Search results for 'relevance conditionals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer & B. Mayerhofer (2011). Probabilistic Theories of Reasoning Need Pragmatics Too: Modulating Relevance in Uncertain Conditionals. Journal of Pragmatics 43:2034–2042.score: 192.0
    According to probabilistic theories of reasoning in psychology, people's degree of belief in an indicative conditional `if A, then B' is given by the conditional probability, P(B|A). The role of language pragmatics is relatively unexplored in the new probabilistic paradigm. We investigated how consequent relevance a ects participants' degrees of belief in conditionals about a randomly chosen card. The set of events referred to by the consequent was either a strict superset or a strict subset of the set of (...)
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  2. Wolfgang Spohn (2013). A Ranking‐Theoretic Approach to Conditionals. Cognitive Science 37 (6):1074-1106.score: 102.0
    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief, that is, ranking theory, and dismisses probability theory for that purpose, because probabilities cannot represent belief. Various expressive options are then explained in terms of ranking theory, with the intention to set out a general (...)
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  3. Gunnar Björnsson (2011). Towards a Radically Pragmatic Theory of If-Conditionals. In K. P. Turner (ed.), Making Semantics Pragmatic (CRiSPI, Vol. 24). Emerald.score: 96.0
    It is generally agreed that constructions of the form “if P, Q” are capable of conveying a number of different relations between antecedent and consequent, with pragmatics playing a central role in determining these relations. Controversy concerns what the conventional contribution of the if-clause is, how it constrains the pragmatic processes, and what those processes are. In this essay, I begin to argue that the conventional contribution of if-clauses to semantics is exhausted by the fact that these clauses introduce a (...)
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  4. Edwin D. Mares & André Fuhrmann (1995). A Relevant Theory of Conditionals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (6):645 - 665.score: 84.0
    In this paper we set out a semantics for relevant (counterfactual) conditionals. We combine the Routley-Meyer semantics for relevant logic with a semantics for conditionals based on selection functions. The resulting models characterize a family of conditional logics free from fallacies of relevance, in particular counternecessities and conditionals with necessary consequents receive a non-trivial treatment.
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  5. Massimiliano Vignolo (forthcoming). On the Truth-Conditional Relevance of Modes of Presentation. On the Truth-Conditional Relevance of Modes of Presentation 5 (35):57-66.score: 70.0
    Vignolo-Massimiliano_On-the-truth-conditional-relevance-of-modes-of-presentation2.
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  6. Anthony Dardis (1993). Sunburn: Independence Conditions on Causal Relevance. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):577-598.score: 68.0
    Causally committed properties are properties which require that their instances have a cause (or an effect) of a certain kind. Sunburn, for instance, must be caused by the sun. Causal relevance is a contingent dependency relation between properties of events. The connection between a causally committed property and the property to which it is committed is not contingent. Hence a pair consisting of a causally committed property and the property to which it is committed should not be in the (...)
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  7. Daniel Dohrn, DeRose on the Conditionals of Deliberation.score: 66.0
    I take issue with two claims of DeRose: Conditionals of deliberation must not depend on backtracking grounds. ‘Were’ed-up conditionals coincide with future-directed indicative conditionals; the only difference in their meaning is that they must not depend on backtracking grounds. I use Egan’s counterexamples to causal decision theory to contest the first and an example of backtracking reasoning by David Lewis to contest the second claim. I tentatively outline a rivaling account of ‘were’ed-up conditionals which combines features (...)
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  8. Niki Pfeifer (2012). Experiments on Aristotle's Thesis: Towards an Experimental Philosophy of Conditionals. The Monist 95 (2):223-240.score: 66.0
    Two experiments (N1 = 141, N2 = 40) investigate two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis for the first time. Aristotle’s Thesis is a negated conditional, which consists of one propositional variable with a negation either in the antecedent (version 1) or in the consequent (version 2). This task allows to infer if people interpret indicative conditionals as material conditionals or as conditional events. In the first experiment I investigate between-participants the two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis crossed with abstract versus (...)
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  9. Christian Ebert, Cornelia Ebert & Stefan Hinterwimmer (forthcoming). A Unified Analysis of Conditionals as Topics. Linguistics and Philosophy:1-56.score: 66.0
    We bring out syntactic and semantic similarities of two types of conditionals with fronted antecedents [normal indicative conditionals (NCs) and biscuit conditionals (BCs)] and two types of left dislocation constructions in German (German left dislocation and hanging topic left dislocation), which mark two types of topicality (aboutness topicality and relevance topicality). On the basis of these similarities we argue that (the antecedent if-clauses of) NCs and BCs are aboutness topics and relevance topics, respectively. Our analysis (...)
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  10. Edwin D. Mares (1994). Why We Need a Relevant Theory of Conditionals. Topoi 13 (1):31-36.score: 60.0
    This paper presents ConR (Conditional R), a logic of conditionals based on Anderson and Belnap''s system R. A Routley-Meyer-style semantics for ConR is given for the system (the completeness of ConR over this semantics is proved in E. Mares and A. Fuhrmann, A Relevant Theory of Conditionals (unpublished MS)). Moreover, it is argued that adopting a relevant theory of conditionals will improve certain theories that utilize conditionals, i.e. Lewis'' theory of causation, Lewis'' dyadic deontic logic, and (...)
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  11. Corinne Iten (2005). Linguistic Meaning, Truth Conditions and Relevance: The Case of Concessives. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 60.0
    Many linguists and philosophers of language explain linguistic meaning in terms of truth conditions. This book focuses on the meanings of expressions that escape such truth-conditional treatment, in particular the concessives: but , even if , and although . Corinne Iten proposes semantic analyses of these expressions based on the cognitive framework of relevance theory. A thoroughly cognitive approach to linguistic meaning is presented in which linguistic forms are seen as mapping onto mental entities, rather than individuals and properties (...)
     
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  12. Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen (2004). A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.score: 58.0
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  13. Jeff Pelletier, A Formal Analysis of Relevance.score: 54.0
    We investigate the notion of relevance as it pertains to ‘commonsense’, subjunctive conditionals. Relevance is taken here as a relation between a property (such as having a broken wing) and a conditional (such as birds typically fly). Specifically, we explore a notion of ‘causative’ relevance, distinct from ‘evidential’ relevance found, for example, in probabilistic approaches. A series of postulates characterising a minimal, parsimonious concept of relevance is developed. Along the way we argue that no (...)
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  14. Michael J. White (1986). The Fourth Account of Conditionals in Sextus Empiricus. History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (1):1-14.score: 54.0
    This paper develops an interpretation of the fourth account of conditionals in Sextus Empiricus's Outlines of Pyrrhonism that conceptually links it with contemporary ?relevance? interpretations of entailment. It is argued that the third account of conditionals, which analyzes the truth of a conditional in terms of the joint impossibility of antecedent and denial of consequent, should not be interpreted in terms of a relative incompatibility of antecedent and denial of consequent because of Stoic acceptance of the truth (...)
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  15. James P. Delgrande & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1998). A Formal Analysis of Relevance. Erkenntnis 49 (2):137-173.score: 54.0
    We investigate the notion of relevance as it pertains to ‘commonsense’, subjunctive conditionals. Relevance is taken here as a relation between a property (such as having a broken wing) and a conditional (such as birds typically fly). Specifically, we explore a notion of ‘causative’ relevance, distinct from ‘evidential’ relevance found, for example, in probabilistic approaches. A series of postulates characterising a minimal, parsimonious concept of relevance is developed. Along the way we argue that no (...)
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  16. William Kneale (1950). Natural Laws and Contrary-to-Fact Conditionals. Analysis 10 (6):121 - 125.score: 54.0
    The author criticizes pear's use of the notion of material implication in his explanation of contrary-To-Fact conditionals. The author attempts to show that universal material implications "have no relevance to contrary-To-Fact conditionals." (staff).
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  17. Sara Verbrugge, Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schaeken, Hans Smessaert & William Van Belle (2007). Pronounced Inferences: A Study on Inferential Conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (2):105 – 133.score: 54.0
    An experimental study is reported which investigates the differences in interpretation between content conditionals (of various pragmatic types) and inferential conditionals. In a content conditional, the antecedent represents a requirement for the consequent to become true. In an inferential conditional, the antecedent functions as a premise and the consequent as the inferred conclusion from that premise. The linguistic difference between content and inferential conditionals is often neglected in reasoning experiments. This turns out to be unjustified, since we (...)
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  18. E. A. Sidorenko (1983). The Strong Proof From Hypotheses and Conditionals: Some Theorems of Deduction for Relevant Systems. Studia Logica 42 (2-3):165 - 171.score: 52.0
    The aim of this paper is to present a modified version of the notion of strong proof from hypotheses (definition D2), and to give three deduction theorems for the relevant logicsR (theoremsT1, andT2) andE (theoremT3).
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  19. Cora Diamond (1959). Mr. Goodman on Relevant Conditions and the Counterfactual. Philosophical Studies 10 (3):42 - 45.score: 50.0
  20. Anne Bezuidenhout (1996). The Truth-Conditional Relevance of De Re Modes of Presentation: A Reply to Grimberg. Mind and Language 11 (4):427-432.score: 50.0
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  21. Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez (2014). Generalizing the Depth Relevance Condition: Deep Relevant Logics Not Included in R-Mingle. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (1):107-127.score: 50.0
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  22. E. A. Sidorenko (1986). Semantic Truth Conditionals and Relevant Calculi. Synthese 66 (1):55 - 62.score: 50.0
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  23. Carl G. Wagner (1991). Corroboration and Conditional Positive Relevance. Philosophical Studies 61 (3):295 - 300.score: 50.0
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  24. R. H. Vincent (1961). Goodman and Relevant Conditions. Philosophical Studies 12 (1-2):28 - 29.score: 50.0
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  25. D. J. Hockney & J. C. Wilson (1965). In Defense of a Relevance Condition'. Logique Et Analyse 8:211-220.score: 50.0
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  26. J./P. Thomas (1979). Homogeneity Conditions on the Statistical Relevance Model of Explanation. Philosophical Studies 36 (1):101 - 105.score: 50.0
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  27. James B. Freeman (1992). Relevance, Warrants, Backing, Inductive Support. Argumentation 6 (2):219-275.score: 44.0
    We perceive relevance by virtue of inference habits, which may be expressed as Pierce's leading principles or as Toulmin's warrants. Hence relevance in a descriptive sense is a ternary relation between two statements and a set of inference rules. For a normative sense, the warrants must be properly backed. Different types of warrant to empirical generalizations, we introduce L.J. Cohen's notion of inductive support. A to empirical generalizations, we introduce L.J. Cohen's notion of inductive support. A generalization H (...)
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  28. William B. Starr (2014). What 'If'? Philosophers' Imprint 14 (10).score: 42.0
    No existing conditional semantics captures the dual role of 'if' in embedded interrogatives — 'X wonders if p' — and conditionals. This paper presses the importance and extent of this challenge, linking it to cross-linguistic patterns and other phenomena involving conditionals. Among these other phenomena are conditionals with multiple 'if'-clauses in the antecedent — 'if p and if q, then r' — and relevance conditionals — 'if you are hungry, there is food in the cupboard'. (...)
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  29. K. I. Manktelow & N. Fairley (2000). Superordinate Principles in Reasoning with Causal and Deontic Conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):41 – 65.score: 42.0
    We propose that the pragmatic factors that mediate everyday deduction, such as alternative and disabling conditions (e.g. Cummins et al., 1991) and additional requirements (Byrne, 1989) exert their effects on specific inferences because of their perceived relevance to more general principles, which we term SuperPs. Support for this proposal was found first in two causal inference experiments, in which it was shown that specific inferences were mediated by factors that are relevant to a more general principle, while the same (...)
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  30. John Bacon (1971). The Subjunctive Conditional as Relevant Implication. Philosophia 1 (1-2):61-80.score: 40.0
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  31. Silke Bauer, Phillip Gienapp & Jesper Madsen (2008). The Relevance of Environmental Conditions for Departure Decision Changes En Route in Migrating Geese. In Carolyn Merchant (ed.), Ecology. Humanity Books. 89--7.score: 40.0
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  32. Ian Hinckfuss (1990). Relevant Facts and Suppositions: A New Analysis of Conditionals. Logique Et Analyse 33:215-241.score: 40.0
     
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  33. Edwin Mares (2006). Relevant Logic, Probabilistic Information, and Conditionals. Logique Et Analyse 49:399-411.score: 40.0
     
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  34. Anne M. Schell & Michael E. Dawson (1995). Responses Conditioned to Fear-Relevant Stimuli Survive Extinction of the Expectancy of the UCS. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):312.score: 40.0
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  35. Rani Lill Anjum, Paul Grice on Indicative Conditionals.score: 38.0
    Grice argues that indicative conditionals ‘if p then q’ have conventional, truth conditional meaning according to the material conditional ‘p  q’. In order to explain away the known paradoxes with this interpretation, he distinguishes between truth conditions and assertion conditions, attempting to demonstrate that the assumed connection between ‘p’ and ‘q’ (the Indirectness Condition) is a conversational implicature; hence a matter only relevant for the assertion conditions of a conditional. This paper argues that Grice fails to demonstrate i) (...)
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  36. D. Manley & R. Wasserman (2012). Dispositions, Conditionals, and Counterexamples. Mind 120 (480):1191-1227.score: 38.0
    In an earlier paper in these pages (2008), we explored the puzzling link between dispositions and conditionals. First, we rehearsed the standard counterexamples to the simple conditional analysis and the refined conditional analysis defended by David Lewis. Second, we attacked a tempting response to these counterexamples: what we called the ‘getting specific strategy’. Third, we presented a series of structural considerations that pose problems for many attempts to understand the link between dispositions and conditionals. Finally, we developed our (...)
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  37. Eric Swanson (2013). Subjunctive Biscuit and Stand-Off Conditionals. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):637-648.score: 38.0
    Conventional wisdom has it that many intriguing features of indicative conditionals aren’t shared by subjunctive conditionals. Subjunctive morphology is common in discussions of wishes and wants, however, and conditionals are commonly used in such discussions as well. As a result such discussions are a good place to look for subjunctive conditionals that exhibit features usually associated with indicatives alone. Here I offer subjunctive versions of J. L. Austin’s ‘biscuit’ conditionals—e.g., “There are biscuits on the sideboard (...)
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  38. Nate Charlow (2013). Conditional Preferences and Practical Conditionals. Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (6):463-511.score: 38.0
    I argue that taking the Practical Conditionals Thesis (PCT) seriously demands a new understanding of the semantics of such conditionals. Practical Conditionals Thesis: A practical conditional [if A][ought(B)] expresses B’s conditional preferability given A Paul Weirich has argued that the conditional utility of a state of affairs B on A is to be identified as the degree to which it is desired under indicative supposition that A. Similarly, exploiting the PCT, I will argue that the proper analysis (...)
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  39. John Woods (1992). Apocalyptic Relevance. Argumentation 6 (2):189-202.score: 38.0
    In their book, Relevance, Sperber and Wilson make an important contribution towards constructing a credible theory of this unforthcoming notion. All is not clear sailing, however. If it is accepted as a condition on the adequacy of any account of relevance that it not be derivable either that nothing is relevant to anything or that everything is relevant to everything, it can be shown that Sperber and Wilson come close to violating the condition.
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  40. William Rehg (2009). Cogency in Motion: Critical Contextualism and Relevance. [REVIEW] Argumentation 23 (1):39-59.score: 38.0
    If arguments are to generate public knowledge, as in the sciences, then they must travel, finding acceptance across a range of local contexts. But not all good arguments travel, whereas some bad arguments do. Under what conditions may we regard the capacity of an argument to travel as a sign of its cogency or public merits? This question is especially interesting for a contextualist approach that wants to remain critically robust: if standards of cogency are bound to local contexts of (...)
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  41. J. Anthony Blair (1992). Premissary Relevance. Argumentation 6 (2):203-217.score: 38.0
    Premissary relevance is a property of arguments understood as speech act complexes. It is explicable in terms of the idea of a premise's lending support to a conclusion. Premissary relevance is a function of premises belonging to a set which authoritatively warrants an inference to a conclusion. An authoritative inference warrant will have associated with it a conditional proposition which is true— that is to say, which can be justified. The study of the Aristotelian doctrine of topoi or (...)
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  42. Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad, All Men Are Animals: Hypothetical, Categorical, or Material?score: 36.0
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements like ‘All men are animals’ as universally quantified material conditionals ‘For all x, if x is F, then x is G’ suggests that the logical structure of law statements is conditional rather than categorical. Disregarding the problem that the universally quantified material conditional is trivially true whenever there are no xs that are F, there are some reasons to be sceptical of Frege’s equivalence between categorical and conditional expressions. -/- Now many philosophers (...)
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  43. Justin C. Fisher (2013). Dispositions, Conditionals and Auspicious Circumstances. Philosophical Studies 164 (2):443-464.score: 36.0
    A number of authors have suggested that a conditional analysis of dispositions must take roughly the following form: Thing X is disposed to produce response R to stimulus S just in case, if X were exposed to S and surrounding circumstances were auspicious, then X would produce R. The great challenge is cashing out the relevant notion of ‘auspicious circumstances’. I give a general argument which entails that all existing conditional analyses fail, and that there is no satisfactory way to (...)
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  44. Tudor Baetu (2012). Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.score: 36.0
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular biology, a (...)
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  45. Géry D'Ydewalle, Walter Schaeken, Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schroyens & Aline Sevenants (2008). Truth Table Tasks: The Relevance of Irrelevant. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):409-433.score: 36.0
    Two types of truth table tasks are used investigating mental representations of conditionals: a possibilities-based and a truth-based one. In possibilities tasks, participants indicate whether a situation is possible or impossible according to the conditional rule. In truth tasks participants evaluate whether a situation makes the rule true or false, or is irrelevant with respect to the truth of the rule. Comparing the two-option version of the possibilities task with the truth task in Experiment 1, the possibilities task yields (...)
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  46. Aline Sevenants, Walter Schroyens, Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schaeken & G. (2008). Truth Table Tasks: The Relevance of Irrelevant. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):409-433.score: 36.0
    Two types of truth table tasks are used investigating mental representations of conditionals: a possibilities-based and a truth-based one. In possibilities tasks, participants indicate whether a situation is possible or impossible according to the conditional rule. In truth tasks participants evaluate whether a situation makes the rule true or false, or is irrelevant with respect to the truth of the rule. Comparing the two-option version of the possibilities task with the truth task in Experiment 1, the possibilities task yields (...)
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  47. Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1998). Matching Bias in Conditional Reasoning: Do We Understand It After 25 Years? Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):45 – 110.score: 34.0
    The phenomenon known as matching bias consists of a tendency to see cases as relevant in logical reasoning tasks when the lexical content of a case matches that of a propositional rule, normally a conditional, which applies to that case. Matching is demonstrated by use of the negations paradigm that is by using conditionals in which the presence and absence of negative components is systematically varied. The phenomenon was first published in 1972 and the present paper reviews the history (...)
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  48. Jean-François Bonnefon & Guy Politzer (2011). Pragmatics, Mental Models and One Paradox of the Material Conditional. Mind and Language 26 (2):141-155.score: 34.0
    Most instantiations of the inference ‘y; so if x, y’ seem intuitively odd, a phenomenon known as one of the paradoxes of the material conditional. A common explanation of the oddity, endorsed by Mental Model theory, is based on the intuition that the conclusion of the inference throws away semantic information. We build on this explanation to identify two joint conditions under which the inference becomes acceptable: (a) the truth of x has bearings on the relevance of asserting y; (...)
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  49. Edwin David Mares (2004). Relevant Logic: A Philosophical Interpretation. Cambridge Univeristy Press.score: 34.0
    This book introduces the reader to relevant logic and provides it with a philosophical interpretation. The defining feature of relevant logic is that it forces the premises of an argument to be really used ('relevant') in deriving its conclusion. The logic is placed in the context of possible world semantics and situation semantics, which are then applied to provide an understanding of the various logical particles (especially implication and negation) and natural language conditionals. The book ends by examining various (...)
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  50. Horacio Arló Costa & Rohit Parikh (2005). Conditional Probability and Defeasible Inference. Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (1):97 - 119.score: 34.0
    We offer a probabilistic model of rational consequence relations (Lehmann and Magidor, 1990) by appealing to the extension of the classical Ramsey-Adams test proposed by Vann McGee in (McGee, 1994). Previous and influential models of nonmonotonic consequence relations have been produced in terms of the dynamics of expectations (Gärdenfors and Makinson, 1994; Gärdenfors, 1993).'Expectation' is a term of art in these models, which should not be confused with the notion of expected utility. The expectations of an agent are some form (...)
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