Search results for 'regulatory evolution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stavros Ioannidis (2013). Regulatory Evolution and Theoretical Arguments in Evolutionary Biology. Science and Education 22 (2):279-292.score: 132.0
    The cis-regulatory hypothesis is one of the most important claims of evolutionary developmental biology. In this paper I examine the theoretical argument for cis-regulatory evolution and its role within evolutionary theorizing. I show that, although the argument has some weaknesses, it acts as a useful example for the importance of current scientific debates for science education.
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  2. Ariel D. Chipman (2010). Parallel Evolution of Segmentation by Co‐Option of Ancestral Gene Regulatory Networks. Bioessays 32 (1):60-70.score: 120.0
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  3. Mika Skippari & Päivi Holmlund (2007). The Evolution of Non-Market Strategies in a Changing Regulatory Environment. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:412-415.score: 96.0
    In the earlier literature the importance of public policies and regulatory changes to firm performance and competitive position has been well established (e.g., Bonardi, 2004). However, little research has been done on the dynamics of this relationship. In this paper, we examine how and why regulatory changes can affect on the evolution of market and nonmarket strategies of a firm. We use a longitudinal case study on Finnish retail industry to illustrate the interactions between regulatory change, (...)
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  4. Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Does EvoDevo Equal Regulatory Evolution?: Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom Sean B. Carroll New York and London : Norton , 2005 (350 Pp; $25.95 Hbk; ISBN 0393060160); From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd Ed.) Sean B. Carroll , Jennifer K. Grenier , Scott D. Weatherbee Malden, MA : Blackwell , 2004 (258 Pp; $49.95 Pbk; ISBN 1405119500). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (1):102-103.score: 90.0
  5. Guy Barry & John S. Mattick (2012). The Role of Regulatory RNA in Cognitive Evolution. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (10):497-503.score: 90.0
    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in the emergence of higher-order cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, planning and social awareness. Although there has been a concomitant increase in brain size and complexity, and component diversification, we argue that RNA regulation of epigenetic processes, RNA editing, and the controlled mobilization of transposable elements have provided the major substrates for cognitive advance. We also suggest that these expanded capacities and flexibilities have led to the collateral emergence of psychiatric fragilities (...)
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  6. Edward B. Chuong (2013). Retroviruses Facilitate the Rapid Evolution of the Mammalian Placenta. Bioessays 35 (10):853-861.score: 78.0
  7. Douglas R. Cavener (1992). Transgenic Animal Studies on the Evolution of Genetic Regulatory Circuitries. Bioessays 14 (4):237-244.score: 72.0
  8. Nadege Philippe, Estelle Crozat, Richard E. Lenski & Dominique Schneider (2007). Evolution of Global Regulatory Networks During a Long‐Term Experiment with Escherichia Coli. Bioessays 29 (9):846-860.score: 72.0
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  9. Gareth M. Thomas & Takashi Hayashi (2013). Smarter Neuronal Signaling Complexes From Existing Components: How Regulatory Modifications Were Acquired During Animal Evolution. Bioessays 35 (11):929-939.score: 72.0
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  10. Adam S. Wilkins (2007). Putting Transcriptional Network Evolution at the Heart of Evolutionary Biology. The Regulatory Genome: Gene Regulatory Networks in Development and Evolution. (2006). Eric H. Davidson. Academic Press, San Diego. Xi + 289 Pp. ISBN 978‐0‐12‐088563‐3. [REVIEW] Bioessays 29 (11):1175-1177.score: 72.0
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  11. Gregory A. Wray & David A. Garfield (2010). The Evolution of Gene Regulatory Interactions. Bioscience 60 (1):15-23.score: 72.0
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  12. Antónia Monteiro (2012). Gene Regulatory Networks Reused to Build Novel Traits. Bioessays 34 (3):181-186.score: 66.0
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  13. Lyudmila Trut, Irina Oskina & Anastasiya Kharlamova (2009). Animal Evolution During Domestication: The Domesticated Fox as a Model. Bioessays 31 (3):349-360.score: 66.0
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  14. Scott Barolo (2012). Shadow Enhancers: Frequently Asked Questions About Distributed Cis‐Regulatory Information and Enhancer Redundancy. Bioessays 34 (2):135-141.score: 66.0
  15. James J. McKenna (1990). Evolution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Human Nature 1 (2):145-177.score: 54.0
    This paper and its subsequent parts (Part II and Part III) build on an earlier publication (McKenna 1986). They suggest that important clinical data on the relationship between infantile constitutional deficits and microenvironmental factors relevant to SIDS can be acquired by examining the physiological regulatory effects (well documented among nonhuman primates) that parents assert on their infants when they sleep together.I attempt to show why access to parental sensory cues (movement, touch, smell, sound) that induce arousals in infants while (...)
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  16. Ryan J. Taft, Michael Pheasant & John S. Mattick (2007). The Relationship Between Non‐Protein‐Coding DNA and Eukaryotic Complexity. Bioessays 29 (3):288-299.score: 54.0
    There are two intriguing paradoxes in molecular biology-the inconsistent relationship between organismal complexity and (1) cellular DNA content and (2) the number of protein-coding genes-referred to as the C-value and G-value paradoxes, respectively. The C-value paradox may be largely explained by varying ploidy. The G-value paradox is more problematic, as the extent of protein coding sequence remains relatively static over a wide range of developmental complexity. We show by analysis of sequenced genomes that the relative amount of non-protein-coding sequence increases (...)
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  17. Matt J. Rossano (2011). Cognitive Control: Social Evolution and Emotional Regulation. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):238-241.score: 42.0
    This commentary argues that theories of cognitive control risk being incomplete unless they incorporate social/emotional factors. Social factors very likely played a critical role in the evolution of human cognitive control abilities, and emotional states are the primary regulatory mechanisms of cognitive control.
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  18. J. Aracena & J. Demongeot (2004). Mathematical Methods for Inferring Regulatory Networks Interactions: Application to Genetic Regulation. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (4).score: 42.0
    This paper deals with the problem of reconstruction of the intergenic interaction graph from the raw data of genetic co-expression coming with new technologies of bio-arrays (DMA-arrays, protein-arrays, etc.). These new imaging devices in general only give information about the asymptotical part (fixed configurations of co-expression or limit cycles of such configurations) of the dynamical evolution of the regulatory networks (genetic and/or proteic) underlying the functioning of living systems. Extracting the casual structure and interaction coefficients of a gene (...)
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  19. L. Hammen (1986). On Some Aspects of Parallel Evolution in Chelicerata. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2).score: 42.0
    A study is made of some aspects of parallel evolution in Chelicerata. Definitions are given of parallel evolution, convergence, homology and analogy. It is pointed out that the concept of parallel evolution (parallelism) is initially formed in an empirical way, and that a judgment must be based on formal criteria. Particular attention is paid to the rôle of gene regulation in parallel evolution, to the special case of convergence as a result of heterologous regulatory mechanisms, (...)
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  20. Paula M. Mabee (2006). Integrating Evolution and Development: The Need for Bioinformatics in Evo-Devo. BioScience 56 (4):301-309.score: 42.0
    Abstract -/- This article is an overview of concepts relating to the integration of the genotype and phenotype. One of the major goals of evolutionary developmental biology, or evo-devo, is to understand the transformation of morphology in evolution. This goal can be accomplished by synthesizing the data pertaining to gene regulatory networks and making use of the increasingly comprehensive knowledge of phylogenetic relationships and associated phenotypes. I give several examples of recent success in connecting these different biological levels. (...)
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  21. A. K. Sharma (1986). Evolution of Cell and Chromosome Structure in Eukaryote. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2).score: 42.0
    The analysis of the data so far available indicates that eukaryotic chromosome with splicing characteristics appeared quite early in evolution possibly parallel and not sequential to the prokaryotic system. The endosymbiotic origin of the eukaryotic cell involved a primitive undifferentiated unicellular eukaryote and a photosynthetic or non-photosynthetic microbe. Certain regulatory genes of extra-cellular organelles were transferred later through molecular hybridization to the nucleus. The evolution of multicellularity and sexual reproduction led to the origin of innumerable eukaryotic forms (...)
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  22. Patrick Bateson (1989). Does Evolutionary Biology Contribute to Ethics? Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):287-301.score: 36.0
    Human propensities that are the products of Darwinian evolution may combine to generate a form of social behavior that is not itself a direct result of such pressure. This possibility may provide a satisfying explanation for the origin of socially transmitted rules such as the incest taboo. Similarly, the regulatory processes of development that generated adaptations to the environment in the circumstances in which they evolved can produce surprising and sometimes maladaptive consequences for the individual in modern conditions. (...)
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  23. Christopher G. Knight & John W. Pinney (2009). Making the Right Connections: Biological Networks in the Light of Evolution. Bioessays 31 (10):1080-1090.score: 30.0
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  24. Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1993). Control of Phenotypic Plasticity Via Regulatory Genes. American Naturalist 142 (2):366-370.score: 24.0
    A response to Via about the existence (or not) and role of plasticity genes in evolution.
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  25. Christophe Malaterre (2009). Are Self-Organizing Biochemical Networks Emergent? In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? EDP Sciences. 117--123.score: 24.0
    Biochemical networks are often called upon to illustrate emergent properties of living systems. In this contribution, I question such emergentist claims by means of theoretical work on genetic regulatory models and random Boolean networks. If the existence of a critical connectivity Kc of such networks has often been coined “emergent” or “irreducible”, I propose on the contrary that the existence of a critical connectivity Kc is indeed mathematically explainable in network theory. This conclusion also applies to many other types (...)
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  26. Wayne D. Christensen & Clifford A. Hooker (1999). The Organization of Knowledge: Beyond Campbell's Evolutionary Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):249.score: 24.0
    Donald Campbell has long advocated a naturalist epistemology based on a general selection theory, with the scope of knowledge restricted to vicarious adaptive processes. But being a vicariant is problematic because it involves an unexplained epistemic relation. We argue that this relation is to be explicated organizationally in terms of the regulation of behavior and internal state by the vicariant, but that Campbell's selectionist approach can give no satisfactory account of it because it is opaque to organization. We show how (...)
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  27. Péter Kakuk (2008). Gene Concepts and Genethics: Beyond Exceptionalism. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):357-375.score: 24.0
    The discursive explosion that was provoked by the new genetics could support the impression that the ethical and social problems posed by the new genetics are somehow exceptional in their very nature. According to this view we are faced with special ethical and social problems that create a challenge so fundamental that the special label of genethics is needless to justify. The historical account regarding the evolution of the gene concepts could serve us to highlight the limits of what (...)
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  28. Ehud Lamm (2009). Conceptual and Methodological Biases in Network Models. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1178:291-304.score: 24.0
    Many natural and biological phenomena can be depicted as networks. Theoretical and empirical analyses of networks have become prevalent. I discuss theoretical biases involved in the delineation of biological networks. The network perspective is shown to dissolve the distinction between regulatory architecture and regulatory state, consistent with the theoretical impossibility of distinguishing a priori between “program” and “data”. The evolutionary significance of the dynamics of trans-generational and inter-organism regulatory networks is explored and implications are presented for understanding (...)
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  29. Lindsay R. Craig (2009). Defending Evo‐Devo: A Response to Hoekstra and Coyne. Philosophy of Science 76 (3):335-344.score: 24.0
    The study of evolutionary developmental biology (“evo‐devo”) has recently experienced a dramatic surge in popularity among researchers and theorists concerned with evolution. However, some biologists and philosophers remain skeptical of the claims of evo‐devo. This paper discusses and responds to the recent high profile criticisms of evo‐devo presented by biologists Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry A. Coyne. I argue that their objections are unconvincing. Indeed, empirical research supports the main tenets of evo‐devo, including the claim that morphological evolution (...)
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  30. Karola Stotz (2008). The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and Nurture. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):359 – 381.score: 24.0
    This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue on “Reconciling Nature and Nurture in Behavior and Cognition Research” and sets its agenda to resolve the 'interactionist' dichotomy of nature as the genetic, and stable, factors of development, and nurture as the environmental, and plastic influences. In contrast to this received view it promotes the idea that all traits, no matter how developmentally fixed or universal they seem, contingently develop out of a single-cell state through the interaction of a (...)
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  31. Péter Kakuk (2009). The Legacy of the Hwang Case: Research Misconduct in Biosciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):545-562.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on the infamous case of Hwang Woo Suk, the South-Korean national hero and once celebrated pioneer of stem cell research. After briefly discussing the evolution of his publication and research scandal in Science, I will attempt to outline the main reactions that emerged within scientific and bioethical discourses on the problem of research misconduct in contemporary biosciences. What were the ethical lapses in his research? What kind of research misconduct has been identified? How this kind of (...)
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  32. Richard M. Burian (2007). On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):285 - 311.score: 24.0
    This paper is devoted to an examination of the discovery, characterization, and analysis of the functions of microRNAs, which also serves as a vehicle for demonstrating the importance of exploratory experimentation in current (post-genomic) molecular biology. The material on microRNAs is important in its own right: it provides important insight into the extreme complexity of regulatory networks involving components made of DNA, RNA, and protein. These networks play a central role in regulating development of multicellular organisms and illustrate the (...)
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  33. Georg Kell (2005). The Global Compact Selected Experiences and Reflections. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):69 - 79.score: 24.0
    In this paper, the Executive Head of the Global Compact shares some of his own reflections on the evolution of the Global Compact initiative – United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s voluntary corporate citizenship initiative in the area of human rights, labor, the environment and anti-corruption. Two main themes are addressed. The first considers the Global Compact’s institutional context, examining how such an initiative is even possible in the historically hierarchical and traditionally business-unfriendly UN. The second concerns the voluntary nature (...)
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  34. C. A. Hooker (2009). Interaction and Bio-Cognitive Order. Synthese 166 (3):513 - 546.score: 24.0
    The role of interaction in learning is essential and profound: it must provide the means to solve open problems (those only vaguely specified in advance), but cannot be captured using our familiar formal cognitive tools. This presents an impasse to those confined to present formalisms; but interaction is fundamentally dynamical, not formal, and with its importance thus underlined it invites the development of a distinctively interactivist account of life and mind. This account is provided, from its roots in the interactivist (...)
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  35. David J. Doorey (2011). The Transparent Supply Chain: From Resistance to Implementation at Nike and Levi-Strauss. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):587-603.score: 24.0
    Information disclosure is a common regulatory tool designed to influence business behavior. A belief is that transparency can provoke learning and also positive institutional change by empowering private watchdogs to monitor and pressure business leaders to alter harmful behavior. Beginning in the late 1990s, a private movement emerged that pressured corporations to disclose the identify of their global supplier factories. These activists believed that factory disclosure would lead to greater accountability by corporations for the working conditions under which their (...)
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  36. R. Bruce Hull (2006). Infinite Nature. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    You would be hard-pressed to find someone who categorically opposes protecting the environment, yet most people would agree that the environmentalist movement has been ineffectual and even misguided. Some argue that its agenda is misplaced, oppressive, and misanthropic—a precursor to intrusive government, regulatory bungles, and economic stagnation. Others point out that its alarmist rhetoric and preservationist solutions are outdated and insufficient to the task of galvanizing support for true reform. In this impassioned and judicious work, R. Bruce Hull argues (...)
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  37. William Dembski, Does Evolution Even Have a Mechanism?score: 24.0
    Evolutionary biology teaches that all biological complexity is the result of material mechanisms. These include principally the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and random variation, but also include other mechanisms (symbiosis, gene transfer, genetic drift, the action of regulatory genes in development, self-organizational processes, etc.). These mechanisms are just that: mindless material mechanisms that do what they do irrespective of intelligence. To be sure, mechanisms can be programmed by an intelligence. But any such intelligent programming of evolutionary mechanisms is (...)
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  38. Tadeusz Wieslaw Zawidzki (1998). Competing Models of Stability in Complex, Evolving Systems: Kauffman Vs. Simon. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):541-554.score: 24.0
    I criticize Herbert Simon's argument for the claim that complex natural systems must constitute decomposable, mereological or functional hierarchies. The argument depends on certain assumptions about the requirements for the successful evolution of complex systems, most importantly, the existence of stable, intermediate stages in evolution. Simon offers an abstract model of any process that succeeds in meeting these requirements. This model necessarily involves construction through a decomposable hierarchy, and thus suggests that any complex, natural, i.e., evolved, (...)
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  39. Anna Lydia Svalastog, Petter Gustafsson & Stefan Jansson (2006). Comparative Analysis of the Risk-Handling Procedures for Gene Technology Applications in Medical and Plant Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):465-479.score: 24.0
    In this paper we analyse how the risks associated with research on transgenic plants are regulated in Sweden. The paper outlines the way in which pilot projects in the plant sciences are overseen in Sweden, and discusses the international and national background to the current regulatory system. The historical, and hitherto unexplored, reasons for the evolution of current administrative and legislative procedures in plant science are of particular interest. Specifically, we discuss similarities and differences in the regulation of (...)
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  40. Roy Douglas Pearson (1981). Tumourigenesis: The Subterfuge of Selection. Acta Biotheoretica 30 (3).score: 24.0
    Variation or rearrangement of regulatory genes is responsible for cellular malignant change. These types of chromosomal variations also produce heterochrony or paedomorphic evolution at the organismal level. Analogously, neoplasia represents a cellular macroevolutionary event, and a tumour can be said to be an evolved population of cells. To understand this cellular evolution to malignancy, it may be necessary to go beyond a clonal selection (adaptationist) explanation of neoplastic alteration. In the pericellular environment natural selection consists of the (...)
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  41. J. Barkley Rosser & Jamshed Y. Uppal, Financial Development and Bubbles: The Case of the Karachi Stock Exchange of Pakistan.score: 24.0
    Speculative bubbles present a problem for the development of sophisticated financial markets in developing economies. This paper discusses the evolution of regulatory institutions in Pakistan pertaining to the Karachi stock exchange and empirically tests for the presence of stock market bubbles in that stock market in recent years. A fundamental is estimated using a VAR approach, and residuals of this fundamental are tested for trends using Hamilton regime switching and Hurst rescaled range methods. Nonlinearities beyond ARCH are also (...)
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  42. S. Woods & K. Taylor (2008). Ethical and Governance Challenges in Human Fetal Tissue Research. Clinical Ethics 3 (1):14-19.score: 24.0
    Genetics holds the key to understanding normal human biology and possibly many of the major causes of human disease and impairment. Research into human developmental genetics seems, therefore, to be both necessary and justified. However, such research requires the use of embryonic and fetal tissue obtained from spontaneous abortions and elective termination of pregnancy. This paper examines the arguments in favour of using tissue from elective terminations and the evolution of regulatory frameworks for this research. The paper argues (...)
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  43. Günther Witzany (2006). Natural Genome-Editing Competences of Viruses. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (4).score: 24.0
    It is becoming increasingly evident that the driving forces of evolutionary novelty are not randomly derived chance mutations of the genetic text, but a precise genome editing by omnipresent viral agents. These competences integrate the whole toolbox of natural genetic engineering, replication, transcription, translation, genomic imprinting, genomic creativity, enzymatic inventions and all types of genetic repair patterns. Even the non-coding, repetitive DNA sequences which were interpreted as being ancient remnants of former evolutionary stages are now recognized as being of viral (...)
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  44. Herbert Gintis (2014). Inclusive Fitness and the Sociobiology of the Genome. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):477-515.score: 24.0
    Inclusive fitness theory provides conditions for the evolutionary success of a gene. These conditions ensure that the gene is selfish in the sense of Dawkins (The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976): genes do not and cannot sacrifice their own fitness on behalf of the reproductive population. Therefore, while natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world (Dawkins in The blind watchmaker: why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design, W. W. Norton, New (...)
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  45. Mark Q. Martindale & Patricia N. Lee (2013). The Development of Form: Causes and Consequences of Developmental Reprogramming Associated with Rapid Body Plan Evolution in the Bilaterian Radiation. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 8 (3):253-264.score: 24.0
    Organismal form arises by the coordinated movement, arrangement, and activity of cells. In metazoans, most morphogenetic programs that establish the recognizable body plan of any given species are initiated during the developmental period, although in many species growth continues throughout life. By comparing the cellular and molecular development of the bilaterians (bilaterally symmetrical animals) to the development of their closest outgroup, the cnidarians, it appears that morphogenesis and the cell fate specification associated with germ layer formation during the process of (...)
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  46. Nigel D. White (2012). Due Diligence Obligations of Conduct: Developing a Responsibility Regime for PMSCs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31 (3):233-261.score: 24.0
    Abstract As non-state actors, PMSCs are not embraced by traditional state-dominated doctrines of international law. However, international law has itself failed to keep pace with the evolution of states and state-based actors, to which strong Westphalian notions of sovereignty are no longer applicable. It is argued that these structural inadequacies stand in the way of international regulation of PMSCs, rather than defects in international human rights and humanitarian law per se. By analyzing understandings of legal responsibility, where such structural (...)
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  47. Krystyna Zamiara (2011). Droga twórcza Jerzego Kmity jako sekwencja przesunięć problemowych. Filo-Sofija 11 (12 (2011/1)):109-127.score: 24.0
    Author: Zamiara Krystyna Title: JERZY KMITA’S CREATIVE JOURNEY AS A SEQUENCE OF PROBLEM-SHIFTS (Droga twórcza Jerzego Kmity jako sekwencja przesunięć problemowych) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2011, vol:.12, number: 2011/1, pages: 109-127 Keywords: KMITA, SOCIO-REGULATORY THEORY OF CULTURE, HISTORICAL EPISTEMOLOGY, SCIENCE, CULTURE, MARXISM Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:This paper presents meta-philosophical considerations concerning evolution of Jerzy Kmita’s intellectual standpoint. The author focuses on two crucial “problem-shifts” which lead Kmita to (...)
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  48. Renata Lemos-Morais (2010). Money as Media: Gilson Schwartz on the Semiotics of Digital Currency. Continent 1 (1):22-25.score: 24.0
    continent. 1.1 (2011): 22-25. The Author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Ensino Superior), Brazil. From the multifarious subdivisions of semiotics, be they naturalistic or culturalistic, the realm of semiotics of value is a ?eld that is getting more and more attention these days. Our entire political and economic systems are based upon structures of symbolic representation that many times seem not only to embody monetary value but also to determine it. The connection between monetary (...)
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  49. Tapan K. Sarker (2013). Voluntary Codes of Conduct and Their Implementation in the Australian Mining and Petroleum Industries: Is There a Business Case for CSR? [REVIEW] Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):205-224.score: 24.0
    The design and development of appropriate regulatory mechanisms have attracted renewed attention in recent years. In particular, a shift towards voluntary self-regulatory mechanisms has been witnessed within many industries, such as the Australian mining and petroleum industries which have developed voluntary codes of conduct. This paper analyses the development of different regulatory forms and provides a brief comparative analysis of the two main voluntary codes of conduct used by the Australian mining and petroleum industries. In particular, the (...)
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  50. Daniel Bopp (2001). Merging Sex and Position. Bioessays 23 (4):304-306.score: 24.0
    The choice between male and female development arises from a simple blnary decision made in early development. Studies in a few model organlsms led to a detalled understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that convey male or female identity at the cellular level. We have learned little, however, of how this information translates into the actual sexual phenotype with regionally dlmorphic characters. Where does positional information come from and how does it integrate with the sexdetermining pathway? A recent report sheds (...)
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