Search results for 'scientific classification' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Zachar (2006). The Classification of Emotion and Scientific Realism. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):120-138.
    The scientific study of emotion has been characterized by classification schemes that propose to 'carve nature at the joints.' This article examines several of these classifications, drawn from both the categorical and dimensional perspectives. Each classification is given credit for what it contributes to our understanding, but the dream of a single, all purpose taxonomy of emotional phenomena is called into question. Such hopes are often associated with the carving at the joints metaphor, which is here argued (...)
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  2.  9
    Shankarappa Talawar & Robert E. Rhoades (1998). Scientific and Local Classification and Management of Soils. Agriculture and Human Values 15 (1):3-14.
    A critical comparative analysis of howfarmers and scientists classify and manage soilsreveals fundamental differences as well assimilarities. In the past, the study of local soilknowledge has been predominantly targeted atdocumenting how farmers classified their soils incontrast to understanding how such classificatoryknowledge was made use of in actually managing soilsfor sustaining production. Often, classificatorydesigns – being cognitive and linguistic in nature –do not reflect the day-to-day actions in farming.Instead of merely describing local soil classificationin relation to scientific criteria, understanding howdifferent (...)
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  3. Adam P. Kubiak & Rafał R. Wodzisz (2012). Scientific Essentialism in the Light of Classification Practice in Biology – a Case Study of Phytosociology. Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 4:231-250.
    In our paper we investigate a difficulty arising when one tries to reconsiliateessentialis t’s thinking with classification practice in the biological sciences. The article outlinessome varieties of essentialism with particular attention to the version defended by Brian Ellis. Weunderline the basic difference: Ellis thinks that essentialism is not a viable position in biology dueto its incompatibility with biological typology and other essentialists think that these two elementscan be reconciled. However, both parties have in common metaphysical starting point and theylack (...)
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  4.  13
    Catherine Kendig (ed.) (2016). Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on natural (...)
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  5. Ladislav Kvasz (1999). On Classification of Scientific Revolutions. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):201-232.
    The question whether Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions could be applied to mathematics caused many interesting problems to arise. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether there are different kinds of scientific revolution, and if so, how many. The basic idea of the paper is to discriminate between the formal and the social aspects of the development of science and to compare them. The paper has four parts. In the first introductory part we discuss some of (...)
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  6.  2
    J. Dupre (2006). Scientific Classification. Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3):30-32.
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  7. Thomas Mathien (2002). Rebecca Bryant, Discovery and Decision: Exploring the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Scientific Classification Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 22 (2):97-99.
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  8.  11
    Thomas J. McCormack (1897). The International Scientific Catalogue, and the Decimal System of Classification. The Monist 7 (2):298-300.
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  9. Thomas J. Mccormack (1896). Scientific Catalogue, The International, and the Decimal System of Classification. The Monist 7:298.
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  10. Steven Payson (1997). Product Evolution and the Classification of Business Interest in Scientific Advances. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 9 (4):3-26.
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  11. Matt L. Drabek (2010). Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences. Poroi 6 (2):62-80.
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  12.  4
    Catherine Kendig (2016). Activities of Kinding in Scientific Practice. In C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge
    Discussions over whether these natural kinds exist, what is the nature of their existence, and whether natural kinds are themselves natural kinds aim to not only characterize the kinds of things that exist in the world, but also what can knowledge of these categories provide. Although philosophically critical, much of the past discussions of natural kinds have often answered these questions in a way that is unresponsive to, or has actively avoided, discussions of the empirical use of natural kinds and (...)
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  13.  6
    Douglas Walton (2008). Arguing From Definition to Verbal Classification: The Case of Redefining 'Planet' to Exclude Pluto. Informal Logic 28 (2):129-154.
    The recent redefinition of 'planet' that excludes Pluto as a planet led to controversy that provides a case study of how competing scientific definitions can be supported by characteristic types of evidence. An argumentation scheme from Hastings is used to analyze argument from verbal classification as a form of inference used in rational argumentation. The Toulmin-style format is compared to more recently developed ways of modeling such cases that stem from advances in argumentation technology in artificial intelligence. Using (...)
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  14.  54
    Marc Ereshefsky & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2015). Scientific Kinds. Philosophical Studies 172 (4):969-986.
    Richard Boyd’s Homeostatic Property Cluster Theory is becoming the received view of natural kinds in the philosophy of science. However, a problem with HPC Theory is that it neglects many kinds highlighted by scientific classifications while at the same time endorsing kinds rejected by science. In other words, there is a mismatch between HPC kinds and the kinds of science. An adequate account of natural kinds should accurately track the classifications of successful science. We offer an alternative account (...)
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  15.  40
    Jonathan Y. Tsou (2015). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer 43-62.
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s descriptive (...)
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  16.  6
    Catherine Kendig (2016). Homologizing as Kinding. In C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge
    Homology is a natural kind concept, but one that has been notoriously elusive to pin down. There has been sustained debate over the nature of correspondence and the units of comparison. But this continued debate over its meaning has focused on defining homology rather than on its use in practice. The aim of this chapter is to concentrate on the practices of homologizing. I define “homologizing” to be a concept-in-use. Practices of homologizing are kinds of rule following, the satisfaction of (...)
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  17.  27
    Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2016). Neuroscientific Kinds Through the Lens of Scientific Practice. In Catherine Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge 47-56.
    In this chapter, I argue that scientific practice in the neurosciences of cognition is not conducive to the discovery of natural <span class='Hi'>kinds</span> of cognitive capacities. The “neurosciences of cognition” include cognitive neuroscience and cognitive neurobiology, two research areas that aim to understand how the brain gives rise to cognition and behavior. Some philosophers of neuroscience have claimed that explanatory progress in these research areas ultimately will result in the discovery of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive capacities. Once (...)
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  18. Shen-yi Liao (2014). Explanations: Aesthetic and Scientific. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 75:127-149.
    Methodologically, philosophical aesthetics is undergoing an evolution that takes it closer to the sciences. Taking this methodological convergence as the starting point, I argue for a pragmatist and pluralist view of aesthetic explanations. To bring concreteness to discussion, I focus on vindicating genre explanations, which are explanations of aesthetic phenomena that centrally cite a work's genre classification. I show that theoretical resources that philosophers of science have developed with attention to actual scientific practice and the special sciences can (...)
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  19.  45
    Richard Heersmink (forthcoming). The Cognitive Integration of Scientific Instruments: Information, Situated Cognition and Scientific Practice. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-21.
    Researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences, particularly those working in laboratories, use a variety of artifacts to help them perform their cognitive tasks. This paper analyses the relationship between researchers and cognitive artifacts in terms of integration. It first distinguishes different categories of cognitive artifacts used in biological practice (...)
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  20.  11
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). Natural Classification. Metascience 24 (2):275-278.
    Writing a book about ‘natural classification’ is not a natural thing to do these days. As the authors of The Nature of Classification point out, classification as a stand-alone topic—separated from discussions of hypothesis testing, experimentation and concept formation—was all the rage in mid-nineteenth century philosophy of science, but interest has steadily dwindled ever since. In most twentieth century philosophy of science, classification was treated either as a pre-scientific endeavor, or as a product of theory-driven (...)
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  21.  9
    William Goodwin (2013). Structure and Scientific Controversies. Topoi 32 (1):101-110.
    In this paper, I highlight the importance of models and social structure to Kuhn’s conception of science, and then use these elements to sketch a Kuhnian classification of scientific controversies. I show that several important sorts of non-revolutionary scientific disagreements were both identified and analyzed in Structure. Ultimately, I contend that Kuhn’s conception of science supports an approach to scientific controversies that has the potential to both reveal the importantly different sources of scientific disagreements and (...)
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  22.  20
    William Goodwin (2013). Structure and Scientific Controversies. Topoi 32 (1):101-110.
    In this paper, I highlight the importance of models and social structure to Kuhn’s conception of science, and then use these elements to sketch a Kuhnian classification of scientific controversies. I show that several important sorts of non-revolutionary scientific disagreements were both identified and analyzed in Structure. Ultimately, I contend that Kuhn’s conception of science supports an approach to scientific controversies that has the potential to both reveal the importantly different sources of scientific disagreements and (...)
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  23.  10
    Ademola K. Braimoh (2002). Integrating Indigenous Knowledge and Soil Science to Develop a National Soil Classification System for Nigeria. Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):75-80.
    The absence of a national soilclassification system for Nigeria hinderssuccessful agrotechnology transfer inparticular, and agricultural development ingeneral. A discussion of the role of indigenousknowledge in agricultural development showsthat indigenous knowledge of the soil can beintegrated with modern soil science to developa soil classification system for the country.Much as local knowledge is invaluable foradvancing scientific knowledge and vice versa,caution is given against overestimating therole of indigenous knowledge in developmentalactivities. It is important to encourage theproper integration of all knowledge systems (...)
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  24.  3
    Peter Zachar (2010). Defending the Validity of Pragmatism in the Classification of Emotion. Emotion Review 2 (2):113-116.
    I critically analyze Kagan’s claim that in order to advance the science of emotion we should abandon the practice of referring to emotions with common folk psychological names, such as fear and anger. Kagan recommends discovering more homogenous constructs that are segregated by the type of evidence used to infer those constructs. He also argues that variable origins, biological implementations, and psychological and sociocultural contexts may combine to create distinct kinds of emotional states that require distinct names. I acknowledge that (...)
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  25.  26
    Dominic Murphy (2005). Psychiatry in the Scientific Image. MIT Press.
    In _ Psychiatry in the Scientific Image, _Dominic Murphy looks at psychiatry from the viewpoint of analytic philosophy of science, considering three issues: how we should conceive of, classify, and explain mental illness. If someone is said to have a mental illness, what about it is mental? What makes it an illness? How might we explain and classify it? A system of psychiatric classification settles these questions by distinguishing the mental illnesses and showing how they stand in relation (...)
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  26.  6
    Iep Author, Classification.
    Classification One of the main topics of scientific research is classification. Classification is the operation of distributing objects into classes or groups—which are, in general, less numerous than them. It has a long history that has developed during four periods: Antiquity, where its lineaments may be found in the writings of Plato and Aristotle; … Continue reading Classification →.
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  27.  47
    Gerhard Schurz & Karel Lambert (1994). Outline of a Theory of Scientific Understanding. Synthese 101 (1):65-120.
    The basic theory of scientific understanding presented in Sections 1–2 exploits three main ideas.First, that to understand a phenomenonP (for a given agent) is to be able to fitP into the cognitive background corpusC (of the agent).Second, that to fitP intoC is to connectP with parts ofC (via arguments in a very broad sense) such that the unification ofC increases.Third, that the cognitive changes involved in unification can be treated as sequences of shifts of phenomena inC. How the theory (...)
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  28.  8
    Daniel Parrochia, Classification. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Classification One of the main topics of scientific research is classification. Classification is the operation of distributing objects into classes or groups—which are, in general, less numerous than them. It has a long history that has developed during four periods: Antiquity, where its lineaments may be found in the writings of Plato and Aristotle; … Continue reading Classification →.
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  29.  22
    Ilie Parvu (1996). The Unity of Scientific Knowledge in the Framework of a Typological Approach of Theories. Theoria 11 (3):7-17.
    The paper proposes a typology of the scientific theories based on the modality of mathematizing (relying on the kind of mathematics which participates to the theory edification and the level of mathematical organizing of the theoretical frame). This gives us, like the classification of the geometries from the famous -Erlagen Program- initiated by Felix Klein, an internal principle for the connection of the different forms or levels of the theorizing, a constructive basis for the understanding of the complex (...)
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  30.  44
    James A. Overton (2013). “Explain” in Scientific Discourse. Synthese 190 (8):1383-1405.
    The philosophical literature on scientific explanation contains a striking diversity of accounts. I use novel empirical methods to address this fragmentation and assess the importance and generality of explanation in science. My evidence base is a set of 781 articles from one year of the journal Science, and I begin by applying text mining techniques to discover patterns in the usage of “explain” and other words of philosophical interest. I then use random sampling from the data set to develop (...)
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  31.  15
    Francesco Coniglione (2007). The Place of Polish Scientific Philosophy in the European Context. Polish Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):7-27.
    Scientific philosophy is a sui generis project and it is not possible to assimilate it into analytic philosophy tout court, nor, a fortiori, into the philosophy of science. Scientific philosophy was practised during the early stage of the Vienna Circle before the influence of Wittgenstein’s thought became decisive. Afterwards, there was a quick transition to philosophy intended as subsidary to science, as a mere classification of meaning, coming, in the end, to its liquidation with Carnap’s logical syntax. (...)
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  32.  25
    Victor Gijsbers (2014). Unification as a Measure of Natural Classification. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 29 (1):71-82.
    Recent interest in the idea that there can be scientific understanding without explanation lends new relevance to Duhem's notion of natural classification. According to Duhem, a classification that is natural teaches us something about nature without being explanatory. However, his conception of naturalnessleaves much to be desired from the point of view of contemporary discussions. In this paper, I argue that we can measure the naturalness of classification by using an amended version of the notion of (...)
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  33.  28
    Xiang Chen (2007). The Object Bias and the Study of Scientific Revolutions: Lessons From Developmental Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 20 (4):479 – 503.
    I propose a new perspective on the study of scientific revolutions. This is a transformation from an object-only perspective to an ontological perspective that properly treats objects and processes as distinct kinds. I begin my analysis by identifying an object bias in the study of scientific revolutions, where it takes the form of representing scientific revolutions as changes in classification of physical objects. I further explore the origins of this object bias. Findings from developmental (...) indicate that children cannot distinguish processes from objects until the age of 7, but they have already developed a core system of object knowledge as early as 4 months of age. The persistence of this core system is responsible for the object bias among mature adults, i.e., the tendency to apply knowledge of physical objects to temporal processes. In light of the distinction between physical objects and temporal processes, I redraw the picture of the Copernican revolution. Rather than seeing it as a taxonomic shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric cosmology, we should understand it as a transformation from a conceptual system that was built around an object concept to one that was built around a process concept. (shrink)
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  34.  25
    Andrew Lugg (1990). Pierre Duhem's Conception of Natural Classification. Synthese 83 (3):409 - 420.
    Duhem's discussion of physical theories as natural classifications is neither antithetical nor incidental to the main thrust of his philosophy of science. Contrary to what is often supposed, Duhem does not argue that theories are better thought of as economically organizing empirical laws than as providing information concerning the nature of the world. What he is primarily concerned with is the character and justification of the scientific method, not the logical status of theoretical entities. The crucial point to notice (...)
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  35.  72
    Sorin Bangu (2008). Reifying Mathematics? Prediction and Symmetry Classification. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (2):239-258.
    In this paper I reconstruct and critically examine the reasoning leading to the famous prediction of the ‘omega minus’ particle by M. Gell-Mann and Y. Ne’eman (in 1962) on the basis of a symmetry classification scheme. While the peculiarity of this prediction has occasionally been noticed in the literature, a detailed treatment of the methodological problems it poses has not been offered yet. By spelling out the characteristics of this type of prediction, I aim to underscore the challenges raised (...)
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  36.  25
    Matthew H. Slater & Andrea Borghini (forthcoming). Introduction: Lessons From the Scientific Butchery. In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints: Topics in Contemporary Philosophy, Vol. 8. MIT Press
    Good chefs know the importance of maintaining sharp knives in the kitchen. What’s their secret? A well-worn Taoist allegory offers some advice. The king asks about his butcher’s impressive knifework. “Ordinary butchers,” he replied “hack their way through the animal. Thus their knife always needs sharpening. My father taught me the Taoist way. I merely lay the knife by the natural openings and let it find its own way through. Thus it never needs sharpening” (Kahn 1995, vii; see also Watson (...)
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  37.  24
    J. Z. Sadler, Y. F. Hulgus & G. J. Agich (1994). On Values in Recent American Psychiatric Classification. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):261-277.
    The DSM-IV, like its predecessors, will be a major influence on American psychiatry. As a consequence, continuing analysis of its assumptions is essential. Review of the manuals as well as conceptually-oriented literature on DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV reveals that the authors of these classifications have paid little attention to the explicit and implicit value commitments made by the classifications. The response to DSM criticisms and controversy has often been to incorporate more scientific diversity into the classification, instead of (...)
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  38.  17
    Miquel Forcada (2006). Ibn Bajja and the Classification of the Sciences in Al-Andalus. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 16 (2):287-307.
    Coinciding with the scientific flourishing of the 5th / 11th century, which was favoured by the cultural policy of the Andalusi kingdoms ( muluk al-tawa'if ), Abu ‘ Umar ibn ‘ Abd al-Barr, Ibn Hazm and Sa‘ id al-Andalusi all dealt with the classification of the sciences in many works that are already known. Ibn Bajja began his career at the end of this period. In his glosses to al-Farabi’s commentary to the Isagoge he wrote a text on (...)
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  39.  10
    Ladislav Kvasz (2014). Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions Between Sociology and Epistemology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:78-84.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify Kuhn’s theory of scientific revolutions. We propose to discriminate between a scientific revolution, which is a sociological event of a change of attitude of the scientific community with respect to a particular theory, and an epistemic rupture, which is a linguistic fact consisting of a discontinuity in the linguistic framework in which this theory is formulated. We propose a classification of epistemic ruptures into four types. In the paper, (...)
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  40.  28
    Judith Simon (2011). A Socio-Epistemological Framework for Scientific Publishing. Social Epistemology 24 (3):201-218.
    In this paper I propose a new theoretical framework to analyse socio?technical epistemic practices and systems on the Web and beyond, and apply it to the topic of web?based scientific publishing. This framework is informed by social epistemology, science and technology studies (STS) and feminist epistemology. Its core consists of a tripartite classification of socio?technical epistemic systems based on the mechanisms of closure they employ to terminate socio?epistemic processes in which multiple agents are involved. In particular I distinguish (...)
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  41.  19
    Ilie Parvu (1996). The Unity of Scientific Knowledge in the Framework of a Typological Approach of Theories. Theoria 11 (3):7-17.
    The paper proposes a typology of the scientific theories based on the modality of mathematizing (relying on the kind of mathematics which participates to the theory edification and the level of mathematical organizing of the theoretical frame). This gives us, like the classification of the geometries from the famous -Erlagen Program- initiated by Felix Klein, an internal principle for the connection of the different forms or levels of the theorizing, a constructive basis for the understanding of the complex (...)
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  42.  30
    Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (2006). Interdisciplinarity and Peirce's Classification of the Sciences: A Centennial Reassessment. Perspectives on Science 14 (2):127-152.
    : This paper discusses the American scientist and philosopher Charles S. Peirce's (1839–1914) classification of the sciences from the contemporary perspective of interdisciplinary studies. Three theses are defended: (1) Studies on interdisciplinarity pertain to the intermediate class of Peirce's classification of all science, the sciences of review (retrospective science), ranking below the sciences of discovery (heuretic sciences) and above practical science (the arts). (2) Scientific research methods adopted by interdisciplinary inquiries are cross-categorial. Making them (...)
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  43.  20
    J. Agich George (1994). On Values in Recent American Psychiatric Classification. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3).
    The DSM-IV, like its predecessors, will be a major influence on American psychiatry. As a consequence, continuing analysis of its assumptions is essential. Review of the manuals as well as conceptually-oriented literature on DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV reveals that the authors of these classifications have paid little attention to the explicit and implicit value commitments made by the classifications. The response to DSM criticisms and controversy has often been to incorporate more scientific diversity into the classification, instead of (...)
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  44.  7
    M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2011). On Whose Authority? Temminck's Debates on Zoological Classification and Nomenclature: 1820-1850. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):445 - 481.
    By following the arguments between Coenraad J. Temminck and fellow ornithologists Louis J.-P. Vieillot and Nicholas Vigors, this paper sketches, to a degree, the state of zoological classification and nomenclature between 1825 and 1840 in Europe. The discussions revolved around the problems caused by an unstable nomenclature, the different definitions of genera and species and the best method to achieve a natural system of classification. As more and more naturalists concerned with classifying and arranging the groups of birds (...)
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  45.  3
    Elisabeth Nemeth (1994). Empiricism and the Norms of Scientific Knowledge: Some Reflections on Otto Neurath and Pierre Bourdieu. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 2:23-32.
    In this paper I would like to discuss some normative aspects of Otto Neurath’s concept of scientific knowledge. I will take some reflections of Pierre Bourdieu, a sociologist known for his harsh criticism of “philosophers” as a point of reference. I have decided to employ his “non-philosophical” perspective because of its convergence with the very tradition to which the Institute Vienna Circle has aligned itself. That tradition derived the form and power of its beginnings from the unbiased attitude, the (...)
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  46.  4
    Jan Todd (1993). Science at the Periphery: An Interpretation of Australian Scientific and Technological Dependency and Development Prior to 1914. Annals of Science 50 (1):33-58.
    Divergent models applied to the chronology of Australian science leave us with two particular problems unresolved: was late-nineteenth-century science in this peripheral setting becoming more or less dependent on its British fountainhead, and what is the meaning of the reportedly narrow, utilitarian focus of ‘colonial science’? This paper argues that a complex interplay of imperial and local imperatives makes neat classification and periodization of Australia's scientific development a hazardous venture. Compounding the complexity is the nature of the relationship (...)
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  47.  10
    Roger Ariew (1990). Christopher Clavius and the Classification of Sciences. Synthese 83 (2):293 - 300.
    I discuss two questions: (1) would Duhem have accepted the thesis of the continuity of scientific methodology? and (2) to what extent is the Oxford tradition of classification/subalternation of sciences continuous with early modern science? I argue that Duhem would have been surprised by the claim that scientific methodology is continuous; he expected at best only a continuity of physical theories, which he was trying to isolate from the perpetual fluctuations of methods and metaphysics. I also argue (...)
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  48.  10
    Yorick Wilks (1990). Christopher Clavius and the Classification of Sciences. Synthese 83 (2):293-300.
    I discuss two questions: (1) would Duhem have accepted the thesis of the continuity of scientific methodology? and (2) to what extent is the Oxford tradition of classification/subalternation of sciences continuous with early modern science? I argue that Duhem would have been surprised by the claim that scientific methodology is continuous; he expected at best only a continuity of physical theories, which he was trying to isolate from the perpetual fluctuations of methods and metaphysics. I also argue (...)
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  49.  3
    Sergio F. Martínez (2001). Historia y combinatoria de las representaciones científicas. Comentarios a la propuesta de Ibarra y Mormann (History and Combinations Scientific Representations. Comments to a Proposal by Ibarra and Mormann). Critica 33 (99):75 - 95.
    En este texto se examina críticamente la teoría combinatoria de las representaciones científicas de Andoni Ibarra y Thomas Mormann. El núcleo de la crítica va dirigido a mostrar que una serie de estudios sobre la ciencia, que ellos mismos mencionan, sugiere que la clasificación en tipos de representaciones propuesta es problemática. Es más, esos mismos estudios muestran que por lo menos muchas representaciones tienen una dimensión histórica que parece imposible capturar por medio del tipo de formalismo propuesto. /// Ibarra and (...)
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  50. Margaret A. Boden (1969). Miracles and Scientific Explanation. Ratio 11:137 - 144.
    A "MIRACLE" IS AN OBSERVABLE EVENT INEXPLICABLE BY SCIENCE BUT EXPLICABLE IN TERMS OF SOME SUPERNATURAL AGENT. UNLESS ALL TALK OF SUPERNATURAL AGENCY IS MEANINGLESS, THIS CONCEPT SUCCESSFULLY DENOTES A (PERHAPS EMPTY) CLASS. DESPITE THE FALSIFIABILITY OF SCIENCE, IT MIGHT SOMETIMES BE REASONABLE TO DENY THE POSSIBILITY OF ANY FUTURE SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF A GIVEN EVENT. BUT THAT EVENT COULD BE CLASSIFIED AS A "MIRACLE" ONLY IF IT ACCORDED WITH CERTAIN MORAL AND THEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PARTICULAR SUPERNATURAL BEING (...)
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