etc.). These new imaging devices in general only give information about the asymptotical part (fixed configurations of co-expression or limit cycles of such configurations) of the dynamical evolution of the regulatory networks (genetic and/or proteic) underlying the functioning of living systems. Extracting the casual structure and interaction coefficients of a gene (...)
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  18.  10 DLs
    L. Hammen (1986). On Some Aspects of Parallel Evolution in Chelicerata. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2).score: 54.1
    A study is made of some aspects of parallel evolution in Chelicerata. Definitions are given of parallel evolution, convergence, homology and analogy. It is pointed out that the concept of parallel evolution (parallelism) is initially formed in an empirical way, and that a judgment must be based on formal criteria. Particular attention is paid to the rôle of gene regulation in parallel evolution, to the special case of convergence as a result of heterologous regulatory mechanisms, (...)
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  19.  7 DLs
    Ryan J. Taft, Michael Pheasant & John S. Mattick (2007). The Relationship Between Non‐Protein‐Coding DNA and Eukaryotic Complexity. Bioessays 29 (3):288-299.score: 54.0
    There are two intriguing paradoxes in molecular biology-the inconsistent relationship between organismal complexity and (1) cellular DNA content and (2) the number of protein-coding genes-referred to as the C-value and G-value paradoxes, respectively. The C-value paradox may be largely explained by varying ploidy. The G-value paradox is more problematic, as the extent of protein coding sequence remains relatively static over a wide range of developmental complexity. We show by analysis of sequenced genomes that the relative amount of non-protein-coding sequence increases (...)
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  20.  5 DLs
    A. K. Sharma (1986). Evolution of Cell and Chromosome Structure in Eukaryote. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2):69-76.score: 54.0
    The analysis of the data so far available indicates that eukaryotic chromosome with splicing characteristics appeared quite early in evolution possibly parallel and not sequential to the prokaryotic system. The endosymbiotic origin of the eukaryotic cell involved a primitive undifferentiated unicellular eukaryote and a photosynthetic or non-photosynthetic microbe. Certain regulatory genes of extra-cellular organelles were transferred later through molecular hybridization to the nucleus. The evolution of multicellularity and sexual reproduction led to the origin of innumerable eukaryotic forms (...)
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  21.  1 DLs
    Paula M. Mabee (2006). Integrating Evolution and Development: The Need for Bioinformatics in Evo-Devo. BioScience 56 (4):301-309.score: 54.0
    Abstract -/- This article is an overview of concepts relating to the integration of the genotype and phenotype. One of the major goals of evolutionary developmental biology, or evo-devo, is to understand the transformation of morphology in evolution. This goal can be accomplished by synthesizing the data pertaining to gene regulatory networks and making use of the increasingly comprehensive knowledge of phylogenetic relationships and associated phenotypes. I give several examples of recent success in connecting these different biological levels. (...)
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  22.  4 DLs
    Christopher G. Knight & John W. Pinney (2009). Making the Right Connections: Biological Networks in the Light of Evolution. Bioessays 31 (10):1080-1090.score: 42.0
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  23.  142 DLs
    Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1993). Control of Phenotypic Plasticity Via Regulatory Genes. American Naturalist 142 (2):366-370.score: 36.5
    A response to Via about the existence (or not) and role of plasticity genes in evolution.
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  24.  24 DLs
    Patrick Bateson (1989). Does Evolutionary Biology Contribute to Ethics? Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):287-301.score: 36.1
    Human propensities that are the products of Darwinian evolution may combine to generate a form of social behavior that is not itself a direct result of such pressure. This possibility may provide a satisfying explanation for the origin of socially transmitted rules such as the incest taboo. Similarly, the regulatory processes of development that generated adaptations to the environment in the circumstances in which they evolved can produce surprising and sometimes maladaptive consequences for the individual in modern conditions. (...)
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  25.  15 DLs
    William Dembski, Does Evolution Even Have a Mechanism?score: 36.1
    Evolutionary biology teaches that all biological complexity is the result of material mechanisms. These include principally the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and random variation, but also include other mechanisms (symbiosis, gene transfer, genetic drift, the action of regulatory genes in development, self-organizational processes, etc.). These mechanisms are just that: mindless material mechanisms that do what they do irrespective of intelligence. To be sure, mechanisms can be programmed by an intelligence. But any such intelligent programming of evolutionary mechanisms is (...)
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  26.  4 DLs
    Mark Q. Martindale & Patricia N. Lee (2013). The Development of Form: Causes and Consequences of Developmental Reprogramming Associated with Rapid Body Plan Evolution in the Bilaterian Radiation. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 8 (3):253-264.score: 36.0
    Organismal form arises by the coordinated movement, arrangement, and activity of cells. In metazoans, most morphogenetic programs that establish the recognizable body plan of any given species are initiated during the developmental period, although in many species growth continues throughout life. By comparing the cellular and molecular development of the bilaterians (bilaterally symmetrical animals) to the development of their closest outgroup, the cnidarians, it appears that morphogenesis and the cell fate specification associated with germ layer formation during the process of (...)
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  27.  0 DLs
    C. A. Hooker (1988). From Logical Formalism to Control Structure: The Evolution of Methodological Understanding. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:211 - 221.score: 36.0
    The thesis of this paper is that scientific method is to be thought of as a complex many-leveled regulatory hierarchy of principles, interacting with theory also viewed as a complex many-leveled hierarchy. This conception of method is illustrated in particular through one episode in the contemporary development of plasma physics, and related to others. It provides for method-theory interaction and for the development of method itself as science develops.
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  28.  665 DLs
    Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.score: 28.8
    The study of phenotypic plasticity has progressed significantly over the past few decades. We have moved from variation for plasticity being considered as a nuisance in evolutionary studies to it being the primary target of investigations that use an array of methods, including quantitative and molecular genetics, as well as of several approaches that model the evolution of plastic responses. Here, I consider some of the major aspects of research on phenotypic plasticity, assessing where progress has been made and (...)
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  29.  194 DLs
    Max Velmans (2007). The Co-Evolution of Matter and Consciousness. Velmans, Prof Max (2007) the Co-Evolution of Matter and Consciousness. [Journal (Paginated)] 44 (2):273-282.score: 27.5
    Theories about the evolution of consciousness relate in an intimate way to theories about the distribution of consciousness, which range from the view that only human beings are conscious to the view that all matter is in some sense conscious. Broadly speaking, such theories can be classified into discontinuity theories and continuity theories. Discontinuity theories propose that consciousness emerged only when material forms reached a given stage of evolution, but propose different criteria for the stage at which this (...)
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  30.  75 DLs
    Pouwel Slurink (1993). Ecological Dominance and the Final Sprint in Hominid Evolution. Human Evolution.score: 27.2
    In contrast to many other models of human evolution the "balance of power" theory of Alexander has a clear answer to the question why a runaway selection process for unique social and moral capacities occurred in our ancestry only and not in other species: "ecological dominance" is hypothesized to have diminished the effects of "extrinsic" forces of natural selection such that within-species, intergroup competition increased (Alexander, 1989). Alexander seems to be wrong, however, in his claim that already the common (...)
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  31.  321 DLs
    Peter B. Todd (2013). Teilhard and Other Modern Thinkers on Evolution, Mind, and Matter. Teilhard Studies (66):1-22.score: 24.8
    In his The Phenomenon of Man, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin develops concepts of consciousness, the noosphere, and psychosocial evolution. This paper explores Teilhard’s evolutionary concepts as resonant with thinking in psychology and physics. It explores contributions from archetypal depth psychology, quantum physics, and neuroscience to elucidate relationships between mind and matter. Teilhard’s work can be seen as advancing this psychological lineage or psychogenesis. That is, the evolutionary emergence of matter in increasing complexity from sub-atomic particles to the human brain (...)
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  32.  157 DLs
    P. Slurink, Culture and the Evolution of the Human Mating System.score: 24.4
    Contrary to chimpanzees and bonobos, humans display long-term exclusive relationships between males and females. Probably all human cultures have some kind of marriage system, apparently designed to protect these exclusive relationships and the resulting offspring in a potentially sexual competitive environment. Different hypotheses about the origin of human pair-bonds are compared and it is shown how they may refer to different phases of human evolution.
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  33.  155 DLs
    James R. Hofmann & Bruce H. Weber (2003). The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education. Science and Education 12 (8):729-760.score: 24.4
    Creationists who object to evolution in the science curriculum of public schools often cite Jonathan Well’s book Icons of Evolution in their support (Wells 2000). In the third chapter of his book Wells claims that neither paleontological nor molecular evidence supports the thesis that the history of life is an evolutionary process of descent from preexisting ancestors. We argue that Wells inappropriately relies upon ambiguities inherent in the term ‘Darwinian’ and the phrase ‘Darwin’s theory’. Furthermore, he does not (...)
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  34.  152 DLs
    Matteo Mameli (2002). Mindreading, Mindshaping, and Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):595-626.score: 24.4
    I present and apply some powerful tools for studying human evolution and the impact of cultural resources on it. The tools in question are a theory of niche construction and a theory about the evolutionary significance of extragenetic (and, in particular, of psychological and social) inheritance. These tools are used to show how culturally transmitted resources can be recruited by development and become generatively entrenched. The case study is constituted by those culturally transmitted items that social psychologists call ‘expectancies’. (...)
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  35.  151 DLs
    Helena Knyazeva & Sergei Kurdyumov (2001). Nonlinear Synthesis and Co-Evolution of Complex Systems. World Futures 57 (3):239-261.score: 24.4
    Today a change is imperative in approaching global problems: what is needed is not arm-twisting and power politics, but searching for ways of co-evolution in the complex social and geopolitical systems of the world. The modern theory of self-organization of complex systems provides us with an understanding of the possible forms of coexistence of heterogeneous social and geopolitical structures at different stages of development regarding the different paths of their sustainable co-evolutionary development. The theory argues that the evolutionary channel (...)
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  36.  148 DLs
    Massimo Pigliucci (2007). The Evolution-Creation Wars: Why Teaching More Science Just is Not Enough. McGill Journal of Education 42 (2):285-306.score: 24.4
    The creation-evolution “controversy” has been with us for more than a century. Here I argue that merely teaching more science will probably not improve the situation; we need to understand the controversy as part of a broader problem with public acceptance of pseudoscience, and respond by teaching how science works as a method. Critical thinking is difficult to teach, but educators can rely on increasing evidence from neurobiology about how the brain learns, or fails to.
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  37.  130 DLs
    Christine James (2008). Evolution and Conservative Christianity: How Philosophy of Science Pedagogy Can Begin the Conversation. Spontaneous Generations 2 (1):185-212.score: 24.3
    I teach Philosophy of Science at a four-year state university located in the southeastern United States with a strong college of education. This means that the Philosophy of Science class I teach attracts large numbers of students who will later become science teachers in Georgia junior high and high schools—the same schools that recently began including evolution "warning" stickers in science textbooks. I am also a faculty member in a department combining Religious Studies and Philosophy. This means Philosophy of (...)
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  38.  125 DLs
    Aaron Sloman (2011). Evolution: The Computer Systems Engineer Designing Minds. Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (2):45–69.score: 24.3
    What we have learnt in the last six or seven decades about virtual machinery, as a result of a great deal of science and technology, enables us to offer Darwin a new defence against critics who argued that only physical form, not mental capabilities and consciousness could be products of evolution by natural selection. The defence compares the mental phenomena mentioned by Darwin’s opponents with contents of virtual machinery in computing systems. Objects, states, events, and processes in virtual machinery (...)
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  39.  122 DLs
    Marcin Miłkowski (2009). Is Evolution Algorithmic? Minds and Machines 19 (4):465-475.score: 24.3
    In Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Daniel Dennett claims that evolution is algorithmic. On Dennett’s analysis, evolutionary processes are trivially algorithmic because he assumes that all natural processes are algorithmic. I will argue that there are more robust ways to understand algorithmic processes that make the claim that evolution is algorithmic empirical and not conceptual. While laws of nature can be seen as compression algorithms of information about the world, it does not follow logically that they are implemented as algorithms (...)
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  40.  114 DLs
    W. Tecumseh Fitch (2005). The Evolution of Language: A Comparative Review. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):193-203.score: 24.3
    For many years the evolution of language has been seen as a disreputable topic, mired in fanciful “just so stories” about language origins. However, in the last decade a new synthesis of modern linguistics, cognitive neuroscience and neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory has begun to make important contributions to our understanding of the biology and evolution of language. I review some of this recent progress, focusing on the value of the comparative method, which uses data from animal species to draw (...)
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  41.  100 DLs
    Maria Kronfeldner (2010). Won't You Please Unite? Darwinism, Cultural Evolution and Kinds of Synthesis. In A. Barahona, H.-J. Rheinberger & E. Suarez-Diaz (eds.), The Hereditary Hourglass: Genetics and Epigenetics, 1868-2000. Max Planck Insititute for the History of Science 111-125.score: 24.2
    The synthetic theory of evolution has gone stale and an expanding or (re-)widening of it towards a new synthesis has been announced. This time, development and culture are supposed to join the synthesis bandwagon. In this article, I distinguish between four kinds of synthesis that are involved when we extend the evolutionary synthesis towards culture: the integration of fields, the heuristic generation of interfields, the expansion of validity, and the creation of a common frame of discourse or ‘big-picture’. These (...)
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  42.  96 DLs
    Chris Buskes (2013). Darwinism Extended: A Survey of How the Idea of Cultural Evolution Evolved. Philosophia 41 (3):661-691.score: 24.2
    In the past 150 years there have been many attempts to draw parallels between cultural and biological evolution. Most of these attempts were flawed due to lack of knowledge and false ideas about evolution. In recent decades these shortcomings have been cleared away, thus triggering a renewed interest in the subject. This paper offers a critical survey of the main issues and arguments in that discussion. The paper starts with an explication of the Darwinian algorithm of evolution. (...)
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  43.  94 DLs
    Alan carter (2005). Evolution and the Problem of Altruism. Philosophical Studies 123 (3):213-230.score: 24.2
    Genuine altruism would appear to be incompatible with evolutionary theory. And yet altruistic behavior would seem to occur, at least on occasion. This article first considers a game-theoretical attempt at solving this seeming paradox, before considering agroup selectionist approach. Neither approach, as they stand, would seem to render genuine, as opposed to reciprocal, altruism compatible with the theory of evolution. The article concludes by offering an alternative game-theoretical solution to the problem of altruism.
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  44.  92 DLs
    Stephen Palmquist (2007). Emergence, Evolution, and the Geometry of Logic: Causal Leaps and the Myth of Historical Development. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 12 (1):9-37.score: 24.2
    After sketching the historical development of “emergence” and noting several recent problems relating to “emergent properties”, this essay proposes that properties may be either “emergent” or “mergent” and either “intrinsic” or “extrinsic”. These two distinctions define four basic types of change: stagnation, permanence, flux, and evolution. To illustrate how emergence can operate in a purely logical system, the Geometry of Logic is introduced. This new method of analyzing conceptual systems involves the mapping of logical relations onto geometrical figures, following (...)
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  45.  90 DLs
    John Mizzoni (2010). Evolution and Error Theory. Social Science Information 49 (2):165-194.score: 24.2
    Error theorists argue that there is a fundamental mistake, an error of some kind, at the heart of commonsense morality. They have drawn on evolutionary theory to support some of their claims. This article looks at four different models of evolution and assesses what implications can be drawn from them concerning commonsense morality and the claims of the error theorists Mackie, Ruse and Joyce. The author first spells out the main points of error theory, then discusses how recent proponents (...)
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  46.  90 DLs
    Christopher Toner (2011). Evolution, Naturalism, and the Worthwhile: A Critique of Richard Joyce's Evolutionary Debunking of Morality. Metaphilosophy 42 (4):520-546.score: 24.2
    Abstract: In The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce argues there is good reason to think that the “moral sense” is a biological adaptation, and that this provides a genealogy of the moral sense that has a debunking effect, driving us to the conclusion that “our moral beliefs are products of a process that is entirely independent of their truth, … we have no grounds one way or the other for maintaining these beliefs.” I argue that Joyce's skeptical conclusion is (...)
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  47.  84 DLs
    Jacek Tomczyk & Grzegorz Bugajak (2009). On Evolution and Creation: Problem Solved? The Polish Example. Zygon 44 (4):859-878.score: 24.2
    We present the results of research carried out as a part of the project “Current Controversies about Human Origins: Between Anthropology and the Bible”, which focused on the supposed conflict between natural sciences and some branches of the humanities, notably philosophy and theology, with regard to human origins. One way to tackle the issue was to distribute a questionnaire among students and teachers of the relevant disciplines. Teachers of religion and the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics) and students of (...)
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  48.  81 DLs
    Stevan Harnad, On Fodor on Darwin on Evolution.score: 24.2
    Jerry Fodor argues that Darwin was wrong about "natural selection" because (1) it is only a tautology rather than a scientific law that can support counterfactuals ("If X had happened, Y would have happened") and because (2) only minds can select. Hence Darwin's analogy with "artificial selection" by animal breeders was misleading and evolutionary explanation is nothing but post-hoc historical narrative. I argue that Darwin was right on all counts. Until Darwin's "tautology," it had been believed that either (a) God (...)
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  49.  81 DLs
    Jim Hopkins (forthcoming). The Significance of Consilience: Psychoanalysis, Attachment, Neuroscience, and Evolution. In L. Brakel & V. Talvete (eds.), Psychoanalysis and Philosophy of Mind: Unconscious mentality in the 21st century. Karnacscore: 24.2
    This paper considers clinical psychoanalysis together with developmental psychology (particularly attachment theory), evolution, and neuroscience in the context a Bayesian account of confirmation and disconfrimation. -/- In it I argue that these converging sources of support indicate that the combination of relatively low predictive power and broad explanatory scope that characterise the theories of both Freud and Darwin suggest that Freud's theory, like Darwin's, may strike deeply into natural phenomena. -/- The same argument, however, suggests that conclusive confirmation for (...)
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  50.  79 DLs
    Elliott Sober (1992). The Evolution of Altruism: Correlation, Cost, and Benefit. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):177-187.score: 24.2
    A simple and general criterion is derived for the evolution of altruism when individuals interact in pairs. It is argued that the treatment of this problem in kin selection theory and in game theory are special cases of this general criterion.
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