Search results for 'science policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Barry Bozeman & Daniel Sarewitz (2011). Public Value Mapping and Science Policy Evaluation. Minerva 49 (1):1-23.score: 240.0
    Here we present the framework of a new approach to assessing the capacity of research programs to achieve social goals. Research evaluation has made great strides in addressing questions of scientific and economic impacts. It has largely avoided, however, a more important challenge: assessing (prospectively or retrospectively) the impacts of a given research endeavor on the non-scientific, non-economic goals—what we here term public values —that often are the core public rationale for the endeavor. Research programs are typically justified in terms (...)
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  2. Enrico Viola (2009). “Once Upon a Time” Philosophy of Science: Sts, Science Policy and the Semantic View of Scientific Theories. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 19 (4):465-480.score: 240.0
    Is a policy-friendly philosophy of science possible? In order to respond this question, I consider a particular instance of contemporary philosophy of science, the semantic view of scientific theories, by placing it in the broader methodological landscape of the integration of philosophy of science into STS (Science and Technology Studies) as a component of the overall contribution of the latter to science policy. In that context, I defend a multi-disciplinary methodological integration of the (...)
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  3. Aant Elzinga (2012). The Rise and Demise of the International Council for Science Policy Studies (ICSPS) as a Cold War Bridging Organization. Minerva 50 (3):277-305.score: 240.0
    When the journal Minerva was founded in 1962, science and higher educational issues were high on the agenda, lending impetus to the interdisciplinary field of “Science Studies” qua “Science Policy Studies.” As government expenditures for promoting various branches of science increased dramatically on both sides of the East-West Cold War divide, some common issues regarding research management also emerged and with it an interest in closer academic interaction in the areas of history and policy (...)
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  4. Niels C. Taubert (2012). Minerva and the Development of Science (Policy) Studies. Minerva 50 (3):261-275.score: 240.0
    This article analyzes the transformation of Minerva from an intellectual towards a scholarly journal by making use of bibliometric methods. The aim is to provide some empirical insights that help to understand what properties of the journal changed in the course of this transformation process. Minerva was one of the first journals that reflected on science and its role in society and science policy in particular. Analyzing the development of the journal sheds light on the emergence of (...)
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  5. Thaddeus R. Miller & Mark W. Neff (2013). De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why It Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize). Minerva 51 (3):295-315.score: 224.0
    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated “outcomes” with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing (...)
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  6. Nicholas Maxwell (2010). Review of Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. [REVIEW] Metapsychology 14 (10).score: 222.0
    In this book Heather Douglas argues that widespread acceptance of the value-free ideal for science adversely affects the way science is used in policy making. The book is about an important issue. It is clearly written, and is a pleasure to read. I must confess, however that, as the author of at least four books that cover some of the same ground, and in many ways develop the argument much further than the author does here, I was (...)
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  7. Robert Frodeman (2008). Redefining Ecological Ethics: Science, Policy, and Philosophy at Cape Horn. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):597-610.score: 222.0
    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of “applied” philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This “field” (rather than (...)
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  8. Jack Stilgoe (2012). Experiments in Science Policy: An Autobiographical Note. Minerva 50 (2):197-204.score: 216.0
    In this paper, I offer a personal account of a journey through a world of science governance that is in flux. I reflect on three levels of experimentation: first, the intermingling of social scientists with scientists and policymakers; second, the creation of new forms of public dialogue; and third, the blurring of technical and social experiment with geoengineering as a case in point. My conclusion is that social scientists can both gain and contribute a great deal through engaging with, (...)
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  9. Nancy Tuana (2010). Leading with Ethics, Aiming for Policy: New Opportunities for Philosophy of Science. Synthese 177 (3):471 - 492.score: 210.0
    The goal of this paper is to articulate and advocate for an enhanced role for philosophers of science in the domain of science policy as well as within the science curriculum. I argue that philosophy of science as a field can learn from the successes as well as the mistakes of bioethics and begin to develop a new model that includes robust contributions to the science classroom, research collaborations with scientists, and a role for (...)
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  10. Matthias Kaiser (1997). Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):307-341.score: 198.0
    The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems unclear how PP relates to science. In section 2 of the paper a general overview of some historical and (...)
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  11. Stellan Welin & Lene Buhl-Mortensen (1998). The Ethics of Doing Policy Relevant Science: The Precautionary Principle and the Significance of Non-Significant Results. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):401-412.score: 198.0
    The precautionary principle is a widely accepted policy norm for decision making under uncertainty in environmental management, However, some of the traditional ways of ensuring trustworthy results used in environmental science and of communicating them work contrary to the general goal of providing the political system and the public with as good an input as possible in the decision making process. For example, it is widely accepted that scientists should only communicate results fulfilling the traditional scientific standard for (...)
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  12. Stephen F. Haller & James Gerrie (2007). The Role of Science in Public Policy: Higher Reason, or Reason for Hire? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (2):139-165.score: 192.0
    The traditional vision of the role science should play in policy making is of a two stage process of scientists first finding out the facts, and then policy makers making a decision about what to do about them. We argue that this two stage process is a fiction and that a distinction must be drawn between pure science and science in the service of public policy. When science is transferred into the policy (...)
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  13. Erwin van Rijswoud (2010). Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis. Minerva 48 (2):145-167.score: 192.0
    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are still (...)
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  14. Jessica Smith Rolston, Skylar Huzyk Zilliox, Corinne Packard, Carl Mitcham & Brian Zaharatos (2014). Nanoethics and Policy Education: A Case Study of Social Science Coursework and Student Engagement with Emerging Technologies. NanoEthics 8 (3):217-225.score: 192.0
    The article analyzes the integration of a module on nanotechnology, ethics, and policy into a required second-year social science course at a technological university. It investigates not simply the effectiveness of student learning about the technical aspects of nanotechnology but about how issues explored in an interdisciplinary social science course might influence student opinions about the potential of nanotechnology to benefit the developing world. The authors find a correlation between student opinions about the risks and benefits of (...)
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  15. Donald T. Campbell (1984). Science Policy From a Naturalistic Sociological Epistemology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:14 - 29.score: 186.0
    If philosophers of science advise government on science policy, it will have to be from a descriptive theory of scientific validity taken as hypothetically normative, as in naturalized epistemology. While logical positivism denied any normative import for the practice of science, in the area of "operational definitions" it had an unfortunate influence in psychology and sociology, and one that persists in the accountability movement. Not all philosophy of science issues have implications for the justificatory practice (...)
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  16. James Dietz & Juan Rogers (2012). Meanings and Policy Implications of “Transformative Research”: Frontiers, Hot Science, Evolution, and Investment Risk. [REVIEW] Minerva 50 (1):21-44.score: 186.0
    In recent times there has been a surge in interest on policy instruments to stimulate scientific and engineering research that is of greater consequence, advancing our knowledge in leaps rather than steps and is therefore more “creative” or, in the language of recent reports, “transformative.” Associated with the language of “transformative research” there appears to be much enthusiasm and conviction that the future of research is tied to it. However, there is very little clarity as to what exactly it (...)
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  17. Mark Solovey & Jefferson D. Pooley (2011). The Price of Success: Sociologist Harry Alpert, the NSF's First Social Science Policy Architect. Annals of Science 68 (2):229-260.score: 186.0
    Summary Harry Alpert (1912?1977), the US sociologist, is best-known for his directorship of the National Science Foundation's social science programme in the 1950s. This study extends our understanding of Alpert in two main ways: first, by examining the earlier development of his views and career. Beginning with his 1939 biography of Emile Durkheim, we explore the early development of Alpert's views about foundational questions concerning the scientific status of sociology and social science more generally, proper social (...) methodology, the practical value of social science, the academic institutionalisation of sociology, and the unity-of-science viewpoint. Second, this paper illuminates Alpert's complex involvement with certain tensions in mid-century US social science that were themselves linked to major transformations in national science policy, public patronage, and unequal relations between the social and natural sciences. We show that Alpert's views about the intellectual foundations, practical relevance, and institutional standing of the social sciences were, in some important respects, at odds with his NSF policy work. Although remembered as a quantitative evangelist and advocate for the unity-of-science viewpoint, Alpert was in fact an urbane critic of natural-science envy, social scientific certainty, and what he saw as excessive devotion to quantitative methods. (shrink)
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  18. Charles Thorpe (2010). Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy. [REVIEW] Minerva 48 (4):389-411.score: 180.0
    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the (...)
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  19. James E. Hansen & Patrick J. Michaels (2000). Full Transcript of Inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 Pm. Social Epistemology 14 (2 & 3):131 – 180.score: 180.0
    (2000). Full transcript of inaugural AARST Science Policy Forum, New York Hilton, Friday 20 November 1998, 7?9 pm. Social Epistemology: Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 131-180.
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  20. Daryl Pullman, Amy Zarzeczny & André Picard (2013). “Media, Politics and Science Policy: MS and Evidence From the CCSVI Trenches”. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-9.score: 180.0
    BackgroundIn 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment (“liberation therapy”) received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. (...)
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  21. Carl Mitcham & Robert Frodeman (2004). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science: Toward a Philosophy of Science Policy. Philosophy Today 48 (5):3-15.score: 180.0
    This is the introduction to a special, guest-edited issue of Philosophy Today. It lays out the extent to which the philosophy of science has ignored science policy and argues that policy issues deserve attention in parallel with epistemological ones. It further reviews the historical development of science policy in the United States since World War II, identifies some recent contributions to critical reflection on basic science policy assumptions, and outlines a set of (...)
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  22. David H. Guston (1994). Congressmen and Scientists in the Making of Science Policy: The Allison Commission, 1884–1886. [REVIEW] Minerva 32 (1):25-52.score: 180.0
    The Allison Commission focused attention on the administration of the scientific bureaux and its relation to the jurisdictional system in the Congress. The commission also had a more considerable influence on congressional policy towards the scientific bureaux than was previously thought. Legislative recommendations offered by the Allison Commission became law, even if they avoided the notice of congressional opponents through the strategic manipulation of the appropriations process. Hilary Herbert was not a crude enemy of science, but a staunch (...)
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  23. Helmut Krauch (2006). Beginning Science Policy Research in Europe: The Studiengruppe Für Systemforschung, 1957–1973. [REVIEW] Minerva 44 (2):131-142.score: 180.0
    I am pleased to offer this translation of a lecture by Helmut Krauch, both because he is an old friend, whom I have known for more than forty years, and because it fills a gap in the history of science policy research. As this lecture makes clear, the Studiengruppe, led by Krauch, was the first in Europe to measure the share of nuclear and military research in total R&D expenditure and to make systematic technology assessments to guide government (...)
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  24. Cathryn Carson & Michael Gubser (2002). Science Advising and Science Policy in Post-War West Germany: The Example of the Deutscher Forschungsrat. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (2):147-179.score: 180.0
    The Deutscher Forschungsrat (GermanResearch Council) attempted to anchor scienceadvising and science policy in West Germanyafter the Second World War. Promoted by acircle of élite scientists, the councilaimed to establish institutions and mechanismscomparable to those in Great Britain, theUnited States, and other scientific powers.After a two-and-a-half year existence, iteventually failed. The reasons for its failure,some local, some global, display thedifficulties facing research policy in theearly years of the Federal Republic.
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  25. Norma Morris (2000). Science Policy in Action: Policy and the Researcher. [REVIEW] Minerva 38 (4):425-451.score: 176.0
    Government policies for science, usually incorporatingeconomic and social aims, are increasingly influencing the contentand management of university research. This essay discusses theinfluence of selected science policies on individual researchersand group leaders. Within the limitations of a case study, itargues that policies that steer the content of research have agreater influence on research behaviour, than do policies relatedto overall research management. Increasing pressures for compliancewith mission-objectives point to the need for closer discussionbetween those who make policy decisions, and (...)
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  26. Antoni Roca-Rosell (2005). Professionalism And Technocracy: Esteve Terradas And Science Policy In The Early Years Of The Franco Regime. [REVIEW] Minerva 43 (2):147-162.score: 174.0
    At the peak of his career, Esteve Terradas (1883–1950) played a major role in the science and technology policy of the Franco regime. Supervising the creation of a new aeronautical centre and a state electrical company, he developed a liberal programme under an authoritarian regime. This paper explores the development and intersection of his private and public lives.
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  27. Paul B. Thompson (1997). Science Policy and Moral Purity: The Case of Animal Biotechnology. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 14 (1):11-27.score: 174.0
    Public controversy over animalbiotechnology is analyzed as a case that illustratestwo broad theoretical approaches for linking science,political or ethical theory, and public policy. Moralpurification proceeds by isolating the social,environmental, animal, and human health impacts ofbiotechnology from each other in terms of discretecategories of moral significance. Each of thesecategories can also be isolated from the sense inwhich biotechnology raises religious or metaphysicalissues. Moral purification yields a comprehensive andsystematic account of normative issues raised bycontroversial science. Hybridization proceeds bytaking concern (...)
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  28. Joachim Schummer, The Global Institutionalization of Nanotechnology Research: A Bibliometric Approach to the Assessment of Science Policy.score: 164.0
    Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major disciplines in only a few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by the main geographical regions, countries, research sectors, disciplines, and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time period because of different national science policies. The results allow a critical (...)
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  29. John G. Cramer, Science Policy: The Parable of the King and the Harvest.score: 164.0
    I'm an experimental physicist. The basic physics research I do is funded primarily by the U. S. Government. As I write this, it is less than two weeks before the 1993 Presidential Inauguration. The new Clinton Administration is still of an unknown quantity. A new Presidential Science Advisor with excellent qualifications, Dr. John H. Gibbons, has just been appointed, but little is know about the science policies of the new administration.
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  30. Susan E. Cozzens (2008). Gender Issues in US Science and Technology Policy: Equality of What? Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):345-356.score: 162.0
    Fairness in evaluation processes for women in science and engineering is only one of a set of issues that need to be addressed to reach gender equality. This article uses concepts from Amartya Sen’s work on inequality to frame gender issues in science and technology policy. Programs that focus on increasing the number of women in science and engineering careers have not generally addressed a broader set of circumstances that intersect with gender at various economic levels (...)
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  31. Mark A. Pitt & Yun Tang (2013). What Should Be the Data Sharing Policy of Cognitive Science? Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):214-221.score: 162.0
    There is a growing chorus of voices in the scientific community calling for greater openness in the sharing of raw data that lead to a publication. In this commentary, we discuss the merits of sharing, common concerns that are raised, and practical issues that arise in developing a sharing policy. We suggest that the cognitive science community discuss the topic and establish a data-sharing policy.
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  32. Professor Sheila Jasanoff (1996). Is Science Socially Constructed—And Can It Still Inform Public Policy? Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (3):263-276.score: 162.0
    This paper addresses, and seeks to correct, some frequent misunderstandings concerning the claim that science is socially constructed. It describes several features of scientific inquiry that have been usefully illuminated by constructivist studies of science, including the mundane or tacit skills involved in research, the social relationships in scientific laboratories, the causes of scientific controversy, and the interconnection of science and culture. Social construction, the paper argues, should be seen not as an alternative to but an enhancement (...)
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  33. Henry H. Bauer (2003). The Progress of Science and Implications for Science Studies and for Science Policy. Perspectives on Science 11 (2):236-278.score: 156.0
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  34. Darrin Durant (2010). Public Participation in the Making of Science Policy. Perspectives on Science 18 (2):pp. 189-225.score: 156.0
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  35. Eric Schliesser (2012). Four Species of Reflexivity and History of Economics in Economic Policy Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):425-445.score: 156.0
    Abstract This paper argues that history of economics has a fruitful, underappreciated role to play in the development of economics, especially when understood as a policy science. This goes against the grain of the last half century during which economics, which has undergone a formal revolution, has distanced itself from its `literary' past and practices precisely with the aim to be a more successful policy science. The paper motivates the thesis by identifying and distinguishing four kinds (...)
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  36. Gregory J. Morgan (2010). Heather Douglas: Is Science Value-Free? (Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal). Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):423-426.score: 156.0
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  37. Heather Douglas (2009). Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal. University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 156.0
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  38. Georgina Stewart (2011). Science in the Māori-Medium Curriculum: Assessment of Policy Outcomes in Pūtaiao Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (7):724-741.score: 156.0
    This second research paper on science education in Māori-medium school contexts complements an earlier article published in this journal (Stewart, 2005). Science and science education are related domains in society and in state schooling in which there have always been particularly large discrepancies in participation and achievement by Māori. In 1995 a Kaupapa Māori analysis of this situation challenged New Zealand science education academics to deal with ‘the Māori crisis’ within science education. Recent NCEA results (...)
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  39. Mark B. Brown (2004). The Political Philosophy of Science Policy. Minerva 42 (1):77-95.score: 156.0
    Reviews the book "Science, Truth, and Democracy," by Philip Kitcher.
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  40. Sandra Eady (2008). What Is the Purpose of Learning Science? An Analysis of Policy and Practice in the Primary School. British Journal of Educational Studies 56 (1):4 - 19.score: 156.0
    The paper explores the current rationale for primary science in England with a focus on how competing perspectives arising from perceptions of educational ideology and policy discourse have helped to shape current practice. The aim will be to provide a conceptual understanding of this by focusing specifically on how policy has influenced practice. In particular it will consider the way in which discourse and policy text have contributed to the emergent rationale for primary science which (...)
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  41. Emma Coleman-Jones (2013). Avian Influenza: Science, Policy and Politics. Edited by Ian Scoones. Pp. 261. (Earthscan, London, 2010.) £23.99, ISBN 978-1-84971-096-1, Paperback. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (6):863-864.score: 156.0
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  42. Satio Hayakawa & Morris F. Low (1991). Science Policy and Politics in Post-War Japan: The Establishment of the KEK High Energy Physics Laboratory. Annals of Science 48 (3):207-229.score: 156.0
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  43. A. Herrera (1972). The Social Determinants of Science Policy. In Charles Cooper (ed.), Science, Technology and Development. London,F. Cass.score: 156.0
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  44. G. A. Nesvetailov’S. (1993). Assessment of Applied Research and Development: Diversification for Science Policy. Knowledge and Policy 6 (1):38-51.score: 156.0
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  45. Wouter Van Rossum (1997). Science Policy or Social Policy? Knowledge, Technology and Policy 9 (4):103-112.score: 156.0
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  46. Wouter Rossum (1994). The Political Economy of Research Councils: Different Roles of Research Councils in Science Policy. Knowledge and Policy 7 (1):63-78.score: 156.0
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  47. Erik Weber (2009). Varieties of Democracy in Science Policy. In Jeroen Van Bouwel (ed.), The Social Sciences and Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 152.0
  48. S. Vrecko (forthcoming). The War on Drugs: Science, Policy and the Neurobiological Imagination. History of the Human Sciences.score: 152.0
     
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  49. Sheila Jasanoff (1996). Is Science Socially Constructed—and Can It Still Inform Public Policy? Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (3):263-276.score: 150.0
    This paper addresses, and seeks to correct, some frequent misunderstandings concerning the claim that science is socially constructed. It describes several features of scientific inquiry that have been usefully illuminated by constructivist studies of science, including the mundane or tacit skills involved in research, the social relationships in scientific laboratories, the causes of scientific controversy, and the interconnection of science and culture. Social construction, the paper argues, should be seen not as an alternative to but an enhancement (...)
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