Search results for 'relative modality' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Andrea Rocci (2008). Modality and its Conversational Backgrounds in the Reconstruction of Argumentation. Argumentation 22 (2):165-189.score: 108.0
    The paper considers the role of modality in the rational reconstruction of standpoints and arguments. The paper examines in what conditions modal markers can act as argumentative indicators and what kind of cues they provide for the reconstruction of argument. The paper critically re-examines Toulmin’s hypothesis that the meaning of the modals can be analyzed in terms of a field-invariant argumentative force and field-dependent criteria in the light of the Theory of Relative Modality developed within linguistic semantics, (...)
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  2. Martin Hackl & Jon Nissenbaum (2012). A Modal Ambiguity in for-Infinitival Relative Clauses. Natural Language Semantics 20 (1):59-81.score: 96.0
    This squib presents two puzzles related to an ambiguity found in for-infinitival relative clauses (FIRs). FIRs invariably receive a modal interpretation even in the absence of any overt modal verb. The modal interpretation seems to come in two distinct types, which can be paraphrased by finite relative clauses employing the modal auxiliaries should and could. The two puzzles presented here arise because the availability of the two readings is constrained by factors that are not otherwise known to affect (...)
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  3. Martin Hackl & Jon Nissenbaum (2012). A Modal Ambiguity in for-Infinitival Relative Clauses. Natural Language Semantics 20 (1):59-81.score: 96.0
    This squib presents two puzzles related to an ambiguity found in for-infinitival relative clauses (FIRs). FIRs invariably receive a modal interpretation even in the absence of any overt modal verb. The modal interpretation seems to come in two distinct types, which can be paraphrased by finite relative clauses employing the modal auxiliaries should and could. The two puzzles presented here arise because the availability of the two readings is constrained by factors that are not otherwise known to affect (...)
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  4. John Bryant (1980). The Logic of Relative Modality and the Paradoxes of Deontic Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (1):78-88.score: 90.0
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  5. L. Harsing (1986). Outlines of a Logic of Relative Truth in Dynamics of Meaning and Modality. Logique Et Analyse 29 (114):137-148.score: 72.0
     
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  6. Danilo Šuster (2005). The Modality Principle and Work-Relativity of Modality. Acta Analytica 20 (4):41-52.score: 64.0
    Davies argues that the ontology of artworks as performances offers a principled way of explaining work-relativity of modality. Object oriented contextualist ontologies of art (Levinson) cannot adequately address the problem of work-relativity of modal properties because they understand looseness in what counts as the same context as a view that slight differences in the work-constitutive features of provenance are work-relative. I argue that it is more in the spirit of contextualism to understand looseness as context-dependent. This points to (...)
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  7. Antony Eagle (2011). Deterministic Chance. Noûs 45 (2):269 - 299.score: 60.0
    I sketch a new constraint on chance, which connects chance ascriptions closely with ascriptions of ability, and more specifically with 'CAN'-claims. This connection between chance and ability has some claim to be a platitude; moreover, it exposes the debate over deterministic chance to the extensive literature on (in)compatibilism about free will. The upshot is that a prima facie case for the tenability of deterministic chance can be made. But the main thrust of the paper is to draw attention to the (...)
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  8. Adam Murray & Jessica M. Wilson (2012). Relativized Metaphysical Modality. In Karen Bennett & Dean Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. 189.score: 54.0
    It is commonly supposed that metaphysical modal claims are to be evaluated with respect to a single domain of possible worlds: a claim is metaphysically necessary just in case it is true in every possible world, and metaphysically possible just in case it is true in some possible world. We argue that the standard understanding is incorrect; rather, whether a given claim is metaphysically necessary or possible is relative to which world is indicatively actual. We motivate our view by (...)
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  9. Fabrizio Cariani, Magdalena Kaufmann & Stefan Kaufmann (2013). Deliberative Modality Under Epistemic Uncertainty. Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (3):225-259.score: 54.0
    We discuss the semantic significance of a puzzle concerning ‘ought’ and conditionals recently discussed by Kolodny and MacFarlane. We argue that the puzzle is problematic for the standard Kratzer-style analysis of modality. In Kratzer’s semantics, modals are evaluated relative to a pair of conversational backgrounds. We show that there is no sensible way of assigning values to these conversational backgrounds so as to derive all of the intuitions in Kolodny and MacFarlane’s case. We show that the appropriate verdicts (...)
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  10. Joseph Berkovitz & Meir Hemmo (2005). Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity: A Reconsideration. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (3):373-397.score: 48.0
    Two of the main interpretative problems in quantum mechanics are the so-called measurement problem and the question of the compatibility of quantum mechanics with relativity theory. Modal interpretations of quantum mechanics were designed to solve both of these problems. They are no-collapse (typically) indeterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics that supplement the orthodox state description of physical systems by a set of possessed properties that is supposed to be rich enough to account for the classical-like behavior of macroscopic systems, but sufficiently (...)
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  11. Valentine Hacquard (2010). On the Event Relativity of Modal Auxiliaries. Natural Language Semantics 18 (1):79-114.score: 48.0
    Crosslinguistically, the same modal words can be used to express a wide range of interpretations. This crosslinguistic trend supports a Kratzerian analysis, where each modal has a core lexical entry and where the difference between an epistemic and a root interpretation is contextually determined. A long-standing problem for such a unified account is the equally robust crosslinguistic correlation between a modal’s interpretation and its syntactic behavior: epistemics scope high (in particular higher than tense and aspect) and roots low, a fact (...)
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  12. Wayne C. Myrvold (2002). Modal Interpretations and Relativity. Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1773-1784.score: 42.0
    A proof is given, at a greater level of generality than previous 'no-go' theorems, of the impossibility of formulating a modal interpretation that exhibits 'serious' Lorentz invariance at the fundamental level. Particular attention is given to modal interpretations of the type proposed by Bub.
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  13. Valentine Hacquard (2009). On the Interaction of Aspect and Modal Auxiliaries. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (3):279-315.score: 42.0
    This paper discusses the interaction of aspect and modality, and focuses on the puzzling implicative effect that arises when perfective aspect appears on certain modals: perfective somehow seems to force the proposition expressed by the complement of the modal to hold in the actual world, and not merely in some possible world. I show that this puzzling behavior, originally discussed in Bhatt (1999, Covert modality in non-finite contexts) for the ability modal, extends to all modal auxiliaries with a (...)
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  14. A. Smirnova (2013). Evidentiality in Bulgarian: Temporality, Epistemic Modality, and Information Source. Journal of Semantics 30 (4):479-532.score: 42.0
    This article presents a formal semantic analysis of the Bulgarian evidential. The analysis is motivated by a number of facts that have gone unnoticed in the literature on evidentiality in Bulgarian and which cannot be explained by previous analyses (Izvorski 1997; Sauerland & Schenner 2007; Koev 2011). First, I show that the same evidential construction in Bulgarian can express direct, reportative and inferential information sources. These data challenge the current analysis of the Bulgarian evidential as indirect (Izvorski 1997), and show (...)
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  15. M. Willer (2013). Dynamics of Epistemic Modality. Philosophical Review 122 (1):45-92.score: 42.0
    A dynamic semantics for epistemically modalized sentences is an attractive alternative to the orthodox view that our best theory of meaning ascribes to such sentences truth-conditions relative to what is known. This essay demonstrates that a dynamic theory about might and must offers elegant explanations of a range of puzzling observations about epistemic modals. The first part of the story offers a unifying treatment of disputes about epistemic modality and disputes about matters of fact while at the same (...)
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  16. Chris Tweedt (2013). Splitting the Horns of Euthyphro's Modal Relative. Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):205-212.score: 40.0
    There is a modal relative of Euthyphro’s dilemma that goes like this: are necessary truths true because God affirms them, or does God affirm them because they’re true? If you accept the first horn, necessary truths are as contingent as God’s free will. If you accept the second, God is less ultimate than the modal ontology that establishes certain truths as necessary. If you try to split the horns by affirming that necessary truths are somehow grounded in God’s nature, (...)
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  17. Tuomas E. Tahko (forthcoming). The Metaphysical Interpretation of Logical Truth. In Penelope Rush (ed.), The Metaphysics of Logic: Logical Realism, Logical Anti-Realism and All Things In Between. Cambridge University Press.score: 36.0
    The starting point of this paper concerns the apparent difference between what we might call absolute truth and truth in a model, following Donald Davidson. The notion of absolute truth is the one familiar from Tarski’s T-schema: ‘Snow is white’ is true if and only if snow is white. Instead of being a property of sentences as absolute truth appears to be, truth in a model, that is relative truth, is evaluated in terms of the relation between sentences and (...)
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  18. Gyula Bene & Dennis Dieks (2002). A Perspectival Version of the Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Origin of Macroscopic Behavior. Foundations of Physics 32 (5):645-671.score: 36.0
    We study the process of observation (measurement), within the framework of a “perspectival” (“relational,” “relative state”) version of the modal interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that if we assume certain features of discreteness and determinism in the operation of the measuring device (which could be a part of the observer's nerve system), this gives rise to classical characteristics of the observed properties, in the first place to spatial localization. We investigate to what extent semi-classical behavior of the object (...)
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  19. Božidar Kante (2005). Contextualism, Art, and Rigidity: Levinson, Currie and Davies. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 20 (4):53-63.score: 36.0
    The topic of this paper is the role played by context in art. In this regard I examine three theories linked to the names of J. Levinson, G. Currie and D. Davies. Levinson’s arguments undermine the structural theory. He finds it objectionable because it makes the individuation of artworks independent of their histories. Secondly, such a consequence is unacceptable because it fails to recognise that works are created rather than discovered. But, if certain general features of provenance are always work-constitutive, (...)
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  20. Michael J. White (1979). Aristotle and Temporally Relative Modalities. Analysis 39 (2):88 - 93.score: 36.0
  21. Bjørn Jespersen & Pavel Materna (2002). Are Wooden Tables Necessarily Wooden? Acta Analytica 17 (1):115-150.score: 36.0
    This paper defendsintensional essentialism: a property (intensional entity) is not essential relative to an individual (extensional entity), but relative to other properties (or intensional entities). Consequently, an individual can have a property only accidentally, but in virtue of having that property the individual has of necessity other properties. Intensional essentialism is opposed to various aspects of the Kripkean notion of metaphysical modality, eg, varying domains, existence as a property of individuals, and its category of properties which are (...)
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  22. Stéphane Demri (1999). A Logic with Relative Knowledge Operators. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):167-185.score: 36.0
    We study a knowledge logic that assumes that to each set of agents, an indiscernibility relation is associated and the agents decide the membership of objects or states up to this indiscernibility relation. Its language contains a family of relative knowledge operators. We prove the decidability of the satisfiability problem, we show its EXPTIME-completeness and as a side-effect, we define a complete Hilbert-style axiomatization.
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  23. Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum, Sarah E. Donohue, Christina J. Park & Marty G. Woldorff (2013). Is One Enough? The Case for Non-Additive Influences of Visual Features on Crossmodal Stroop Interference. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 36.0
    When different perceptual signals arising from the same physical entity are integrated, they form a more reliable sensory estimate. When such repetitive sensory signals are pitted against other competing stimuli, such as in a Stroop Task, this redundancy may lead to stronger processing that biases behavior towards reporting the redundant stimuli. This bias would therefore be expected to evoke greater incongruency effects than if these stimuli did not contain redundant sensory features. In the present paper we report that this is (...)
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  24. Philippe Balbiani & Ewa Orlowska (1999). A Hierarchy of Modal Logics with Relative Accessibility Relations. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 9 (2-3):303-328.score: 34.0
    ABSTRACT In this paper we introduce and investigate various classes of multimodal logics based on frames with relative accessibility relations. We discuss their applicability to representation and analysis of incomplete information. We provide axiom systems for these logics and we prove their completeness.
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  25. John MacFarlane (forthcoming). Epistemic Modalities and Relative Truth. Drafts.score: 32.0
    I want to discuss a puzzle about the semantics of epistemic modals, like “It might be the case that” as it occurs in “It might be the case that Goldbach’s conjecture is false.”1 I’ll argue that the puzzle cannot be adequately explained on standard accounts of the semantics of epistemic modals, and that a proper solution requires relativizing utterance truth to a context of assessment, a semantic device whose utility and coherence I have defended elsewhere for future contingents (MacFarlane..
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  26. Stéphane Demri & Dov Gabbay (2000). On Modal Logics Characterized by Models with Relative Accessibility Relations: Part I. Studia Logica 65 (3):323-353.score: 32.0
    This work is divided in two papers (Part I and Part II). In Part I, we study a class of polymodal logics (herein called the class of "Rare-logics") for which the set of terms indexing the modal operators are hierarchized in two levels: the set of Boolean terms and the set of terms built upon the set of Boolean terms. By investigating different algebraic properties satisfied by the models of the Rare-logics, reductions for decidability are established by faithfully translating the (...)
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  27. Joseph Berkovitz & Meir Hemmo, How to Reconcile Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics with Relativity.score: 32.0
    Recent no go theorems by Dickson and Clifton (1998), Arntzenius (1998) and Myrvold (2002) demonstrate that current modal interpretations are incompatible with relativity. In this paper we propose strategies for how to circumvent these theorems. We further show how these strategies can be developped into new modal interpretations in which the properties of systems are in general either holistic or relational. We explicitly write down an outline of dynamics for these properties which does not pick out a preferred foliation of (...)
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  28. Stéphane Demri & Dov Gabbay (2000). On Modal Logics Characterized by Models with Relative Accessibility Relations: Part II. Studia Logica 66 (3):349-384.score: 32.0
    This work is divided in two papers (Part I and Part II). In Part I, we introduced the class of Rare-logics for which the set of terms indexing the modal operators are hierarchized in two levels: the set of Boolean terms and the set of terms built upon the set of Boolean terms. By investigating different algebraic properties satisfied by the models of the Rare-logics, reductions for decidability were established by faithfully translating the Rare-logics into more standard modal logics (some (...)
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  29. Peter Fritz (2013). Modal Ontology and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (4):643-678.score: 30.0
    Timothy Williamson has argued that in the debate on modal ontology, the familiar distinction between actualism and possibilism should be replaced by a distinction between positions he calls contingentism and necessitism. He has also argued in favor of necessitism, using results on quantified modal logic with plurally interpreted second-order quantifiers showing that necessitists can draw distinctions contingentists cannot draw. Some of these results are similar to well-known results on the relative expressivity of quantified modal logics with so-called inner and (...)
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  30. Friederike Moltmann (2010). Relative Truth and the First Person. Philosophical Studies 150 (2):187-220..score: 30.0
    In recent work on context­dependency, it has been argued that certain types of sentences give rise to a notion of relative truth. In particular, sentences containing predicates of personal taste and moral or aesthetic evaluation as well as epistemic modals are held to express a proposition (relative to a context of use) which is true or false not only relative to a world of evaluation, but other parameters as well, such as standards of taste or knowledge or (...)
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  31. Jason Stanley (2003). Modality and What is Said. In John Hawthorne (ed.), Language and Mind. Blackwell. 321--44.score: 30.0
    If, relative to a context, what a sentence says is necessarily true, then what it says must be so. If, relative to a context, what a sentence says is possible, then what it says could be true. Following natural philosophical usage, it would thus seem clear that in assessing an occurrence of a sentence for possibility or necessity, one is assessing what is said by that occurrence. In this paper, I argue that natural philosophical usage misleads here. In (...)
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  32. Delia Graff Fara (2008). Relative-Sameness Counterpart Theory. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (2):167-189.score: 30.0
    Here I propose a coherent way of preserving the identity of material objects with the matter that constitutes them. The presentation is formal, and intended for RSL. An informal presentation is in preliminary draft! -/- Relative-sameness relations—such as being the same person as—are like David Lewis's "counterpart" relations in the following respects: (i) they may hold between objects that aren't identical (I propose), and (ii) there are a multiplicity of them, different ones of which may be variously invoked in (...)
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  33. Kai von Fintel, Epistemic Modals: A Linguistic Perspective.score: 30.0
    Expressions of epistemic modality mark the possibility/necessity of the prejacent proposition relative to some body of evidence/knowledge.
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  34. Andreas Blass (1990). Infinitary Combinatorics and Modal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (2):761-778.score: 30.0
    We show that the modal propositional logic G, originally introduced to describe the modality "it is provable that", is also sound for various interpretations using filters on ordinal numbers, for example the end-segment filters, the club filters, or the ineffable filters. We also prove that G is complete for the interpretation using end-segment filters. In the case of club filters, we show that G is complete if Jensen's principle □ κ holds for all $\kappa ; on the other hand, (...)
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  35. P. Garbacz (2004). Subsumption and Relative Identity. Axiomathes 14 (4):341-360.score: 30.0
    This paper is a modification of Nicola Guarino and Christopher Welty's conception of the subsumption relation. Guarino and Welty require that that whether one property may subsume the other should depend on the modal metaproperties of those properties. I argue that the part of their account that concerns the metaproperty carrying a criterion of identity is essentially flawed. Subsequently, I propose to constrain the subsumption relation not, as Guarino and Welty require, by means of incompatible criteria of absolute identity but (...)
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  36. M. J. Cresswell (1968). Some Proofs of Relative Completeness in Modal Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 9 (1):62-66.score: 30.0
  37. Franco Montagna (1987). Provability in Finite Subtheories of Pa and Relative Interpretability: A Modal Investigation. Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (2):494-511.score: 30.0
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  38. Philip Kremer (2006). The Modal Logic of Continuous Functions on Cantor Space. Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (8):1021-1032.score: 30.0
    Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a propositional language with standard Boolean connectives plus two modalities: an S4-ish topological modality $\square$ and a temporal modality $\bigcirc$ , understood as ‘next’. We extend the topological semantic for S4 to a semantics for the language $\mathcal{L}$ by interpreting $\mathcal{L}$ in dynamic topological systems, i.e. ordered pairs $\langle X, f\rangle$ , where X is a topological space and f is a continuous function on X. Artemov, Davoren and Nerode have axiomatized a logic S4C, and (...)
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  39. Philippe Balbiani (2001). A New Proof of Completeness for a Relative Modal Logic with Composition and Intersection. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (3-4):269-280.score: 30.0
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  40. Philippe Balbiani & Luis Fariñas del Cerro (2012). Complete Axiomatization of a Relative Modal Logic with Composition and Intersection. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 8 (4):325-335.score: 30.0
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  41. Philippe Balbiani & Luis Fariñas del Cerro (1998). Complete Axiomatization of a Relative Modal Logic with Composition and Intersection. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 8 (4):325-335.score: 30.0
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  42. Chris McNorgan (2012). A Meta-Analytic Review of Multisensory Imagery Identifies the Neural Correlates of Modality-Specific and Modality-General Imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 30.0
    The relationship between imagery and mental representations induced through perception has been the subject of philosophical discussion since antiquity and of vigorous scientific debate in the last century. The relatively recent advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed neuroscientists to look for brain-based evidence for or against the argument that perceptual processes underlie mental imagery. Recent investigations of imagery in many new domains and the parallel development of new meta-analytic techniques now afford us a clearer picture of the relationship between the (...)
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  43. David Burr Roberto Arrighi, Roy Lunardi (2011). Vision and Audition Do Not Share Attentional Resources in Sustained Tasks. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 28.0
    Our perceptual capacities are limited by attentional resources. One important question is whether these resources are allocated separately to each sense or shared between them. We addressed this issue by asking subjects to perform a double task, either in the same modality or in different modalities (vision and audition). The primary task was a multiple object-tracking task (Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988), in which observers were required to track between 2-5 dots for 4 seconds. Concurrently, they were required to identify (...)
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  44. Peter K. Schotch & Gillman Payette (2011). Worlds and Times: NS and the Master Argument. Synthese 181 (2):295 - 315.score: 28.0
    In the fourteenth century, Duns Scotus suggested that the proper analysis of modality required not just moments of time but also "moments of nature". In making this suggestion, he broke with an influential view first presented by Diodorus in the early Hellenistic period, and might even be said to have been the inventor of "possible worlds". In this essay we take Scotus' suggestion seriously devising first a double-index logic and then introducing the temporal order. Finally, using the temporal order, (...)
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  45. Gunnar Björnsson & Alexander Almér (2011). The Pragmatics of Insensitive Assessments: Understanding The Relativity of Assessments of Judgments of Personal Taste, Epistemic Modals, and More. In Barbara H. Partee, Michael Glanzberg & Jurģis Šķilters (eds.), The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication.score: 26.0
    In assessing the veridicality of utterances, we normally seem to assess the satisfaction of conditions that the speaker had been concerned to get right in making the utterance. However, the debate about assessor-relativism about epistemic modals, predicates of taste, gradable adjectives and conditionals has been largely driven by cases in which seemingly felicitous assessments of utterances are insensitive to aspects of the context of utterance that were highly relevant to the speaker’s choice of words. In this paper, we offer an (...)
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  46. Angelika Kratzer (1977). What 'Must' and 'Can' Must and Can Mean. Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (3):337--355.score: 24.0
    In this paper I offer an account of the meaning of must and can within the framework of possible worlds semantics. The paper consists of two parts: the first argues for a relative concept of modality underlying modal words like must and can in natural language. I give preliminary definitions of the meaning of these words which are formulated in terms of logical consequence and compatibility, respectively. The second part discusses one kind of insufficiency in the meaning definitions (...)
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  47. Christopher Hughes (2004). Kripke: Names, Necessity, and Identity. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Saul Kripke, in a series of classic writings of the 1960s and 1970s, changed the face of metaphysics and philosophy of language. Christopher Hughes offers a careful exposition and critical analysis of Kripke's central ideas about names, necessity, and identity. He clears up some common misunderstandings of Kripke's views on rigid designation, causality and reference, and the necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori. Through his engagement with Kripke's ideas Hughes makes a significant contribution to ongoing debates on, inter alia, (...)
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  48. Nate Charlow (2013). What We Know and What to Do. Synthese 190 (12):2291-2323.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses an important puzzle about the semantics of indicative conditionals and deontic necessity modals (should, ought, etc.): the Miner Puzzle (Parfit, ms; Kolodny and MacFarlane, J Philos 107:115–143, 2010). Rejecting modus ponens for the indicative conditional, as others have proposed, seems to solve a version of the puzzle, but is actually orthogonal to the puzzle itself. In fact, I prove that the puzzle arises for a variety of sophisticated analyses of the truth-conditions of indicative conditionals. A comprehensive solution (...)
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  49. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Bodily Action and Distal Attribution in Sensory Substitution. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Proceedings of the British Academy.score: 24.0
    According to proponents of the sensorimotor contingency theory of perception (Hurley & Noë 2003, Noë 2004, O’Regan 2011), active control of camera movement is necessary for the emergence of distal attribution in tactile-visual sensory substitution (TVSS) because it enables the subject to acquire knowledge of the way stimulation in the substituting modality varies as a function of self-initiated, bodily action. This chapter, by contrast, approaches distal attribution as a solution to a causal inference problem faced by the subject’s perceptual (...)
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  50. Joseph Berkovitz & Meir Hemmo (2005). Can Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics Be Reconciled with Relativity? Philosophy of Science 72 (5):789-801.score: 24.0
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