Search results for 'science policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Barry Bozeman & Daniel Sarewitz (2011). Public Value Mapping and Science Policy Evaluation. Minerva 49 (1):1-23.
    Here we present the framework of a new approach to assessing the capacity of research programs to achieve social goals. Research evaluation has made great strides in addressing questions of scientific and economic impacts. It has largely avoided, however, a more important challenge: assessing (prospectively or retrospectively) the impacts of a given research endeavor on the non-scientific, non-economic goals—what we here term public values —that often are the core public rationale for the endeavor. Research programs are typically justified in terms (...)
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  2.  7
    Jaana Eigi (forthcoming). Different Motivations, Similar Proposals: Objectivity in Scientific Community and Democratic Science Policy. Synthese:1-13.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss some possible connections between philosophical proposals about the social organisation of science and developments towards a greater democratisation of science policy. I suggest that there are important similarities between one approach to objectivity in philosophy of science—Helen Longino’s account of objectivity as freedom from individual biases achieved through interaction of a variety of perspectives—and some ideas about the epistemic benefits of wider representation of various groups’ perspectives in (...) policy, as analysed by Mark Brown. Given these similarities, I suggest that they allow one to approach developments in science policy as if one of their aims were epistemic improvement that can be recommended on the basis of the philosophical account; analyses of political developments inspired by these ideas about the benefits of inclusive dialogue can then be used for understanding the possibility to implement a philosophical proposal for improving the objectivity of science in practice. Outlining this suggestion, I also discuss the possibility of important differences between the developments in the two spheres and show how the concern about the possible divergence of politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes may be mitigated. In order to substantiate further the suggestion I make, I discuss one example of a development where politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes converge in practice—the development of professional ethics in American archaeology as analysed by Alison Wylie. I suggest that analysing such specific developments and getting involved with them can be one of the tasks for philosophy of science. In the concluding part of the paper I discuss how this approach to philosophy of science is related to a number of arguments about a more politically relevant philosophy of science. (shrink)
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  3.  17
    Aant Elzinga (2012). The Rise and Demise of the International Council for Science Policy Studies (ICSPS) as a Cold War Bridging Organization. Minerva 50 (3):277-305.
    When the journal Minerva was founded in 1962, science and higher educational issues were high on the agenda, lending impetus to the interdisciplinary field of “Science Studies” qua “Science Policy Studies.” As government expenditures for promoting various branches of science increased dramatically on both sides of the East-West Cold War divide, some common issues regarding research management also emerged and with it an interest in closer academic interaction in the areas of history and policy (...)
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  4.  1
    Wendy McGuire (forthcoming). Cross-Field Effects of Science Policy on the Biosciences: Using Bourdieu’s Relational Methodology to Understand Change. Minerva:1-27.
    This paper is based on a study that explored the responses of bioscientists to changes in national science policy and research funding in Canada. In the late 1990s, a range of new science policies and funding initiatives were implemented, linking research funding to Canada’s competitiveness in the ‘global knowledge economy’. Bourdieu’s theory of practice is used to explore the multi-scalar, cross-field effects of global economic policy and national science policy on scientific practice. While most (...)
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  5.  19
    Enrico Viola (2009). “Once Upon a Time” Philosophy of Science: Sts, Science Policy and the Semantic View of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 19 (4):465-480.
    Is a policy-friendly philosophy of science possible? In order to respond this question, I consider a particular instance of contemporary philosophy of science, the semantic view of scientific theories, by placing it in the broader methodological landscape of the integration of philosophy of science into STS (Science and Technology Studies) as a component of the overall contribution of the latter to science policy. In that context, I defend a multi-disciplinary methodological integration of the (...)
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  6.  7
    Niels C. Taubert (2012). Minerva and the Development of Science (Policy) Studies. Minerva 50 (3):261-275.
    This article analyzes the transformation of Minerva from an intellectual towards a scholarly journal by making use of bibliometric methods. The aim is to provide some empirical insights that help to understand what properties of the journal changed in the course of this transformation process. Minerva was one of the first journals that reflected on science and its role in society and science policy in particular. Analyzing the development of the journal sheds light on the emergence of (...)
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  7. Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff (2013). De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize). Minerva 51 (3):295-315.
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing (...)
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  8.  15
    Robert Frodeman (2008). Redefining Ecological Ethics: Science, Policy, and Philosophy at Cape Horn. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):597-610.
    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of “applied” philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This “field” (rather than (...)
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  9.  35
    Nicholas Maxwell (2010). Review of Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. [REVIEW] Metapsychology 14 (10).
    In this book Heather Douglas argues that widespread acceptance of the value-free ideal for science adversely affects the way science is used in policy making. The book is about an important issue. It is clearly written, and is a pleasure to read. I must confess, however that, as the author of at least four books that cover some of the same ground, and in many ways develop the argument much further than the author does here, I was (...)
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  10.  8
    Jack Stilgoe (2012). Experiments in Science Policy: An Autobiographical Note. Minerva 50 (2):197-204.
    In this paper, I offer a personal account of a journey through a world of science governance that is in flux. I reflect on three levels of experimentation: first, the intermingling of social scientists with scientists and policymakers; second, the creation of new forms of public dialogue; and third, the blurring of technical and social experiment with geoengineering as a case in point. My conclusion is that social scientists can both gain and contribute a great deal through engaging with, (...)
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  11.  5
    Nancy Tuana (2010). Leading with Ethics, Aiming for Policy: New Opportunities for Philosophy of Science. Synthese 177 (3):471 - 492.
    The goal of this paper is to articulate and advocate for an enhanced role for philosophers of science in the domain of science policy as well as within the science curriculum. I argue that philosophy of science as a field can learn from the successes as well as the mistakes of bioethics and begin to develop a new model that includes robust contributions to the science classroom, research collaborations with scientists, and a role for (...)
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  12.  89
    Matthias Kaiser (1997). Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):307-341.
    The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems unclear how PP relates to science. In section 2 of the paper a general overview of some historical and (...)
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  13.  29
    Heather Douglas (2009). Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  14.  29
    Stellan Welin & Lene Buhl-Mortensen (1998). The Ethics of Doing Policy Relevant Science: The Precautionary Principle and the Significance of Non-Significant Results. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):401-412.
    The precautionary principle is a widely accepted policy norm for decision making under uncertainty in environmental management, However, some of the traditional ways of ensuring trustworthy results used in environmental science and of communicating them work contrary to the general goal of providing the political system and the public with as good an input as possible in the decision making process. For example, it is widely accepted that scientists should only communicate results fulfilling the traditional scientific standard for (...)
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  15.  63
    Stephen F. Haller & James Gerrie (2007). The Role of Science in Public Policy: Higher Reason, or Reason for Hire? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (2):139-165.
    The traditional vision of the role science should play in policy making is of a two stage process of scientists first finding out the facts, and then policy makers making a decision about what to do about them. We argue that this two stage process is a fiction and that a distinction must be drawn between pure science and science in the service of public policy. When science is transferred into the policy (...)
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  16.  5
    Jessica Smith Rolston, Skylar Huzyk Zilliox, Corinne Packard, Carl Mitcham & Brian Zaharatos (2014). Nanoethics and Policy Education: A Case Study of Social Science Coursework and Student Engagement with Emerging Technologies. NanoEthics 8 (3):217-225.
    The article analyzes the integration of a module on nanotechnology, ethics, and policy into a required second-year social science course at a technological university. It investigates not simply the effectiveness of student learning about the technical aspects of nanotechnology but about how issues explored in an interdisciplinary social science course might influence student opinions about the potential of nanotechnology to benefit the developing world. The authors find a correlation between student opinions about the risks and benefits of (...)
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  17.  10
    Erwin van Rijswoud (2010). Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis. Minerva 48 (2):145-167.
    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still (...)
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  18.  9
    James Dietz & Juan Rogers (2012). Meanings and Policy Implications of “Transformative Research”: Frontiers, Hot Science, Evolution, and Investment Risk. [REVIEW] Minerva 50 (1):21-44.
    In recent times there has been a surge in interest on policy instruments to stimulate scientific and engineering research that is of greater consequence, advancing our knowledge in leaps rather than steps and is therefore more “creative” or, in the language of recent reports, “transformative.” Associated with the language of “transformative research” there appears to be much enthusiasm and conviction that the future of research is tied to it. However, there is very little clarity as to what exactly it (...)
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  19.  9
    Mark Solovey & Jefferson D. Pooley (2011). The Price of Success: Sociologist Harry Alpert, the NSF's First Social Science Policy Architect. Annals of Science 68 (2):229-260.
    Summary Harry Alpert (1912?1977), the US sociologist, is best-known for his directorship of the National Science Foundation's social science programme in the 1950s. This study extends our understanding of Alpert in two main ways: first, by examining the earlier development of his views and career. Beginning with his 1939 biography of Emile Durkheim, we explore the early development of Alpert's views about foundational questions concerning the scientific status of sociology and social science more generally, proper social (...) methodology, the practical value of social science, the academic institutionalisation of sociology, and the unity-of-science viewpoint. Second, this paper illuminates Alpert's complex involvement with certain tensions in mid-century US social science that were themselves linked to major transformations in national science policy, public patronage, and unequal relations between the social and natural sciences. We show that Alpert's views about the intellectual foundations, practical relevance, and institutional standing of the social sciences were, in some important respects, at odds with his NSF policy work. Although remembered as a quantitative evangelist and advocate for the unity-of-science viewpoint, Alpert was in fact an urbane critic of natural-science envy, social scientific certainty, and what he saw as excessive devotion to quantitative methods. (shrink)
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  20.  10
    Donald T. Campbell (1984). Science Policy From a Naturalistic Sociological Epistemology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:14 - 29.
    If philosophers of science advise government on science policy, it will have to be from a descriptive theory of scientific validity taken as hypothetically normative, as in naturalized epistemology. While logical positivism denied any normative import for the practice of science, in the area of "operational definitions" it had an unfortunate influence in psychology and sociology, and one that persists in the accountability movement. Not all philosophy of science issues have implications for the justificatory practice (...)
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  21.  1
    Zuoyue Wang & Naomi Oreskes (2008). History of Science and American Science Policy. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:365-373.
    Historians of science have participated actively in debates over American science policy in the post–World War II period in a variety of ways, but their impact has been more to elucidate general concepts than to effect specific policy changes. Personal experiences, in the case of the debate over global warming, have demonstrated both the value and the limits of such involvement for the making of public policy. To be effective, historians of science need to (...)
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  22.  23
    Charles Thorpe (2010). Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy. [REVIEW] Minerva 48 (4):389-411.
    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the (...)
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  23.  20
    Carl Mitcham & Robert Frodeman (2004). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science: Toward a Philosophy of Science Policy. Philosophy Today 48 (5):3-15.
    This is the introduction to a special, guest-edited issue of Philosophy Today. It lays out the extent to which the philosophy of science has ignored science policy and argues that policy issues deserve attention in parallel with epistemological ones. It further reviews the historical development of science policy in the United States since World War II, identifies some recent contributions to critical reflection on basic science policy assumptions, and outlines a set of (...)
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  24.  21
    Ruth Faden & Madison Powers (2011). A Social Justice Framework for Health and Science Policy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (04):596-604.
    The goal of this article is to explore how a social justice framework can help illuminate the role that consent should play in health and science policy. In the first section, we set the stage for our inquiry with the important case of Henrietta Lacks. Without her knowledge or consent, or that of her family, Mrs. Lacks’s cells gave rise to an enormous advance in biomedical science—the first immortal human cell line, or HeLa cells.
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  25.  41
    Darrin Durant (2010). Public Participation in the Making of Science Policy. Perspectives on Science 18 (2):pp. 189-225.
    This paper argues that, because Science and Technology Studies lost contact with political philosophy, its defense of public participation in policy-making involving technical claims is normatively unsatisfactory. Current penchants for political under-laboring and normative individualism are critiqued, and the connections between STS and theorists of deliberative democracy are explored. A conservative normativity is proposed, and STS positions on public participation are discussed in relation to current questions about individual and group rights in a liberal democracy. The result is (...)
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  26.  14
    Matthew L. Wallace & Ismael Rafols (2015). Research Portfolio Analysis in Science Policy: Moving From Financial Returns to Societal Benefits. Minerva 53 (2):89-115.
    Funding agencies and large public scientific institutions are increasingly using the term “research portfolio” as a means of characterizing their research. While portfolios have long been used as a heuristic for managing corporate R&D, they remain ill-defined in a science policy context where research is aimed at achieving societal outcomes. In this article we analyze the discursive uses of the term “research portfolio” and propose some general considerations for their application in science policy. We explore the (...)
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  27.  1
    Kristin Hagen (forthcoming). Science Policy and Concomitant Research in Synthetic Biology—Some Critical Thoughts. NanoEthics:1-13.
    In science policy, public controversy around synthetic biology has often been presented as a major risk because it could deter innovation. The following inter-related strategies for avoiding contestation have been observed: There have been attempts to close down debates by alluding to the importance and legitimacy of reliance on scientific evidence as input to regulatory processes. Scientific policy advice has stressed sufficiency of existing regulation, economic risks of additional regulation and/or suggestions for monitoring that are limited in (...)
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  28.  5
    David H. Guston (1994). Congressmen and Scientists in the Making of Science Policy: The Allison Commission, 1884–1886. [REVIEW] Minerva 32 (1):25-52.
    The Allison Commission focused attention on the administration of the scientific bureaux and its relation to the jurisdictional system in the Congress. The commission also had a more considerable influence on congressional policy towards the scientific bureaux than was previously thought. Legislative recommendations offered by the Allison Commission became law, even if they avoided the notice of congressional opponents through the strategic manipulation of the appropriations process. Hilary Herbert was not a crude enemy of science, but a staunch (...)
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  29.  2
    Danielle DeVasto (2015). Being Expert: L’Aquila and Issues of Inclusion in Science-Policy Decision Making. Social Epistemology 30 (4):372-397.
    Responding to the call to provide guidance for incorporating diverse perspectives in science-policy debate, Collins and Evans’ normative model of expertise provides a useful starting point for deciding who gets to come to the table—expertise and experience. However, new materialist critiques highlight the epistemic challenges of such an approach. Drawing on the work of Annemarie Mol, I propose that the theory of multiple ontologies and a practise-based orientation can enrich conversations about expertise and inclusion in science-policy (...)
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  30.  4
    Tamas Demeter (2015). On the Philosophical Roots of Today’s Science Policy: Any Lessons From the “Lysenko Affair”? Studies in East European Thought 67 (1 - 2):91-109.
    Present science policy discourse is focused on a broad concept of “techno-science” and emphasizes practical economic goals and gains. At the same time scientists are worried about the freedom of research and the autonomy of science. Half a century ago the difference between basic and applied science was widely taken for granted and autonomy was a value in high esteem. Most recent accounts of the history of science policy start abruptly from World War (...)
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  31.  10
    Daryl Pullman, Amy Zarzeczny & André Picard (2013). “Media, Politics and Science Policy: MS and Evidence From the CCSVI Trenches”. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundIn 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment (“liberation therapy”) received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. (...)
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  32.  4
    Cathryn Carson & Michael Gubser (2002). Science Advising and Science Policy in Post-War West Germany: The Example of the Deutscher Forschungsrat. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (2):147-179.
    The Deutscher Forschungsrat (GermanResearch Council) attempted to anchor scienceadvising and science policy in West Germanyafter the Second World War. Promoted by acircle of élite scientists, the councilaimed to establish institutions and mechanismscomparable to those in Great Britain, theUnited States, and other scientific powers.After a two-and-a-half year existence, iteventually failed. The reasons for its failure,some local, some global, display thedifficulties facing research policy in theearly years of the Federal Republic.
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  33.  12
    James E. Hansen & Patrick J. Michaels (2000). Full Transcript of Inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 Pm. Social Epistemology 14 (2-3):131-180.
    (2000). Full transcript of inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 pm. Social Epistemology: Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 131-180.
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  34.  3
    Satio Hayakawa & Morris F. Low (1991). Science Policy and Politics in Post-War Japan: The Establishment of the KEK High Energy Physics Laboratory. Annals of Science 48 (3):207-229.
    This paper provides a detailed account of the prehistory of the KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics at Tsukuba in Japan. Attempts to establish Japan's first truly national laboratory marked the beginning of ‘big science’ in Japan. An examination of the debate and decision-making processes, which spanned over a decade, provide insight into the political aspects of policy making in the post-war period. History shows that even in Japan, self-interest has taken precedence over group interests in lobbying (...)
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  35.  13
    James E. Hansen & Patrick J. Michaels (2000). Full Transcript of Inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 Pm. Social Epistemology 14 (2 & 3):131 – 180.
    (2000). Full transcript of inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 pm. Social Epistemology: Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 131-180.
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  36.  2
    Helmut Krauch (2006). Beginning Science Policy Research in Europe: The Studiengruppe Für Systemforschung, 1957–1973. [REVIEW] Minerva 44 (2):131-142.
    I am pleased to offer this translation of a lecture by Helmut Krauch, both because he is an old friend, whom I have known for more than forty years, and because it fills a gap in the history of science policy research. As this lecture makes clear, the Studiengruppe, led by Krauch, was the first in Europe to measure the share of nuclear and military research in total R&D expenditure and to make systematic technology assessments to guide government (...)
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  37. Paul Gilman (2006). Science, Policy, and Politics: Comparing and Contrasting Issues in Energy and the Environment. Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (3):1001-1010.
    Scientific and technical information is only part of the calculus of policymaking. How voters view the importance of societal issues with significant science and engineering content will drive how policy-makers weigh scientific and technical information. In many cases, as issues become more embroiled in partisan politics, the use of scientific and technical information declines. The use of science and technical information and its weight in environmental and energy policy has differed because of differences in how voters (...)
     
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  38.  4
    Norma Morris (2000). Science Policy in Action: Policy and the Researcher. [REVIEW] Minerva 38 (4):425-451.
    Government policies for science, usually incorporatingeconomic and social aims, are increasingly influencing the contentand management of university research. This essay discusses theinfluence of selected science policies on individual researchersand group leaders. Within the limitations of a case study, itargues that policies that steer the content of research have agreater influence on research behaviour, than do policies relatedto overall research management. Increasing pressures for compliancewith mission-objectives point to the need for closer discussionbetween those who make policy decisions, and (...)
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  39.  6
    Paul B. Thompson (1997). Science Policy and Moral Purity: The Case of Animal Biotechnology. Agriculture and Human Values 14 (1):11-27.
    Public controversy over animalbiotechnology is analyzed as a case that illustratestwo broad theoretical approaches for linking science,political or ethical theory, and public policy. Moralpurification proceeds by isolating the social,environmental, animal, and human health impacts ofbiotechnology from each other in terms of discretecategories of moral significance. Each of thesecategories can also be isolated from the sense inwhich biotechnology raises religious or metaphysicalissues. Moral purification yields a comprehensive andsystematic account of normative issues raised bycontroversial science. Hybridization proceeds bytaking concern (...)
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  40. Henry Kelly (2006). Science Policy in the United States: A Commentary on the State of the Art. Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (3):737-752.
    Timely, unbiased scientific advice is essential for effective public policy, but the system now operating in the United States is in a state of dangerous disrepair. The danger takes two forms. First, we are missing critical benefits in health, education, economic productivity, national security, and many other areas that more effective management of science could deliver. Second, we risk being overtaken by dangers that could have been avoided or for which we could have been much better prepared, given (...)
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  41.  3
    Antoni Roca-Rosell (2005). Professionalism And Technocracy: Esteve Terradas And Science Policy In The Early Years Of The Franco Regime. [REVIEW] Minerva 43 (2):147-162.
    At the peak of his career, Esteve Terradas (1883–1950) played a major role in the science and technology policy of the Franco regime. Supervising the creation of a new aeronautical centre and a state electrical company, he developed a liberal programme under an authoritarian regime. This paper explores the development and intersection of his private and public lives.
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  42. Gregory Fowler & Kirk Allison (2008). Technology and Citizenry: A Model for Public Consultation in Science Policy Formation. Journal of Evolution and Technology 18 (1):56-69.
    Probably the most interesting feature of the 40-year history of biomedical biotechnology is the extent to which it has been open to – and influenced by – concerns over social values and the public’s voice. Good intentions notwithstanding, however, benchmarks and best practices are woefully lacking for informing the policy-making process with public values. This is particularly true in the United States where the call for “public debate” is often heard but seldom heeded by policy-making bodies. Geneforum, an (...)
     
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  43.  7
    Eleonora Montuschi (forthcoming). Using Science, Making Policy: What Should We Worry About? European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-22.
    How does science enter policy making, and for what purpose? Surely consulting scientific facts in making policy is done with a view to making policy decisions more reliable, and ultimately more objective. In this paper I address the way/s by which science contributes to achieving objectivity in policy making and social debate, and argue that objectivity is not exhausted by what scientific evidence contributes to either. In policy making and social debates, scientific evidence (...)
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  44.  27
    Mark A. Pitt & Yun Tang (2013). What Should Be the Data Sharing Policy of Cognitive Science? Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):214-221.
    There is a growing chorus of voices in the scientific community calling for greater openness in the sharing of raw data that lead to a publication. In this commentary, we discuss the merits of sharing, common concerns that are raised, and practical issues that arise in developing a sharing policy. We suggest that the cognitive science community discuss the topic and establish a data-sharing policy.
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  45.  8
    Evelyn Brister (2015). Value-Free Science, Policy Advocacy, and Volitional Pragmatism. The Pluralist 10 (1):23-30.
    Among other things, the philosophical tradition of pragmatism provides a theory of inquiry and a theory of collective action. The theory of inquiry frames how humans investigate their problems and devise solutions; the theory of collective action frames how we work together to implement solutions to shared problems. Though philosophical, pragmatism aims to integrate philosophy and practice by developing theory that is useful for solving the problems that press on people’s lives. In spite of this intention, and perhaps because of (...)
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    Professor Sheila Jasanoff (1996). Is Science Socially Constructed—And Can It Still Inform Public Policy? Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (3):263-276.
    This paper addresses, and seeks to correct, some frequent misunderstandings concerning the claim that science is socially constructed. It describes several features of scientific inquiry that have been usefully illuminated by constructivist studies of science, including the mundane or tacit skills involved in research, the social relationships in scientific laboratories, the causes of scientific controversy, and the interconnection of science and culture. Social construction, the paper argues, should be seen not as an alternative to but an enhancement (...)
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    Susan E. Cozzens (2008). Gender Issues in US Science and Technology Policy: Equality of What? Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):345-356.
    Fairness in evaluation processes for women in science and engineering is only one of a set of issues that need to be addressed to reach gender equality. This article uses concepts from Amartya Sen’s work on inequality to frame gender issues in science and technology policy. Programs that focus on increasing the number of women in science and engineering careers have not generally addressed a broader set of circumstances that intersect with gender at various economic levels (...)
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    Pierre-Olivier Méthot (2015). Science and Science Policy: Regulating “Select Agents” in the Age of Synthetic Biology. Perspectives on Science 23 (3):280-309.
    Just like atomic physics seventy years ago, when it was realized that chain reaction could lead to medical applications as well as to the creation of atomic weapons, the life sciences have entered a grey zone. “Advances in biotechnology […]” a 2003 CIA document stated, “have the potential to create a much more dangerous biological warfare threat […] Engineered biological agents could be much worse than any disease known to man”. As sociologists of science have noted, contemporary life sciences (...)
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    Mark B. Brown (2004). The Political Philosophy of Science Policy. Minerva 42 (1):77-95.
    Reviews the book "Science, Truth, and Democracy," by Philip Kitcher.
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  50.  34
    Gregory J. Morgan (2010). Heather Douglas: Is Science Value-Free? (Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal). [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):423-426.
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