Search results for 'resolute reading' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Genia Schönbaumsfeld (2010). A “Resolute” Later Wittgenstein? Metaphilosophy 41 (5):649-668.score: 54.0
    Abstract: “Resolute readings” initially started life as a radical new approach to Wittgenstein's early philosophy, but are now starting to take root as a way of interpreting the later writings as well—a trend exemplified by Stephen Mulhall's Wittgenstein's Private Language (2007) as well as by Phil Hutchinson's “What's the Point of Elucidation?” (2007) and Rom Harré's “Grammatical Therapy and the Third Wittgenstein” (2008). The present article shows that there are neither good philosophical nor compelling exegetical grounds for accepting a (...)
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  2. John Koethe (2003). On the 'Resolute' Reading of the Tractatus. Philosophical Investigations 26 (3):187–204.score: 48.0
    It is customary to divide Wittgenstein’s work into two broad phases, the first culminating in the Tractatus, and the second comprising the writings that began upon his return to philosophy in 1929 and culminating in the Investigations. It is also commonly assumed that the Tractatus propounds various doctrines concerning language and representation, doctrines which are repudiated in the later work, and often criticized explicitly. One problem with this view of the Trac- tatus is Wittgenstein’s claim in 6.54 that its propositions (...)
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  3. Steen Brock (2011). A Resolute Reading of Cassirer's Anthropology. Synthese 179 (1):93 - 113.score: 46.0
    In the paper I try, resolutely, to associate the open ended encyclopedic character of Cassirer's philosophy with the core part of this philosophy concerning symbolic formation. In this way I try to supplement and strengthen the anthropology that Cassirer formulated in AN ESSAY ON MAN. Finally I discuss the historical character and value of this anthropology.
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  4. Ian Proops (2001). The New Wittgenstein: A Critique. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):375–404.score: 45.0
    An essay challenging Cora Diamond's influential approach to reading Wittgenstein's Tractatus. According to Diamond, the Tractatus contains no substantive philosophical theses, but is purely an exercise in the debunking of nonsense. I argue that a convincing case for this claim has not yet been made--either by Diamond herself, or by the numerous defenders of this so-called "resolute" reading. Having critically examined the arguments that have been offered in favor of the resolute reading, I go on (...)
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  5. Tomas Dosek (2013). " Anything That Can Be Reached with a Ladder Does Not Interest Me." The Analysis and Criticism of the Resolute Reading of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Organon F 20 (2):222-250.score: 45.0
     
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  6. Meredith Williams (2004). Nonsense and Cosmic Exile: The Austere Reading of the Tractatus. In Max Kölbel & Bernhard Weiss (eds.), Wittgenstein's Lasting Significance. Routledge.score: 39.0
     
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  7. Anton Alterman (2001). The New Wittgenstein (Review). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 39 (3):456-457.score: 33.0
    The essays in the book have two main emphases. Regarding the late Wittgenstein, they focus on the idea that skepticism about rule-following is undermined, indeed incoherent, in virtue of Wittgenstein's emphasis on context of utterance and "forms of life" (roughly the "community" view of his later work). In the early Wittgenstein they take a "resolute" position on nonsense, saying that he did not believe there was some ineffable or informative nonsense, but only pure and utter nonsense, including everything in (...)
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  8. James Conant (1989). Must We Show What We Cannot Mean? In R. Fleming & M. Payne (eds.), The Senses of Stanley Cavell. Bucknell. 242--83.score: 30.0
  9. Peter M. Sullivan (2002). On Trying to Be Resolute: A Response to Kremer on the Tractatus. European Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):43–78.score: 24.0
    A way of reading the Tractatus has been proposed which, according to its advocates, is importantly novel and essentially distinct from anything to be found in the work of such previously influential students of the book as Anscombe, Stenius, Hacker or Pears. The point of difference is differently described, but the currently most used description seems to be Goldfarb’s term ‘resolution’ – hence one speaks of ‘the (or a) resolute reading’. I’ll shortly ask what resolution is. (...)
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  10. Kevin Cahill (2004). Ethics and the Tractatus: A Resolute Failure. Philosophy 79 (1):33-55.score: 24.0
    The paper assumes for its starting point the basic correctness of the so-called “resolutereading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus, a reading first developed by Cora Diamond and James Conant. The main part of the paper concerns the consequences this interpretation will have for our understanding of Wittgenstein's well-known remark in a letter to a prospective publisher that the point or aim of his book was an ethical one. I first give a sketch of what, given the committments of (...)
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  11. Alessandra Zarcone, Sebastian Padó & Alessandro Lenci (2014). Logical Metonymy Resolution in a Words‐as‐Cues Framework: Evidence From Self‐Paced Reading and Probe Recognition. Cognitive Science 38 (3).score: 24.0
    Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book → begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present (...)
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  12. Phil Hutchinson & Rupert Read (2006). An Elucidatory Interpretation of Wittgenstein's Tractatus: A Critique of Daniel D. Hutto's and Marie McGinn's Reading of Tractatus 6.54. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 14 (1):1 – 29.score: 23.0
    Much has been written on the relative merits of different readings of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. The recent renewal of the debate has almost exclusively been concerned with variants of the ineffabilist (metaphysical) reading of TL-P - notable such readings have been advanced by Elizabeth Anscombe, P. M. S. Hacker and H. O. Mounce - and the recently advanced variants of therapeutic (resolute) readings - notable advocates of which are James Conant, Cora Diamond, Juliet Floyd and Michael Kremer. During (...)
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  13. David Roochnik (2010). Ronna Burger's Talmudic Reading of the Nicomachean Ethics. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (1):61-79.score: 21.0
    Ronna Burger’s Aristotle’s Dialogue with Socrates argues that the Nicomachean Ethics is a unified whole. Her reading runs against the tide of most contemporary scholarship. In particular, Book X.7–8, Aristotle’s valorization and near apotheosis of the “contemplative life,” has been taken to be a Platonic intrusion in a work otherwise characterized by a resolute “anthropocentrism,” as Nussbaum puts it. To account for such an apparent fracture commentators have attributed both chronological development and later editorship to the corpus. Burger, (...)
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  14. James Conant & Cora Diamond (2004). On Reading the Tractatus Resolutely: Reply to Meredith Williams and Peter Sullivan. In Max Kölbel & Bernhard Weiss (eds.), Wittgenstein's lasting significance. Routledge.score: 19.0
    Wittgenstein gives voice to an aspiration that is central to his later philosophy, well before he becomes later Wittgenstein, when he writes in §4.112 of the Tractatus that philosophy is not a matter of putting forward a doctrine or a theory, but consists rather in the practice of an activity – an activity he goes on to characterize as one of elucidation or clarification – an activity which he says does not result in philosophische Sätze, in propositions of philosophy, but (...)
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  15. Moritz Baumstark (2010). Hume's Reading of the Classics at Ninewells, 1749–51. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 8 (1):63-77.score: 18.0
    This article provides a re-evaluation of David Hume's intensive reading of the classics at an important moment of his literary and intellectual career. It sets out to reconstruct the extent and depth of this reading as well as the uses – scholarly, philosophical and polemical – to which Hume put the information he had gathered in the course of it. The article contends that Hume read the classics against the grain to collect data on a wide range of (...)
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  16. Frederic Gilbert, Lawrence Burns & Timothy Krahn (2011). The Inheritance, Power and Predicaments of the “Brain-Reading” Metaphor. Medicine Studies 2 (4):229-244.score: 18.0
    Purpose With the increasing sophistication of neuroimaging technologies in medicine, new language is being sought to make sense of the findings. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the brain-reading metaphor used to convey current medical or neurobiological findings imports unintended significations that do not necessarily reflect the genuine findings made by physicians and neuroscientists. Methods First, the paper surveys the ambiguities of the readability metaphor, drawing from the history of science and medicine, paying special attention to (...)
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  17. Erik D. Reichle, Keith Rayner & Alexander Pollatsek (2003). The E-Z Reader Model of Eye-Movement Control in Reading: Comparisons to Other Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):445-476.score: 18.0
    The E-Z Reader model (Reichle et al. 1998; 1999) provides a theoretical framework for understanding how word identification, visual processing, attention, and oculomotor control jointly determine when and where the eyes move during reading. In this article, we first review what is known about eye movements during reading. Then we provide an updated version of the model (E-Z Reader 7) and describe how it accounts for basic findings about eye movement control in reading. We then review several (...)
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  18. Janet I. Vousden, Michelle R. Ellefson, Jonathan Solity & Nick Chater (2011). Simplifying Reading: Applying the Simplicity Principle to Reading. Cognitive Science 35 (1):34-78.score: 18.0
    Debates concerning the types of representations that aid reading acquisition have often been influenced by the relationship between measures of early phonological awareness (the ability to process speech sounds) and later reading ability. Here, a complementary approach is explored, analyzing how the functional utility of different representational units, such as whole words, bodies (letters representing the vowel and final consonants of a syllable), and graphemes (letters representing a phoneme) may change as the number of words that can be (...)
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  19. Joanne Arciuli & Ian C. Simpson (2012). Statistical Learning Is Related to Reading Ability in Children and Adults. Cognitive Science 36 (2):286-304.score: 18.0
    There is little empirical evidence showing a direct link between a capacity for statistical learning (SL) and proficiency with natural language. Moreover, discussion of the role of SL in language acquisition has seldom focused on literacy development. Our study addressed these issues by investigating the relationship between SL and reading ability in typically developing children and healthy adults. We tested SL using visually presented stimuli within a triplet learning paradigm and examined reading ability by administering the Wide Range (...)
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  20. Yanping Liu, Erik D. Reichle & Ding‐Guo Gao (2013). Using Reinforcement Learning to Examine Dynamic Attention Allocation During Reading. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1507-1540.score: 18.0
    A fundamental question in reading research concerns whether attention is allocated strictly serially, supporting lexical processing of one word at a time, or in parallel, supporting concurrent lexical processing of two or more words (Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). The origins of this debate are reviewed. We then report three simulations to address this question using artificial reading agents (Liu & Reichle, 2010; Reichle & Laurent, 2006) that learn to dynamically allocate attention to 1–4 words to “read” (...)
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  21. Conrad Perry, Johannes C. Ziegler & Marco Zorzi (2013). A Computational and Empirical Investigation of Graphemes in Reading. Cognitive Science 37 (5):800-828.score: 18.0
    It is often assumed that graphemes are a crucial level of orthographic representation above letters. Current connectionist models of reading, however, do not address how the mapping from letters to graphemes is learned. One major challenge for computational modeling is therefore developing a model that learns this mapping and can assign the graphemes to linguistically meaningful categories such as the onset, vowel, and coda of a syllable. Here, we present a model that learns to do this in English for (...)
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  22. Trish L. Varao Sousa, Jonathan S. A. Carriere & Dan Smilek (2013). The Way We Encounter Reading Material Influences How Frequently We Mind Wander. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: 1) reading a passage aloud, 2) listening to a passage being read to them, and 3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated (...)
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  23. Philip S. Gerrans (2013). Imitation, Mind Reading, and Social Learning. Biological Theory 8 (1):20-27.score: 18.0
    Imitation has been understood in different ways: as a cognitive adaptation subtended by genetically specified cognitive mechanisms; as an aspect of domain general human cognition. The second option has been advanced by Cecilia Heyes who treats imitation as an instance of associative learning. Her argument is part of a deflationary treatment of the “mirror neuron” phenomenon. I agree with Heyes about mirror neurons but argue that Kim Sterelny has provided the tools to provide a better account of the nature and (...)
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  24. Mattias Nilsson & Joakim Nivre (2013). Proportional Hazards Modeling of Saccadic Response Times During Reading. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):541-563.score: 18.0
    In this article we use proportional hazards models to examine how low-level processes affect the probability of making a saccade over time, through the period of fixation, during reading. We apply the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate how launch distance (relative to word beginning), fixation location (relative to word center), and word frequency affect the hazard of a saccadic response. This model requires that covariates have a constant impact on the hazard over time, the assumption of proportional hazards. (...)
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  25. Maria Luisa Lorusso Alessio Toraldo (2012). Syllables Per Second Versus Seconds Per Syllable When Measuring Reading Speed. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Syllables per second versus seconds per syllable when measuring reading speed.
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  26. Ulrike Altmann, Isabel C. Bohrn, Oliver Lubrich, Winfried Menninghaus & Arthur M. Jacobs (2012). The Power of Emotional Valence—From Cognitive to Affective Processes in Reading. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking (...)
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  27. Sara C. Sereno Christopher J. Hand, Patrick J. O'Donnell (2012). Word-Initial Letters Influence Fixation Durations During Fluent Reading. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively). Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability). (...)
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  28. Maria De Luca, Maria Pontillo, Silvia Primativo, Donatella Spinelli & Pierluigi Zoccolotti (2013). The Eye-Voice Lead During Oral Reading in Developmental Dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    In reading aloud, the eye typically leads over voice position. In the present study, eye movements and voice utterances were simultaneously recorded and tracked during the reading of a meaningful text to evaluate the eye-voice lead in 16 dyslexic and 16 same-age control readers. Dyslexic children were slower than control peers in reading texts. Their slowness was characterized by a great number of silent pauses and sounding-out behaviours and a small lengthening of word articulation times. Regarding eye (...)
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  29. V. N. Durand, I. M. Loe, J. D. Yeatman & H. M. Feldman (2012). Effects of Early Language, Speech, and Cognition on Later Reading: A Mediation Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 4:586-586.score: 18.0
    This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N=241) in relation to single word reading (decoding), comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9 to 11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with (...)
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  30. Rosa Angela Fabio, Ilaria Castelli, Antonella Marchetti & Alessandro Antonietti (2013). Training Communication Abilities in Rett Syndrome Through Reading and Writing. Frontiers in Psychology 4:911.score: 18.0
    The goal of this clinical case study is to investigate the possibility of training communication abilities in people with Rett syndrome (RS). Usually, girls with RS never exceed the sensorimotor stage of development, but the inter-individual variability typical of RS may lead us to doubt the irrevocability of that developmental limit, especially for those girls who are engaged in cognitive rehabilitation. The case study reported here concerns a 21 year old girl with RS who was engaged in cognitive rehabilitation training (...)
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  31. Layla Gould, Jacqueline Cummine & Ron Borowsky (2012). The Cognitive Chronometric Architecture of Reading Aloud: Semantic and Lexical Effects on Naming Onset and Duration. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method. The pattern of additive and overadditive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10HAL), Semantic Neighbourhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST x WF and the INST x SND (...)
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  32. Ying Guo, Carol M. Connor, Virginia Tompkins & Frederick J. Morrison (2011). Classroom Quality and Student Engagement: Contributions to Third-Grade Reading Skills. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    This study, using NICHD-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of global classroom quality and students’ 3rd grade behavioral engagement on students’ 3rd grade reading achievement (n = 1364) and also examined the extent to which students’ 3rd grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between global classroom quality and children’s’ reading skills. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results revealed that controlling for family sociodemographic risk and students’ 1st grade reading achievement, global classroom (...)
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  33. M. Lallier, S. Donnadieu & S. Valdois (2012). Investigating the Role of Visual and Auditory Search in Reading and Developmental Dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:597-597.score: 18.0
    It has been suggested that auditory and visual sequential processing deficits contribute to phonological disorders in developmental dyslexia. As an alternative explanation to a phonological deficit as the proximal cause for reading disorders, the visual attention span hypothesis (VA Span) suggests that difficulties in processing visual elements simultaneously lead to dyslexia, regardless of the presence of a phonological disorder. In this study, we assessed whether deficits in processing simultaneously displayed visual or auditory elements is linked to dyslexia associated with (...)
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  34. Ron Borowsky Layla Gould, Jacqueline Cummine (2012). The Cognitive Chronometric Architecture of Reading Aloud: Semantic and Lexical Effects on Naming Onset and Duration. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    We examined onset reaction time (RT) in a word naming task using an additive factors method. The pattern of additive and overadditive joint effects on RT among Instructions (INST: name all, name words), Word Frequency (WF: log10HAL), Semantic Neighbourhood Density (SND: Inverse Ncount), and Word Type (WT: regular, exception) supported a cognitive chronometric architecture consisting of at least two cascaded stages of processing, with the orthographic lexical system as the locus of the INST x WF and the INST x SND (...)
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  35. Julia Mossbridge, Marcia Grabowecky, Ken A. Paller & Satoru Suzuki (2013). Neural Activity Tied to Reading Predicts Individual Differences in Extended-Text Comprehension. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference (...)
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  36. Toshiki Murase (forthcoming). Japanese Mothers' Utterances About Agents and Actions During Joint Picture-Book Reading. Frontiers in Psychology.score: 18.0
    This study investigated maternal utterances during joint picture-book reading from the perspective of scaffolding. Unlike previous studies focusing on labeling, this study examined the utterances made about agents and actions while participants viewed pictures of scenes. Our first goal was to investigate whether mothers increased the frequency with which they requested information about agents and actions in their discrete utterances. The second goal was to investigate maternal responses to children’s utterances about agents and actions, focusing especially on whether mothers (...)
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  37. Marion Oberhuber, ‘Ōiwi Parker Jones, Thomas M. H. Hope, Susan Prejawa, Mohamed L. Seghier, David W. Green & Cathy J. Price (2013). Functionally Distinct Contributions of the Anterior and Posterior Putamen During Sublexical and Lexical Reading. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Previous studies have investigated orthographic-to-phonological mapping during reading by comparing brain activation for (1) reading words to object naming, or (2) reading pseudowords (e.g. “phume”) to words (e.g. “plume”). Here we combined both approaches to provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms. In fMRI data from 25 healthy adult readers, we first identified activation that was greater for reading words and pseudowords relative to picture and color naming. The most significant effect was observed in the (...)
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  38. William W. Graves Olga Boukrina (2013). Neural Networks Underlying Contributions From Semantics in Reading Aloud. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Reading is an essential part of modern society, yet much is still unknown about the physiological underpinnings of its information processing components. Two influential cognitive models of reading, the connectionist and dual-route cascaded models, offer very different accounts, yet evidence for one or the other remains equivocal. These models differ in several ways, including the role of semantics (word meaning) in mapping spelling to sound. We used a new effective connectivity algorithm, IMaGES, to provide a network-level perspective on (...)
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  39. Malika Auvray Ophelia Deroy (2012). Reading the World Through the Skin and Ears: A New Perspective on Sensory Substitution. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Sensory substitution devices aim at replacing or assisting one or several functions of a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. Despite the numerous studies and research programs devoted to their development and integration, sensory substitution devices have failed to live up to their goal of allowing one to ‘see with the skin’ (White et al., 1970) or to “see with the brain” (Bach-y-Rita et al., 2003). These somewhat peremptory claims, as well as the research conducted so far, (...)
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  40. Stefan Heim Rebekka Hillen, Thomas Günther, Claudia Kohlen, Cornelia Eckers, Muna van Ermingen-Marbach, Katharina Sass, Wolfgang Scharke, Josefine Vollmar, Ralph Radach (2013). Identifying Brain Systems for Gaze Orienting During Reading: fMRI Investigation of the Landolt Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    The Landolt reading paradigm was created in order to dissociate effects of eye movements and attention from lexical, syntactic, and sub-lexical processing. While previous eye-tracking and behavioural findings support the usefulness of the paradigm, it remains to be shown that the paradigm actually relies on the brain networks for occulomotor control and attention, but not on systems for lexical/syntactic/orthographic processing. Here, 20 healthy volunteers underwent fMRI scanning while reading sentences (with syntax) or unconnected lists of written stimuli (no (...)
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  41. R. Rezaie, P. G. Simos, J. M. Fletcher, J. Juranek, P. T. Cirino, Z. Li, A. D. Passaro & A. C. Papanicolaou (2010). The Timing and Strength of Regional Brain Activation Associated with Word Recognition in Children with Reading Difficulties. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:45-45.score: 18.0
    The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD) and typical readers (N=40, NI). Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal (...)
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  42. Fabio Richlan (2012). Developmental Dyslexia: Dysfunction of a Left Hemisphere Reading Network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.
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  43. Beth Rogowsky, Pericles Papamichalis, Laura Villa, Sabine Heim & Paula Tallal (2013). Neuroplasticity-Based Cognitive and Linguistic Skills Training Improves Reading and Writing Skills in College Students. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language) who demonstrated poor writing skills participated in the training group. (...)
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  44. Gerd Schulte-Körne Sandra Hasko, Katarina Groth, Jennifer Bruder, Jürgen Bartling (2013). The Time Course of Reading Processes in Children with and Without Dyslexia: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    The main diagnostic criterion for developmental dyslexia (DD) in transparent orthographies is a remarkable reading speed deficit, which is often accompanied by spelling difficulties. These deficits have been traced back to both deficits in orthographic and phonological processing. For a better understanding of the reading speed deficit in DD it is necessary to clarify which processing steps are degraded in children with DD during reading. In order to address this question the present study used EEG to investigate (...)
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  45. Marine Vernet, Qing Yang & Zoi Kapoula (2011). Guiding Binocular Saccades During Reading: A TMS Study of the PPC. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 18.0
    Reading is an activity based on complex sequences of binocular saccades and fixations. During saccades, the eyes do not move together perfectly: saccades could end with a misalignment, compromising fused vision. During fixations, small disconjugate drift can partly reduce this misalignment. We hypothesized that maintaining eye alignment during reading involves active monitoring from posterior parietal cortex (PPC); this goes against traditional views considering only downstream binocular control. Nine young adults read a text; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied (...)
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  46. Trichur Raman Vidyasagar (2013). Reading Into Neuronal Oscillations in the Visual System: Implications for Developmental Dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:811.score: 18.0
    While phonological impairments are common in developmental dyslexia, there has recently been much debate as to whether there is a causal link between the phonological difficulties and the reading problem. An alternative suggestion has been gaining ground that the core deficit in dyslexia is in visual attentional mechanisms. If so, the visual aetiology may be at any of a number of sites along the afferent magnocellular pathway or in the dorsal cortical stream that are all essential for a visuo-spatial (...)
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  47. Virginia W. Berninger Wendy H. Raskind, Beate Peter, Todd Richards, Mark M. Eckert (2012). The Genetics of Reading Disabilities: From Phenotypes to Candidate Genes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    This article provides an overview of (a) issues in definition and diagnosis of specific reading disabilities at the behavioral level that may occur in different constellations of developmental and phenotypic profiles (patterns); (b) rapidly expanding research on genetic heterogeneity and gene candidates for dyslexia and other reading disabilities; (c) emerging research on gene-brain relationships; and (d) current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms whereby environmental events may alter behavioral expression of genetic variations. A glossary of genetic terms (denoted by bold (...)
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  48. Travis White-Schwoch & Nina Kraus (2013). Physiologic Discrimination of Stop Consonants Relates to Phonological Skills in Pre-Readers: A Biomarker for Subsequent Reading Ability? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:899.score: 18.0
    Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system—a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input—is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, (...). This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. (shrink)
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  49. Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger, Mari Tervaniemi, Satu Pakarinen & Teija Kujala (2012). Mapping Symbols to Sounds: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Impaired Reading Process in Dyslexia. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Dyslexic and control first grade school children were compared in a Symbol-to-Sound matching test based on a nonlinguistic audiovisual training which is known to have a remediating effect on dyslexia. Visual symbol patterns had to be matched with predicted sound patterns. Sounds incongruent with the corresponding visual symbol (thus not matching the prediction) elicited the N2b and P3a event-related potential (ERP) components relative to congruent sounds in control children. Their ERPs resembled the ERP effects previously reported for healthy adults with (...)
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