Search results for 'resource competition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    Eckart Voland & R. I. M. Dunbar (1995). Resource Competition and Reproduction. Human Nature 6 (1):33-49.
    A family reconstitution study of the Krummhörn population (Ostfriesland, Germany, 1720–1874) reveals that infant mortality and children’s probabilities of marrying or emigrating unmarried are affected by the number of living same-sexed sibs in farmers’ families but not in the families of landless laborers. We interpret these results in terms of a “local resource competition” model in which resource-holding families are obliged to manipulate the reproductive future of their offspring. In contrast, families that lack resources have no need (...)
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  2.  9
    Geoff Kushnick (2010). Resource Competition and Reproduction in Karo Batak Villages. Human Nature 21 (1):62-81.
    When wealth is heritable, parents may manipulate family size to optimize the trade-off between more relatively poor offspring and fewer relatively rich ones, and channel less care into offspring that compete with siblings. These hypotheses were tested with quantitative ethnographic data collected among the Karo Batak—patrilineal agriculturalists from North Sumatra, Indonesia, among whom land is bequeathed equally to sons. It was predicted that landholding would moderate the relationship between reproductive rate and parental investment on one hand, and the number of (...)
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  3.  10
    I. Walker (1984). The Volterra Competition Equations with Resource - Independent Growth Coefficients and Discussion on Their Biological and Biophysical Implications. Acta Biotheoretica 33 (4):253-270.
    Analysis of the biophysical conditions for a correct application of the Volterra Competition Equations with resource-independent coefficients reveals the following:The traditional, mathematical formalism with the two equations representing two straight lines at the condition of zero growth applies.
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  4. Christopher H. Eliot (2011). Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604):1-16.
    The complexity and heterogeneity of causes influencing ecology’s domain challenge its capacity to generate a general theory without exceptions, raising the question of whether ecology is capable, even in principle, of achieving the sort of theoretical success enjoyed by physics. Weber has argued that competition theory built around the Competitive Exclusion Principle (especially Tilman’s resource-competition model) offers an example of ecology identifying a law-like causal regularity. However, I suggest that as Weber presents it, the CEP is not (...)
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  5.  5
    Beverly I. Strassmann & Wendy M. Garrard (2011). Alternatives to the Grandmother Hypothesis. Human Nature 22 (1-2):201-222.
    We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 studies that tested for an association between grandparental survival and grandchild survival in patrilineal populations. Using two different methodologies, we found that the survival of the maternal grandmother and grandfather, but not the paternal grandmother and grandfather, was associated with decreased grandoffspring mortality. These results are consistent with the findings of psychological studies in developed countries (Coall and Hertwig Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33:1-59, 2010). When tested against the predictions of five hypotheses (confidence of (...)
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  6.  1
    Stacey L. Rucas, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan & Jeffrey Winking (2010). The Social Strategy Game. Human Nature 21 (1):1-18.
    This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the (...)
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  7.  6
    J. Michael Plavcan (2012). Sexual Size Dimorphism, Canine Dimorphism, and Male-Male Competition in Primates. Human Nature 23 (1):45-67.
    Sexual size dimorphism is generally associated with sexual selection via agonistic male competition in nonhuman primates. These primate models play an important role in understanding the origins and evolution of human behavior. Human size dimorphism is often hypothesized to be associated with high rates of male violence and polygyny. This raises the question of whether human dimorphism and patterns of male violence are inherited from a common ancestor with chimpanzees or are uniquely derived. Here I review patterns of, and (...)
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  8.  19
    Yu-Chiang Hu & Chia-Ching Fatima Wang (2009). Collectivism, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Resource Advantages in Retailing. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):1 - 13.
    Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) linked to performance-related instrumentality or real moral concerns? Does CSR create resource advantages? Reasons for and results of CSR remain unclear. We choose a leading retail company in a Confucian, collectivist, and high power distance society and ask whether managers are naturally oriented toward societal actions. We study managerial perceptions regarding the importance and the performance of CSR in relation to other management factors. Drawing on Hunt’s (2000, A General Theory of Competition: Resources, (...)
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  9.  12
    Judith Avrahami, Werner Güth & Yaakov Kareev (2005). Games of Competition in a Stochastic Environment. Theory and Decision 59 (4):255-294.
    The paper presents a set of games of competition between two or three players in which reward is jointly determined by a stochastic biased mechanism and players’ choices. More specifically, a resource can be found with unequal probabilities in one of two locations. The first agent is rewarded only if it finds the resource and avoids being found by the next agent in line; the latter is rewarded only if it finds the former. Five benchmarks, based on (...)
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  10.  49
    Thomas R. Alley (1982). Competition Theory, Evolution, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):165-179.
    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible (...)
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  11.  29
    Darryl Reed (2002). Resource Extraction Industries in Developing Countries. Journal of Business Ethics 39 (3):199 - 226.
    Over the last one hundred and fifty years, the extraction and processing of non-renewable resources has provided the basis for the three industrial revolutions that have led to the modern economies of the developed world. In the process, the nature of resource extraction firms has also changed dramatically, from small-scale operations exploiting easily accessible deposits to large, vertically integrated, capital intensive transnational corporations characterized by oligopolistic competition. In the last ten to fifteen years, coinciding with processes of economic (...)
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  12.  2
    Jasmine M. DeJesus, Marjorie Rhodes & Katherine D. Kinzler (2014). Evaluations Versus Expectations: Children's Divergent Beliefs About Resource Distribution. Cognitive Science 38 (1):178-193.
    Past research reveals a tension between children's preferences for egalitarianism and ingroup favoritism when distributing resources to others. Here we investigate how children's evaluations and expectations of others' behaviors compare. Four- to 10-year-old children viewed events where individuals from two different groups distributed resources to their own group, to the other group, or equally across groups. Groups were described within a context of intergroup competition over scarce resources. In the Evaluation condition, children were asked to evaluate which resource (...)
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  13.  10
    Yehoshua Liebermann (1985). Competition in Consumption as Viewed by Jewish Law. Journal of Business Ethics 4 (5):385 - 393.
    Competition is the most basic force traditionally regarded by Western economists as governing both society's resources allocation and income distribution. No wonder, then, that many legal systems have been concerned with various aspects of competitive activity, and formulated laws and rulings to keep market behavior within limits of ethical conduct. Jewish law has not been an exception. The focus of this paper is on competition in consumption. Its underlying assumption is that lawmakers' decisions approximate optimality in resource (...)
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  14.  7
    Lars Witting (2000). Interference Competition Set Limits to the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (2):107-120.
    The relationship between Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection and the ecological environment of density regulation is examined. Using a linear model, it is shown that the theorem holds when density regulation is caused by exploitative competition and that the theorem fails with interference competition. In the latter case the theorem holds only at the limit of zero population density and/or at the limit where the competitively superior individuals cannot monopolise the resource. The results are discussed in (...)
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  15.  7
    I. Walker (1987). Compartmentalization and Niche Differentiation: Causal Patterns of Competition and Coexistence. Acta Biotheoretica 36 (4):215-239.
    The current major models of coexistence of species on the same resources are briefly summarized. It is then shown that analysis of supposedly competitive systems in terms of the physical four dimensions of phase-space is sufficient to understand the causes for coexistence and for competitive exclusion. Thus, the multiple dimensions of niche theory are reduced to factors which define the magnitudes of the phase-spatial system, in particular the boundaries of population spaces and of periods of activity. Excluding possible cooperative interaction (...)
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  16.  6
    I. Walker (1993). Competition and Information. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3):249-266.
    Reconsideration of the logistic equation and of its expansion to the special and general Volterra competition equations in terms of mass/energy in phase-space, shows that information on the phase-spatial conditions of resource and consumers determines specific population parameters which, in turn, decide on coexistence and extinction.Thus, introduction ofInformation as a separate and independent biophysical parameter, in analogy, and in addition, to Force in Classical Physics, is necessary. This allows for quantification of informational effects on resource flows and (...)
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  17.  2
    David C. Thomasma, Kenneth C. Micetich, John Brems & David van Thiel (1999). The Ethics of Competition in Liver Transplantation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (3):321-329.
    The behavior of people in the presence of scarce resources has long been a source of ethical concern and debate. Many of the responses, ranging from outright brutality and cheating on the one hand to altruism, nobility, and sacrifice on the other, were most recently demonstrated in the movie Titanic. It should come as no surprise, then, that rational efforts to allocate the very scarce life-saving resource of organs are sometimes circumvented by these natural human impulses and sheer human (...)
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  18.  1
    David W. Lawson & Ruth Mace (2010). Optimizing Modern Family Size. Human Nature 21 (1):39-61.
    Modern industrialized populations lack the strong positive correlations between wealth and reproductive success that characterize most traditional societies. While modernization has brought about substantial increases in personal wealth, fertility in many developed countries has plummeted to the lowest levels in recorded human history. These phenomena contradict evolutionary and economic models of the family that assume increasing wealth reduces resource competition between offspring, favoring high fertility norms. Here, we review the hypothesis that cultural modernization may in fact establish unusually (...)
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  19. Monique Borgerhoff Mulder (1998). Brothers and Sisters. Human Nature 9 (2):119-161.
    Data from the Kipsigis of Kenya are used to test two models for how parents invest in offspring, the Trivers-Willard and local resource competition/enhancement hypotheses. Investment is measured as age-specific survival, educational success, marital arrangements, and some components of property inheritance, permitting an evaluation of how biases persist or alter over the period of dependence. Changes through time in such biases are also examined. Despite stronger effects of wealth on the reproductive success of men than women, the survival (...)
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  20.  2
    Lee Cronk (1991). Preferential Parental Investment in Daughters Over Sons. Human Nature 2 (4):387-417.
    Female-biased parental investment is unusual but not unknown in human societies. Relevant explanatory models include Fisher’s principle, the Trivers-Willard model, local mate and resource competition and enhancement, and economic rational actor models. Possible evidence of female-biased parental investment includes sex ratios, mortality rates, parents’ stated preferences for offspring of one sex, and direct and indirect measurements of actual parental behavior. Possible examples of female-biased parental investment include the Mukogodo of Kenya, the Ifalukese of Micronesia, the Cheyenne of North (...)
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  21.  11
    Robert J. Quinlan (2009). Predicting Cross-Cultural Patterns in Sex-Biased Parental Investment and Attachment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):40-41.
    If parenting behavior influences attachment, then parental investment (PI) theory can predict sex differences and distributions of attachment styles across cultures. Trivers-Willard, local resource competition, and local resource enhancement models make distinct predictions for sex-biased parental responsiveness relevant to attachment. Parental investment and attachment probably vary across cultures in relation to for status, wealth, and well-being.
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  22.  4
    Anne Campbell, Steven Muncer & Josie Odber (1998). Primacy of Organising Effects of Testosterone. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):365-365.
    A test of a biosocial model is reported in which we found no impact of circulating testosterone on either status-seeking or aggression. The fact that sex differences in competitiveness and aggression appear in childhood strongly suggests that the major impact of testosterone is organisational. Whereas dominance and resources are linked among males, female aggression may be a function of pure resource competition, with no element of status-seeking.
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  23.  67
    Manuel Castelo Branco & Lúcia Lima Rodrigues (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility and Resource-Based Perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics 69 (2):111 - 132.
    Firms engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) because they consider that some kind of competitive advantage accrues to them. We contend that resource-based perspectives (RBP) are useful to understand why firms engage in CSR activities and disclosure. From a resource-based perspective CSR is seen as providing internal or external benefits, or both. Investments in socially responsible activities may have internal benefits by helping a firm to develop new resources and capabilities which are related namely to know-how and corporate (...)
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  24.  59
    David Wiens (forthcoming). Cosmopolitanism and Competition: Probing the Limits of Egalitarian Justice. Economics and Philosophy.
    This paper develops a novel competition criterion for evaluating institutional schemes. Roughly, this criterion says that one institutional scheme is normatively superior to another to the extent that the former would engender more widespread political competition than the latter. I show that this criterion should be endorsed by both global egalitarians and their statist rivals, as it follows from their common commitment to the moral equality of all persons. I illustrate the normative import of the competition criterion (...)
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  25.  25
    Ran Zhang, Jigao Zhu, Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu (2010). Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):39 - 52.
    This article examines whether the likelihood and amount of firm charitable giving in response to catastrophic events are related to firm advertising intensity, and whether industry competition level moderates this relationship. Using data on Chinese firms’ philanthropic response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that firm advertising intensity is positively associated with both the probability and the amount of corporate giving. The results also indicate that this positive advertising intensity-philanthropic giving relationship is stronger in competitive industries, and firms (...)
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  26.  48
    Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson (2007). The Perverse Effects of Competition on Scientists' Work and Relationships. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, (...)
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  27.  1
    Brian M. Wood & Frank W. Marlowe (2013). Household and Kin Provisioning by Hadza Men. Human Nature 24 (3):280-317.
    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men’s foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers’ households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal (...)
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  28.  12
    Bruce J. Ellis, Aurelio José Figueredo, Barbara H. Brumbach & Gabriel L. Schlomer (2009). Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk. Human Nature 20 (2):204-268.
    The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH (...)
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  29.  28
    Cam Caldwell, Do X. Truong, Pham T. Link & Anh Tuan (2011). Strategic Human Resource Management as Ethical Stewardship. Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):171 - 182.
    The research about strategic human resource management (SHRM) has suggested that human resource professionals (HRPs) have the opportunity to play a greater role in contributing to organizational success if they are effective in developing systems and policies aligned with the organization's values, goals, and mission. We suggest that HRPs need to raise the standard of their performance and that the competitive demands of the modern economic environment create implicit ethical duties that HRPs owe to their organizations. We define (...)
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  30.  20
    Pascal Paillé, Yang Chen, Olivier Boiral & Jiafei Jin (2013). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Environmental Performance: An Employee-Level Study. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (3):1-16.
    This field study investigated the relationship between strategic human resource management, internal environmental concern, organizational citizenship behavior for the environment, and environmental performance. The originality of the present research was to link human resource management and environmental management in the Chinese context. Data consisted of 151 matched questionnaires from top management team members, chief executive officers, and frontline workers. The main results indicate that organizational citizenship behavior for the environment fully mediates the relationship between strategic human resource (...)
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  31.  6
    Rebecca Sear (2008). Kin and Child Survival in Rural Malawi. Human Nature 19 (3):277-293.
    This paper investigates the impact of kin on child survival in a matrilineal society in Malawi. Women usually live in close proximity to their matrilineal kin in this agricultural community, allowing opportunities for helping behavior between matrilineal relatives. However, there is little evidence that matrilineal kin are beneficial to children. On the contrary, child mortality rates appear to be higher in the presence of maternal grandmothers and maternal aunts. These effects are modified by the sex of child and resource (...)
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  32. Mark Jago, Rule-Based and Resource-Bounded: A New Look at Epistemic Logic.
    Syntactic logics do not suffer from the problems of logical omniscience but are often thought to lack interesting properties relating to epistemic notions. By focusing on the case of rule-based agents, I develop a framework for modelling resource-bounded agents and show that the resulting models have a number of interesting properties.
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  33.  8
    Espen Gamlund (2016). What is so Important About Completing Lives? A Critique of the Modified Youngest First Principle of Scarce Resource Allocation. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (2):113-128.
    Ruth Tallman has recently offered a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation [1]. According to Tallman, this principle calls for prioritizing adolescents and young adults between 15–40 years of age. In this article, I argue that Tallman’s defense of the modified youngest first principle is vulnerable to important objections, and that it is thus unsuitable as a basis for allocating resources. Moreover, Tallman makes claims about the badness of death for individuals at different ages, (...)
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  34.  30
    Fernando Martín-Alcázar, Pedro M. Romero-Fernández & Gonzalo Sánchez-Gardey (2012). Transforming Human Resource Management Systems to Cope with Diversity. Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):511-531.
    The purpose of this study is to examine how workgroup diversity can be managed through specific strategic human resource management systems. Our review shows that ‘affirmative action’ and traditional ‘diversity management’ approaches have failed to simultaneously achieve business and social justice outcomes of diversity. As previous literature has shown, the benefits of diversity cannot be achieved with isolated interventions. To the contrary, a complete organizational culture change is required, in order to promote appreciation of individual differences. The paper contributes (...)
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  35.  35
    Taru Vuontisjärvi (2006). Corporate Social Reporting in the European Context and Human Resource Disclosures: An Analysis of Finnish Companies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (4):331 - 354.
    This paper explores by means of content analysis the extent to which the Finnish biggest companies have adapted socially responsible reporting practices. The research focuses on Human Resource (HR) reporting and covers corporate annual reports. The criteria has been set on the basis of the analysis of the documents published at the European level in the context of corporate social responsibility (CSR), paying special attention to the European Council appeal on CSR in March 2000. As CSR is a relatively (...)
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  36.  37
    Dorothy Foote (2001). The Question of Ethical Hypocrisy in Human Resource Management in the U.K. And Irish Charity Sectors. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (1):25 - 38.
    Whilst there is a growing volume of literature exploring the ethical implications of organisational change for HRM and the ethical aspects of certain HRM activities, there have been few published U.K. studies of how HR managers actually behave when faced with ethical dilemmas in their work. This paper seeks to enhance the foundations of such knowledge through an examination of the influence of organisational values on the ethical behaviour of Human Resource Managers within a sample of charities in the (...)
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  37. D. Seedhouse (1995). Why Bioethicists Have Nothing Useful to Say About Health Care Rationing. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):288-291.
    Bioethicists are increasingly commenting on health care resource allocation, and sometimes suggest ways to solve various rationing dilemmas ethically. I argue that both because of the assumptions bioethicists make about social reality, and because of the methods of argument they use, they cannot possibly make a useful contribution to the debate. Bioethicists who want to make a practical difference should either approach health care resource allocation as if the matter hinged upon tribal competition (which is essentially what (...)
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  38.  9
    Aaron T. Goetz & Todd K. Shackelford (2006). Sexual Coercion and Forced in-Pair Copulation as Sperm Competition Tactics in Humans. Human Nature 17 (3):265-282.
    Rape of women by men might be generated either by a specialized rape adaptation or as a by-product of other psychological adaptations. Although increasing number of sexual partners is a proposed benefit of rape according to the “rape as an adaptation” and the “rape as a by-product” hypotheses, neither hypothesis addresses directly why some men rape their long-term partners, to whom they already have sexual access. In two studies we tested specific hypotheses derived from the general hypothesis that sexual coercion (...)
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  39.  14
    Johan J. Graafland (2003). Distribution of Responsibility, Ability and Competition. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):133 - 147.
    This paper considers the distribution of responsibility for prevention of negative social or ecological effects of production and consumption. Responsibility is related to ability and ability depends on welfare. An increase in competition between Western companies depresses their profitability, but increases the welfare of Western consumers and,hence, their ability to acknowledge social values. Therefore, an increase in competition on consumer markets shifts the balance in responsibility from companies to consumers to prevent negative external effects from production and consumption (...)
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  40.  16
    Geoffrey G. Bell & Bruno Dyck (2011). Conventional Resource-Based Theory and its Radical Alternative: A Less Materialist-Individualist Approach to Strategy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (S1):121-130.
    Management scholars, practitioners, and policy makers alike have sought to develop a deeper understanding of recent business crises—including corporate scandals, the collapse of financial institutions, and deep recession—in order to prevent their recurrence. Among the “culprits” that have been identified is Conventional management theory based upon a moral-point-of-view founded on assumptions of materialism and individualism. There have been calls to move beyond the dominant profit maximization paradigm and think about other, potentially more compelling, corporate objectives (Hamel, 2009 ). In this (...)
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  41.  26
    David A. Lertzman & Harrie Vredenburg (2005). Indigenous Peoples, Resource Extraction and Sustainable Development: An Ethical Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 56 (3):239 - 254.
    Resource extraction companies worldwide are involved with Indigenous peoples. Historically these interactions have been antagonistic, yet there is a growing public expectation for improved ethical performance of resource industries to engage with Indigenous peoples. (Crawley and Sinclair, Journal of Business Ethics 45, 361–373 (2003)) proposed an ethical model for human resource practices with Indigenous peoples in Australian mining companies. This paper expands on this work by re-framing the discussion within the context of sustainable development, extending it to (...)
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  42.  9
    Betty L. Wells & Shelly Gradwell (2001). Gender and Resource Management: Community Supported Agriculture as Caring-Practice. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 18 (1):107-119.
    Interviews with Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) growers in Iowa, a majority of whom are women, shed light on the relationship between gender and CSA as a system of resource management. Growers, male and female alike, are differentiated by care and caring-practices. Care-practices, historically associated with women, place priority on local context and relationships. The concern of these growers for community, nature, land, water, soil, and other resources is manifest in care-motives and care-practices. Their specific mix of motives differs: providing (...)
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  43.  28
    Teresa McCormack, Stephen Andrew Butterfill, Christoph Hoerl & Patrick Burns (2009). Cue Competition Effects and Young Children's Causal and Counterfactual Inferences. Developmental Psychology 45 (6):1563-1575.
    The authors examined cue competition effects in young children using the blicket detector paradigm, in which objects are placed either singly or in pairs on a novel machine and children must judge which objects have the causal power to make the machine work. Cue competition effects were found in a 5- to 6-year-old group but not in a 4-year-old group. Equivalent levels of forward and backward blocking were found in the former group. Children's counterfactual judgments were subsequently examined (...)
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  44.  13
    Corinne Valdivia & Jere Gilles (2001). Gender and Resource Management: Households and Groups, Strategies and Transitions. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 18 (1):5-9.
    Rural families must constantly negotiate their livelihoods by obtaining access to natural resources, labor, capital, knowledge, and markets. Successful negotiation leads to enhanced family well-being and sustainable use of natural resources. Unsuccessful negotiation threatens family survival, threatens sustainable use of natural resources, and reduces bio-diversity. These negotiation processes are mediated by gender relations. The ideas of negotiation and of survival strategies outlined here provide a framework within which the articles of this issue can be situated. The articles are the result (...)
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  45. Kenneth M. Ehrenberg (1999). Social Structure and Responsibility. Loyola Poverty Law Journal 5:1-26.
    Economic success in competitive systems requires resource redistribution to those who fail. Once we recognize that success in competitive endeavors depends meaningfully on the failure of others, policy implications that involve strong redistributive mechanisms should be drawn. Particular attention is paid to the role of education in fostering a sense of self-esteem necessary to counter the effects of internalized competition.
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  46.  4
    Esther B. Del Brio, Toru Yoshikawa, Catherine E. Connelly & Wee Liang Tan (2013). The Effects of CEO Trustworthiness on Directors' Monitoring and Resource Provision. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):155-169.
    Because of the importance of board members’ resource provision and monitoring, a substantial body of research has been devoted to ascertaining how directors can be incented to perform their responsibilities. We use social exchange theory to empirically examine how board members’ resource provision and monitoring are affected by their perceptions of the CEOs’ trustworthiness. Our findings suggest that board members’ perceptions of the CEO’s ability, benevolence, and integrity have different effects on the board members’ resource provision and (...)
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  47.  1
    Martin Daly & Margo Wilson (1990). Killing the Competition. Human Nature 1 (1):81-107.
    Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England/Wales (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police. Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously (from 3.7 per million citizens per annum in England/Wales to 216.3 in Detroit). Men’s marital status was related to the probability of committing a same-sex, nonrelative (...)
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  48. Diego Fernandez-Duque (2002). Cause and Effect Theories of Attention: The Role of Conceptual Metaphors. Review of General Psychology 6 (2):153-165.
    Scientific concepts are defined by metaphors. These metaphors determine what atten- tion is and what count as adequate explanations of the phenomenon. The authors analyze these metaphors within 3 types of attention theories: (a) --cause-- theories, in which attention is presumed to modulate information processing (e.g., attention as a spotlight; attention as a limited resource); (b) --effect-- theories, in which attention is considered to be a by-product of information processing (e.g., the competition meta- phor); and (c) hybrid theories (...)
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  49.  11
    Steven P. Feldman (2003). Weak Spots in Business Ethics: A Psycho-Analytic Study of Competition and Memory in "Death of a Salesman". [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):391 - 404.
    The field of business ethics has shown little attention to the dynamics of memory in maintaining moral character. Yet memory is a complex process that involves the repression of some experiences in order to protect the moral integrity of the personality. Without the capacity to repress what one's moral conscience would not accept, the mind can be overtaken by neurotic ambivalence and moral confusion. In the context of business competition, where the pressures for potential gains and losses can be (...)
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  50.  28
    Michel Ferrary (2009). A Stakeholder's Perspective on Human Resource Management. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):31 - 43.
    In order to understand the system wherein human resource management practices are determined by the interactions of a complex system of actors, it is necessary to have a conceptual framework of analysis. In this respect, the works of scholars (Mitroff, 1983, Stakeholders of the Organizational Mind, Jessey-Bass; Freeman, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, Pitman) concerning stakeholder theory opened new perspectives in management theory. An organisation is understood as being part of a politico-economic system of stakeholders who interact and (...)
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