Search results for 'relative significance argument' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Moti Mizrahi (2013). The Argument From Underconsideration and Relative Realism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):393-407.score: 192.0
    In this article, through a critical examination of K. Brad Wray's version of the argument from underconsideration against scientific realism, I articulate a modest version of scientific realism. This modest realist position, which I call ‘relative realism’, preserves the scientific realist's optimism about science's ability to get closer to the truth while, at the same time, taking on board the antirealist's premise that theory evaluation is comparative, and thus that there are no good reasons to think that science's (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Ian Logan (2008). Reading Anselm's Proslogion: The History of Anselm's Argument and its Significance Today. Ashgate Pub. Ltd..score: 144.0
    Introduction -- The pre-text : the dialectical origins of Anselm's argument -- The text -- Proslogion -- Pro insipiente -- Responsio -- Commentary on the Proslogion -- Anselm's defence and the Unum argumentum -- The medieval reception -- The modern reception -- Anselm's argument today -- Conclusion: The significance of Anselm's argument.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. John Leslie (1997). Observer-Relative Chances and the Doomsday Argument. Inquiry 40 (4):427 – 436.score: 144.0
    Suppose various observers are divided randomly into two groups, a large and a small. Not knowing into which group anyone has been sent, each can have strong grounds for believing in being in the large group, although recognizing that every observer in the other group has equally powerful reasons for thinking of this other group as the large one. Justified belief can therefore be observer-relative in a rather paradoxical way. Appreciating this allows one to reject an intriguing new objection (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Stavros Ioannidis (2013). Regulatory Evolution and Theoretical Arguments in Evolutionary Biology. Science and Education 22 (2):279-292.score: 140.0
    The cis-regulatory hypothesis is one of the most important claims of evolutionary developmental biology. In this paper I examine the theoretical argument for cis-regulatory evolution and its role within evolutionary theorizing. I show that, although the argument has some weaknesses, it acts as a useful example for the importance of current scientific debates for science education.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Eric Schliesser (2005). ON THE ORIGIN OF MODERN NATURALISM: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BERKELEY's RESPONSE TO A NEWTONIAN INDISPENSIBILITY ARGUMENT. Philosophica 76:45-66.score: 132.0
    I call attention to Berkeley’s treatment of a Newtonian indispensability argument against his own main position. I argue that the presence of this argument marks a significant moment in the history of philosophy and science: Newton’s achievements could serve as a separate and authoritative source of justification within philosophy. This marks the presence of a new kind of naturalism. A long the way, I argue against the claim tha t there is no explicit opposition or distinction between “philosophy” (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Dennis Nicholson, Solving the Mind-Body Problem - the Real Significance of the Knowledge Argument.score: 126.0
    The Knowledge Argument is misconstructed. Knowing that it is ‘just obvious’ that Mary will learn something new on leaving her black and white room, we nevertheless assume she can acquire a complete knowledge of the physical inside it – thereby predetermining the outcome of the thought experiment in favour of a refutation of physicalism. If we reformulate the argument to leave the question of what she can learn in the room open, it becomes clear, not only that physicalism (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Philip E. Devine (1975). The Religious Significance of the Ontological Argument. Religious Studies 11 (1):97 - 116.score: 126.0
    I discuss the religious implications of accepting the ontological argument as sound. in particular, i attempt to show in detail how the argument fails to validate religious belief.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Richard M. Gale (1989). Lewis' Indexical Argument for World-Relative Actuality. Dialogue 28 (02):289-.score: 120.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Toivo J. Holopainen (2011). Reading Anselm's Proslogion: The History of Anselm's Argument and its Significance Today. By Ian Logan. Heythrop Journal 52 (1):129-130.score: 120.0
  10. Charles Hartshorne (1944). The Formal Validity and Real Significance of the Ontological Argument. Philosophical Review 53 (3):225-245.score: 120.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Conal Condren (1977). Marsilius of Padua's Argument From Authority: A Survey of its Significance in the Defensor Pacis. Political Theory 5 (2):205-218.score: 120.0
  12. Thomas M. Robinson (1968). The Nature and Significance of the Argument for Immortality in the "Phaedrus". Apeiron 2 (2):12 - 18.score: 120.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. W. G. De Burgh (1926). The Significance of the Argument From Design. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 27:359 - 384.score: 120.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Lydia Schumacher (2010). Reading Anselm's “Proslogion”: The History of Anselm's Argument and Its Significance Today – By Ian Logan. Modern Theology 26 (3):471-473.score: 120.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Marian Kuna (2009). The Significance of Practice for Theory: A Reconstruction of Alasdair MacIntyre's Argument. Filozofia 64 (9):827-838.score: 120.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Harvey Siegel (2003). 43. The Incoherence Argument and the Notion of Relative Truth. In Steven Luper (ed.), Essential Knowledge: Readings in Epistemology. Longman. 446.score: 120.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Sandra L. Visser (2010). Ian Logan, Reading Anselm's “Proslogion”: The History of Anselm's Argument and Its Significance Today.(Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Religion, Theology and Biblical Studies.) Farnham, Eng., and Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2009. Pp. Ix, 220. $99.95. [REVIEW] Speculum 85 (3):705-706.score: 120.0
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. R. G. Scofield (2006). The Economic, Political, Strategic, and Rhetorical Uses of Simple Constructive Dilemma in Legal Argument. Argumentation 20 (1):1-14.score: 104.0
    The author argues that simple constructive dilemma is a valuable argument form for reasoning under relative conditions of uncertainty. When applied to legal argument this value of simple constructive dilemma is shown in its political, strategic, rhetorical, and especially economic, uses by lawyers and judges. After considering some examples of the use of the form by trial lawyers, the author gives examples of the more interesting use of the form by appellate courts. Research into the use of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. François Récanati (2007). Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism. Oxford University Press.score: 87.0
    Moderate relativism -- The framework -- The distribution of content -- Radical vs. moderate relativism -- Two levels of content -- Branch points for moderate relativism -- The debate over temporalism (1) : do we need temporal propositions? -- Modal vs. extensional treatments of tense -- What is at stake? -- Modal and temporal innocence -- Temporal operators and temporal propositions in an extensional framework -- The debate over temporalism (2) : can we believe temporal propositions? -- An epistemic (...) against temporalism -- Rebutting Richard's argument -- Relativistic disagreement -- Relativization and indexicality -- Index, context, and content -- The two-stage picture : Lewis vs. Kaplan and Stalnaker -- Rescuing the two-stage picture -- Content, character, and cognitive significance -- Experience and subjectivity -- Content and mode -- Duality and the fallacy of misplaced information -- The content of perceptual judgements -- Episodic memory -- Immunity to error through misidentification -- Implicit self-reference -- Weak and strong immunity -- Quasi-perception and quasi-memory -- Reflexive states -- Relativization and reflexivity -- The (alleged) reflexivity of de se thoughts -- Reflexivity : internal or external? -- What is wrong with reflexivism -- The first person point of view -- De se thoughts and subjectivity -- Memory and the imagination -- Imagination and the self-- Imagination, empathy, and the quasi-de se -- Egocentricity and beyond -- Unarticulated constituents in the lekton? -- The context-dependence of the lekton : how far can we go? -- Unarticulatedness and the 'concerning' relation -- Three (alleged) arguments for the externality principle -- Invariance -- Self-relative thoughts -- The problem of the essential indexical -- Perry against relativized propositions -- Context-relativity -- Implicit and explicit de se thoughts -- Shiftability -- The generalized reflexive constraint -- Parametric invariance and m-shiftability -- Free shiftability -- The anaphoric mode : a Bühlerian perspective. (shrink)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Plutynski Anya (2005). Parsimony and the Fisher–Wright Debate. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):697-713.score: 87.0
    In the past five years, there have been a series of papers in the journal Evolution debating the relative significance of two theories of evolution, a neo-Fisherian and a neo-Wrightian theory, where the neo-Fisherians make explicit appeal to parsimony. My aim in this paper is to determine how we can make sense of such an appeal. One interpretation of parsimony takes it that a theory that contains fewer entities or processes, (however we demarcate these) is more parsimonious. On (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Elliott Sober (1997). Two Outbreaks of Lawlessness in Recent Philosophy of Biology. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):467.score: 87.0
    John Beatty (1995) and Alexander Rosenberg (1994) have argued against the claim that there are laws in biology. Beatty's main reason is that evolution is a process full of contingency, but he also takes the existence of relative significance controversies in biology and the popularity of pluralistic approaches to a variety of evolutionary questions to be evidence for biology's lawlessness. Rosenberg's main argument appeals to the idea that biological properties supervene on large numbers of physical properties, but (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Christopher Peacocke (2008). Truly Understood. Oxford University Press.score: 81.0
    A theory of understanding -- Truth's role in understanding -- Critique of justificationist and evidential accounts -- Do pragmatist views avoid this critique? -- A realistic account -- How evidence and truth are related -- Three grades of involvement of truth in theories of understanding -- Anchoring -- Next steps -- Reference and reasons -- The main thesis and its location -- Exposition and four argument-types -- Significance and consequences of the main thesis -- The first person as (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. N. Scott Arnold (1983). Hume's Skepticism About Inductive Inference. Journal of the History of Philosophy 21 (1):31-56.score: 81.0
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Hume's Skepticism about Inductive Inference N. SCOTT ARNOLD IT HAS BEEN A COMMONPLACE among commentators on Hume's philosophy that he was a radical skeptic about inductive inference. In addition, he is alleged to have been the first philosopher to pose the so-called problem of induction. Until recently, however, Hume's argument in this connection has not been subject to very close scrutiny. As attention has become focused on (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. J. L. Gorman (1974). Objectivity and Truth in History. Inquiry 17 (1-4):373 – 397.score: 81.0
    Examples of historical writing are analysed in detail, and it is demonstrated that, with respect to the statements which appear in historical accounts, their truth and value-freedom are neither necessary nor sufficient for the relative acceptability of historical accounts. What is both necessary and sufficient is the acceptability of the selection of statements involved, and it is shown that history can be objective only if the acceptability of selection can be made on the basis of a rational criterion of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Barbara Abbott & Grover Hudson (1981). Making Sense. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (3):437-451.score: 81.0
    This would have been a better book if Sampson had argued his main point, the usefulness of the Simonian principle as an explanation of the evolution, structure, and acquisition of language, on its own merits, instead of making it subsidiary to his attack on ‘limited-minders’ (e.g., Noam Chomsky). The energy he has spent on the attack he might then have been willing and able to employ in developing his argument at reasonable length and detail. He might then have found (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Conal Condren (2002). Between Social Constraint and the Public Sphere: Methodological Problems in Reading Early-Modern Political Satire. Contemporary Political Theory 1 (1):79-101.score: 81.0
    The paper explores satire not as a literary genre but as an idiom of political and moral reflection discussing the extent to which contexts of relative constraint or freedom of expression are adequate for its understanding. The argument deals with the satire of Early-Modern England, especially that of the Restoration and early eighteenth century, as for most of this time political authority was purposely oppressive, the satire produced was highly significant, and it allegedly is part of the beginnings (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Jayanta Sen & Mihir Kumar Chakraborty (2008). Logic and Truth : Some Logics Without Theorems. Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (1):104-117.score: 81.0
    Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Tim Button (2013). The Limits of Realism. Oxford University Press.score: 75.0
    Tim Button explores the relationship between words and world; between semantics and scepticism. A certain kind of philosopher—the external realist—worries that appearances might be radically deceptive; we might all, for example, be brains in vats, stimulated by an infernal machine. But anyone who entertains the possibility of radical deception must also entertain a further worry: that all of our thoughts are totally contentless. That worry is just incoherent. We cannot, then, be external realists, who worry about the possibility of radical (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. P. Bartha (2007). Taking Stock of Infinite Value: Pascal's Wager and Relative Utilities. Synthese 154 (1):5 - 52.score: 66.0
    Among recent objections to Pascal’s Wager, two are especially compelling. The first is that decision theory, and specifically the requirement of maximizing expected utility, is incompatible with infinite utility values. The second is that even if infinite utility values are admitted, the argument of the Wager is invalid provided that we allow mixed strategies. Furthermore, Hájek (Philosophical Review 112, 2003) has shown that reformulations of Pascal’s Wager that address these criticisms inevitably lead to arguments that are philosophically unsatisfying and (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Jeff Speaks (2010). Epistemic Two-Dimensionalism and the Epistemic Argument. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):59 – 78.score: 66.0
    One of Kripke's fundamental objections to descriptivism was that the theory misclassifies certain _a posteriori_ propositions expressed by sentences involving names as _a priori_. Though nowadays very few philosophers would endorse a descriptivism of the sort that Kripke criticized, many find two-dimensional semantics attractive as a kind of successor theory. Because two-dimensionalism needn't be a form of descriptivism, it is not open to the epistemic argument as formulated by Kripke; but the most promising versions of two-dimensionalism are open to (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Isidora Stojanovic (2007). Talking About Taste: Disagreement, Implicit Arguments, and Relative Truth. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):691-706.score: 66.0
    In this paper, I take issue with an idea that has emerged from recent relativist proposals, and, in particular, from Lasersohn (Linguistics and Philosophy 28: 643–686, 2005), according to which the correct semantics for taste predicates must use contents that are functions of a judge parameter (in addition to a possible world parameter) rather than implicit arguments lexically associated with such predicates. I argue that the relativist account and the contextualist implicit argument-account are, from the viewpoint of semantics, not (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Max Seeger (2011). A Critique of the Incentives Argument for Inequalities. Kriterion 25 (1):40-52.score: 66.0
    According to the incentives argument, inequalities in material goods are justifiable if they are to the benefit of the worst off members of society. In this paper, I point out what is easily overlooked, namely that inequalities are justifiable only if they are to the overall benefit of the worst off, that is, in terms of both material and social goods. I then address the question how gains in material goods can be weighed against probable losses in social goods. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Alicia Finch (2013). On Behalf of the Consequence Argument: Time, Modality, and the Nature of Free Action. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):151-170.score: 66.0
    The consequence argument for the incompatibility of free action and determinism has long been under attack, but two important objections have only recently emerged: Warfield’s modal fallacy objection and Campbell’s no past objection. In this paper, I explain the significance of these objections and defend the consequence argument against them. First, I present a novel formulation of the argument that withstands their force. Next, I argue for the one controversial claim on which this formulation relies: the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387-418.score: 66.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran’s deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of syllogistic, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Nils Holtug (2011). Killing and the Time-Relative Interest Account. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):169-189.score: 66.0
    Jeff McMahan appeals to what he calls the “Time-relative Interest Account of the Wrongness of Killing” to explain the wrongness of killing individuals who are conscious but not autonomous. On this account, the wrongness of such killing depends on the victim’s interest in his or her future, and this interest, in turn, depends on two things: the goods that would have accrued to the victim in the future; and the strength of the prudential relations obtaining between the victim at (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Re'em Segev (forthcoming). Moral Rightness and the Significance of Law: Why, How and When Mistake of Law Matters. University of Toronto Law Journal, Forthcoming.score: 66.0
    The question of whether a mistake of law should negate or mitigate criminal liability is commonly considered to be pertinent to the culpability of the agent, often examined in light of the (epistemic) reasonableness of the mistake. I argue that this view disregards an important aspect of this question, namely whether a mistake of law affects the rightness of the action, particularly in light of the moral significance of the mistake. I argue that several plausible premises, regarding moral rightness (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Matthew J. Brown (2010). Genuine Problems and the Significance of Science. Contemporary Pragmatism 7 (2):131-153.score: 66.0
    This paper addresses the political constraints on science through a pragmatist critique of Philip Kitcher’s account of “well-ordered science.” A central part of Kitcher’s account is his analysis of the significance of items of scientific research: contextual and purpose-relative scientific significance replaces mere truth as the aim of inquiry. I raise problems for Kitcher’s account and argue for an alternative, drawing on Peirce’s and Dewey’s theories of problem-solving inquiry. I conclude by suggesting some consequences for understanding the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Kevin D. Ashley (2009). Teaching a Process Model of Legal Argument with Hypotheticals. Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (4):321-370.score: 66.0
    The research described here explores the idea of using Supreme Court oral arguments as pedagogical examples in first year classes to help students learn the role of hypothetical reasoning in law. The article presents examples of patterns of reasoning with hypotheticals in appellate legal argument and in the legal classroom and a process model of hypothetical reasoning that relates them to work in cognitive science and Artificial Intelligence. The process model describes the relationships between an advocate’s proposed test for (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Edgar Andrade-Lotero & Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2012). Validity, the Squeezing Argument and Alternative Semantic Systems: The Case of Aristotelian Syllogistic. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):387 - 418.score: 66.0
    We investigate the philosophical significance of the existence of different semantic systems with respect to which a given deductive system is sound and complete. Our case study will be Corcoran's deductive system D for Aristotelian syllogistic and some of the different semantic systems for syllogistic that have been proposed in the literature. We shall prove that they are not equivalent, in spite of D being sound and complete with respect to each of them. Beyond the specific case of syllogistic, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Andrea Cerroni (2000). Covariance/Invariance: A Cognitive Heuristic in Einstein's Relativity Theory Formation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 5 (2):209-224.score: 64.0
    Relativity Theory by Albert Einstein has been so far littleconsidered by cognitive scientists, notwithstanding its undisputedscientific and philosophical moment. Unfortunately, we don't have adiary or notebook as cognitively useful as Faraday's. But physicshistorians and philosophers have done a great job that is relevant bothfor the study of the scientist's reasoning and the philosophy ofscience. I will try here to highlight the fertility of a `triangulation'using cognitive psychology, history of science and philosophy of sciencein starting answering a clearly very complex question:why (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Andrea Rocci (2008). Modality and its Conversational Backgrounds in the Reconstruction of Argumentation. Argumentation 22 (2):165-189.score: 60.0
    The paper considers the role of modality in the rational reconstruction of standpoints and arguments. The paper examines in what conditions modal markers can act as argumentative indicators and what kind of cues they provide for the reconstruction of argument. The paper critically re-examines Toulmin’s hypothesis that the meaning of the modals can be analyzed in terms of a field-invariant argumentative force and field-dependent criteria in the light of the Theory of Relative Modality developed within linguistic semantics, showing (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Theo Van Willigenburg (2005). Reason and Love: A Non-Reductive Analysis of the Normativity of Agent-Relative Reasons. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):45-62.score: 58.0
    Why do agent-relative reasons have authority over us, reflective creatures? Reductive accounts base the normativity of agent-relative reasons on agent-neutral considerations like having parents caring especially for their own children serves best the interests of all children. Such accounts, however, beg the question about the source of normativity of agent-relative ways of reason-giving. In this paper, I argue for a non-reductive account of the reflective necessity of agent-relative concerns. Such an account will reveal an important structural (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Graciela Marta Chichi (2002). The Greek Roots of the Ad Hominem-Argument. Argumentation 16 (3):333-348.score: 56.0
    In this paper, I discuss the current thesis on the modern origin of the ad hominem-argument, by analysing the Aristotelian conception of it. In view of the recent accounts which consider it a relative argument, i.e., acceptable only by the particular respondent, I maintain that there are two Aristotelian versions of the ad hominem, that have identifiable characteristics, and both correspond to the standard variants distinguished in the contemporary treatments of the famous informal fallacy: the abusive and (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Philip E. Devine (1995). A Fallacious Argument Against Moral Absolutes. Argumentation 9 (4):611-616.score: 56.0
    The denial of moral absolutes rests, I think, on a seductive but fallacious argument, which I shall attempt both to expound and to refute here. Human beings are highly complex creatures living in a highly complex world. Every human being is different from every other, every interaction or relationship between or among human beings is unique. Hence also every occasion for moral choice is also unique, and all those action kinds - be theyadultery, murder, rape, theft, ortorture on which (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. M. C. Bradley (2001). The Fine-Tuning Argument. Religious Studies 37 (4):451-466.score: 54.0
    A frequent objection to the fine-tuning argument has been that although certain necessary conditions for life were admittedly exceedingly improbable, still, the many possible alternative sets of conditions were all equally improbable, so that no special significance is to be attached to the realization of the conditions of life. Some authors, however, have rejected this objection as fallacious. The object of this paper is to state the objection to the fine-tuning argument in a more telling form than (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Tim O'Keefe & Harald Thorsrud (2003). Aristotle's 'Cosmic Nose' Argument for the Uniqueness of the World. Apeiron 36 (4):311 - 326.score: 54.0
    David Furley's work on the cosmologies of classical antiquity is structured around what he calls "two pictures of the world." The first picture, defended by both Plato and Aristotle, portrays the universe, or all that there is (to pan), as identical with our particular ordered world-system. Thus, the adherents of this view claim that the universe is finite and unique. The second system, defended by Leucippus and Democritus, portrays an infinite universe within which our particular kosmos is only one of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Berit Brogaard (2008). The Trivial Argument for Epistemic Value Pluralism. Or How I Learned to Stop Caring About Truth. In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & D. Pritchard (eds.), Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    Relativism offers a nifty way of accommodating most of our intuitions about epistemic modals, predicates of personal taste, color expressions, future contingents, and conditionals. But in spite of its manifest merits relativism is squarely at odds with epistemic value monism: the view that truth is the highest epistemic goal. I will call the argument from relativism to epistemic value pluralism the trivial argument for epistemic value pluralism. After formulating the argument, I will look at three possible ways (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Nick Bostrom (2000). Observer-Relative Chances in Anthropic Reasoning? Erkenntnis 52 (1):93-108.score: 54.0
    John Leslie presents a thought experiment to show that chances are sometimes observer-relative in a paradoxical way. The pivotal assumption in his argument – a version of the weak anthropic principle – is the same as the one used to get the disturbing Doomsday argument off the ground. I show that Leslie's thought experiment trades on the sense/reference ambiguity and is fallacious. I then describe a related case where chances are observer-relative in an interesting way. But (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Anne Newstead (2006). Evans's Anti-Cartesian Argument: A Critical Evaluation. Ratio 19 (June):214-228.score: 54.0
    In chapter 7 of The Varieties of Reference, Gareth Evans claimed to have an argument that would present "an antidote" to the Cartesian conception of the self as a purely mental entity. On the basis of considerations drawn from philosophy of language and thought, Evans claimed to be able to show that bodily awareness is a form of self-awareness. The apparent basis for this claim is the datum that sometimes judgements about one’s position based on body sense are immune (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Joachim Horvath (2009). The Modal Argument for a Priori Justification. Ratio 22 (2):191-205.score: 54.0
    Kant famously argued that, from experience, we can only learn how something actually is, but not that it must be so. In this paper, I defend an improved version of Kant's argument for the existence of a priori knowledge, the Modal Argument , against recent objections by Casullo and Kitcher. For the sake of the argument, I concede Casullo's claim that we may know certain counterfactuals in an empirical way and thereby gain epistemic access to some nearby, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000