Search results for 'scientific method' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  32
    Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen (2015). Scientific Method. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific (...)” in science education and as seen by scientists 6.2 Privileged methods and ‘gold standards’ 6.3 Scientific method in the court room 6.4 Deviating practices 7. Conclusion Bibliography Academic Tools Other Internet Resources Related Entries . (shrink)
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  2. John T. Sanders, Dynamical Systems and Scientific Method.
    Progress in the last few decades in what is widely known as “Chaos Theory” has plainly advanced understanding in the several sciences it has been applied to. But the manner in which such progress has been achieved raises important questions about scientific method and, indeed, about the very objectives and character of science. In this presentation, I hope to engage my audience in a discussion of several of these important new topics.
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  3.  17
    Kevin McCain (2013). Scientific Method in Brief, by Hugh G. Gauch, Jr. [REVIEW] Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):310-313.
  4.  41
    Paul Humphreys (1995). Computational Science and Scientific Method. Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
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  5. Paul Humphreys (2004). Extending Ourselves Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Computational methods have become the dominant technique in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of these new methods and their consequences for scientific method. This book will be of interest to philosophers of science and to anyone interested in the role played by computers in modern science.
     
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  6.  59
    Nicholas Maxwell (2016). Can Scientific Method Help Us Create a Wiser World? In N. Dalal, A. Intezari & M. Heitz (eds.), Practical Wisdom in the Age of Technology: Insights, Issues and Questions for a New Millennium. Routledge 147-161.
    Two great problems of learning confront humanity: (1) learning about the universe, and about ourselves as a part of the universe, and (2) learning how to make progress towards as good a world as possible. We solved the first problem when we created modern science in the 17th century, but we have not yet solved the second problem. This puts us in a situation of unprecedented danger. Modern science and technology enormously increase our power to act, but not our power (...)
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  7. A. Campbell Garnett (1942). Scientific Method and the Concept of Emergence. Journal of Philosophy 39 (August):477-86.
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  8.  25
    H. Rogosin (1942). Scientific Method in Current Psychology. Philosophy of Science 9 (April):183-188.
  9. William L. Harper (2014). Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, (...)
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  10.  68
    James Scott Johnston (2002). John Dewey and the Role of Scientific Method in Aesthetic Experience. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):1-15.
    In this paper I examine a controversy ongoingwithin current Deweyan philosophy of educationscholarship regarding the proper role and scopeof science in Dewey's concept of inquiry. Theside I take is nuanced. It is one that issensitive to the importance that Dewey attachesto science as the best method of solvingproblems, while also sensitive to thosestatements in Dewey that counter a wholesalereductivism of inquiry to scientific method. Iutilize Dewey's statements regarding the placeaccorded to inquiry in aesthetic experiences ascharacteristic of his (...)
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  11. Nicholas Maxwell (1972). A Critique of Popper's Views on Scientific Method. Philosophy of Science 39 (2):131-152.
    This paper considers objections to Popper's views on scientific method. It is argued that criticism of Popper's views, developed by Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos, are not too damaging, although they do require that Popper's views be modified somewhat. It is argued that a much more serious criticism is that Popper has failed to provide us with any reason for holding that the methodological rules he advocates give us a better hope of realizing the aims of science than any (...)
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  12. Robert Nola (2007). Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction. Acumen.
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? -/- Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just “pick up” in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is (...)
     
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  13.  76
    Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.) (2000). After Popper, Kuhn, and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Some think that issues to do with scientific method are last century's stale debate; Popper was an advocate of methodology, but Kuhn, Feyerabend, and others are alleged to have brought the debate about its status to an end. The papers in this volume show that issues in methodology are still very much alive. Some of the papers reinvestigate issues in the debate over methodology, while others set out new ways in which the debate has developed in the last (...)
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  14.  71
    Darrell P. Rowbottom & Sarah Jane Aiston (2006). The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research. Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):137–156.
    Whether educational research should employ the ‘scientific method’ has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: ‘positivist’ or ‘interpretivist’. In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research methods textbooks on the market—namely Research Methods in Education by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison—this paper demonstrates the misconception of science in operation and the perversely false dichotomy that has (...)
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  15. Donald Gillies (1996). Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method. Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question (...)
     
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  16. Barry Gower (2012). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: (...)
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  17.  68
    Katherine Dunlop (2013). Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology by William L. Harper (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (3):489-491.
    Not a full treatment of Newton’s scientific method, this book discusses his optical research only in passing (342–43). Its subtitle better indicates its scope: it focuses narrowly on the argument for universal gravitation in Book III of the Principia. The philosophical project is to set out an “ideal of empirical success” realized by the argument. Newton claims his method is to “deduce” propositions “from phenomena.” On Harper’s interpretation Newton’s phenomena are patterns of data, which are used to (...)
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  18.  31
    Jesus P. Zamora Bonilla (2000). Truthlikeness, Rationality and Scientific Method. Synthese 122 (3):321-335.
    I. A. Kieseppä''s criticism of the methodological use of the theory of verisimilitude, and D. B. Resnik''s arguments against the explanation of scientific method by appeal to scientific aims are critically considered. Since the notion of verisimilitude was introduced as an attempt to show that science can be seen as a rational enterprise in the pursuit of truth, defenders of the verisimilitude programme need to show that scientific norms can be interpreted (at least in principle) as (...)
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  19.  14
    Tiberiu Popa (2014). Scientific Method in Meteorology IV. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):306-34.
    This article explores the main aspects of Aristotle’s scientific method in Meteorology IV. Dispositional properties such as solidifiability or combustibility play a dominant role in Meteor. IV (a) in virtue of their central place in the generic division of homoeomers, based on successive differentiation and multiple differentiae, and (b) in virtue of their role in revealing otherwise undetectable characteristics of uniform materials (composition and physical structure). While Aristotle often starts with accounts of ingredients and their ratio (e.g., solids (...)
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  20.  51
    James Blachowicz (2009). How Science Textbooks Treat Scientific Method: A Philosopher's Perspective. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):303--344.
    This paper examines, from the point of view of a philosopher of science, what it is that introductory science textbooks say and do not say about 'scientific method'. Seventy introductory texts in a variety of natural and social sciences provided the material for this study. The inadequacy of these textbook accounts is apparent in three general areas: (a) the simple empiricist view of science that tends to predominate; (b) the demarcation between scientific and non-scientific inquiry and (...)
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  21.  41
    Darrin W. Belousek (1998). Husserl on Scientific Method and Conceptual Change: A Realist Appraisal. Synthese 115 (1):71-98.
    Husserl claimed that all theoretical scientific concepts originate in and are valid in reference to 'life-world' experience and that scientific traditions preserve the sense and validity of such concepts through unitary and cumulative change. Each of these claims will, in turn, be sympathetically laid out and assessed in comparison with more standard characterizations of scientific method and conceptual change as well as the history of physics, concerning particularly the challenge they may pose for scientific realism. (...)
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  22. Carol Cleland, Historical Science, Experimental Science, and the Scientific Method.
    Many scientists believe that there is a uniform, interdisciplinary method for the prac- tice of good science. The paradigmatic examples, however, are drawn from classical ex- perimental science. Insofar as historical hypotheses cannot be tested in controlled labo- ratory settings, historical research is sometimes said to be inferior to experimental research. Using examples from diverse historical disciplines, this paper demonstrates that such claims are misguided. First, the reputed superiority of experimental research is based upon accounts of scientific methodology (...)
     
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  23.  40
    Willem R. de Jong (1986). Hobbes's Logic: Language and Scientific Method. History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (2):123-142.
    This paper analyses the relationship between Hobbes's theory of language and his theory of science and method. It is shown that Hobbes, at least in his Computatio sive Logica (1655), deviates in some measure from the traditional (Aristotelian) model of language. In this model speech is considered to be a fairly unproblematic expression of thought, which itself is independent of language. Basing himself on a nominalist account of universals, Hobbes states that the demonstration or assertion of universal propositions presupposes (...)
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  24.  24
    Jesus P. Zamora Bonilla (2000). Truthlikeness, Rationality and Scientific Method. Synthese 122 (3):321 - 335.
    I. A. Kieseppä's criticism of the methodological use of the theory of verisimilitude, and D. B. Resnik's arguments against the explanation of scientific method by appeal to scientific aims are critically considered. Since the notion of verisimilitude was introduced as an attempt to show that science can be seen as a rational enterprise in the pursuit of truth, defenders of the verisimilitude programme need to show that scientific norms can be interpreted (at least in principle) as (...)
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  25. L. Pearce Williams (1973). Kant, Naturphilosophie, and Scientific Method. In Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.), Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington,Indiana University Press 3--22.
  26.  27
    Abraham D. Stone, On Scientific Method As a Method for Testing the Legitimacy of Concepts.
    Traditional attempts to delineate the distinctive rationality of modern science have taken it for granted that the purpose of empirical research is to test judgments. The choice of concepts to use in those judgments is therefore seen either a matter of indifference (Popper) or as important choice which must be made, so to speak, in advance of all empirical research (Carnap). I argue that scientific method aims precisely at empirical testing of concepts, and that even the simplest (...) ex- periment or observation results in conceptual change. (shrink)
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  27.  10
    P. Kosso (2009). The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method. Science and Education 18 (1):33-42.
    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media (...)
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  28.  24
    William T. Lynch (2005). The Ghost of Wittgenstein: Forms of Life, Scientific Method, and Cultural Critique. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):139-174.
    In developing an "internal" sociology of science, the sociology of scientific knowledge drew on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy to reinterpret traditional epistemological topics in sociological terms. By construing scientific reasoning as rule following within a collective, sociologists David Bloor and Harry Collins effectively blocked outside criticism of a scientific field, whether scientific, philosophical, or political. Ethnomethodologist Michael Lynch developed an alternative, Wittgensteinian reading that similarly blocked philosophical or political critique, while also disallowing analytical appeals to historical or (...)
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  29.  3
    A. D. Ritchie (1945). Scientific Method in Social Studies. Philosophy 20 (75):3 - 16.
    There is a short answer to the question, whether scientific method can be applied to the study of the social relations of men, or, whether social sciences are possible; it is that these sciences exist and are in fact among the most ancient. Their success has perhaps been less startling than that of the physical sciences and they have perhaps been pursued with less enthusiasm. But there are reasons for this inherent in the nature of the social sciences, (...)
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  30. Keith J. Cooper (1985). Scientific Method and the Appraisal of Religion: KEITH J. COOPER. Religious Studies 21 (3):319-329.
    In looking for criteria by which to assess religious conceptual systems, many philosophers have turned for help to scientific methodology. Perhaps this is because they felt philosophers of science were themselves looking in the right epistemological direction, and had a viable way of describing what they saw. Richard Swinburne has provided a strong, sustained treatment of the application of scientific method to religious truth claims, in The Existence of God . He there makes use of what he (...)
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  31. Donald S. Lee Donald S. Lee (1968). Scientific Method as a Stage Process. Dialectica 22 (1):28-44.
    . — The scientific method can be understood as a sequence of stages of types of activity undertaken to construct explanatory hypotheses which are verifiable. These stages, origination, deduction, experimentation, and confirmation, are each subdivided into several phases. The stages and phases are related by an order of precedence in which any given phase has to be preceded by the one before it but does not necessarily lead to the one after it. Such a dynamic outline of the (...)
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  32. Saul Fisher (1997). Science and Skepticism in the Seventeenth Century: The Atomism and Scientific Method of Pierre Gassendi. Dissertation, City University of New York
    In this account of the philosophical and scientific pursuits of Pierre Gassendi , I challenge a traditional view which says that the inspiration, motivation, and demonstrative grounds for his physical atomism consist not in his empiricism but in his historicist commitments. Indeed, Gassendi suggests that it's a consequence of our best theory of knowledge and sound scientific method that we get evidence which warrants his microphysical theory. ;The primary novelty of his theory of empirical knowledge is his (...)
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  33. Dusan Galik (2009). Scientific Rationality and Scientific Method. Filozofia 64 (1):1-8.
    The aim of the paper is to give a description of the development of understanding scientific method in the history of science and philosophy of science. The thesis is defended that crucial changes in understanding scientific method had fundamental consequences for the development in scientific knowledge, for the position of science in the system of knowledge and for its role in human culture. Basic attitudes to scientific method in contemporary philosophy and philosophy of (...)
     
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  34. Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.) (1973). Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington,Indiana University Press.
     
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  35. Donald Gillies (1996). Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies focuses on two key topics within AI: machine learning in the Turing tradition and the development of logic programming and its connection with non-monotonic logic. Demonstrating how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, he goes on to suggest a (...)
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  36.  56
    Steven Gimbel (ed.) (2011). Exploring the Scientific Method: Cases and Questions. The University of Chicago Press.
    This is not how science works. But science does work, and here award-winning teacher and scholar Steven Gimbel provides students the tools to answer for themselves this question: What actually is the scientific method?
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  37. Barry Gower (1996). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: (...)
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  38. Paul Humphreys (2007). Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method. Oxford University Press Usa.
    Computational methods have become the dominant technique in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of these new methods and their consequences for scientific method.
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  39. Richard Kitchener (1999). The Conduct of Inquiry: An Introduction of Logic and Scientific Method. Upa.
    The Conduct of Inquiry is a practical introduction to logic and scientific method. It provides a comprehensive and current discussion of the logic of scientific method and scientific reasoning. The author places consistent stress on the evaluation of actual scientific reasoning and the development of critical thinking skills by employing numerous examples that require the application of the principles discussed in the text. Each chapter lays out basic, underlying principles of logic and scientific (...)
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  40. William L. Harper (2011). Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, (...)
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  41. William Thomas (2007). The Heuristics of War: Scientific Method and the Founders of Operations Research. British Journal for the History of Science 40 (2):251-274.
    This paper explores the relationship between operations research as practised during the Second World War and the claims of many of its proponents that it constituted an application of scientific method. It begins with an examination of the pre-war work of two of the most notable leaders in wartime OR, the British experimental physicist Patrick Blackett and the American theoretical physicist Philip Morse. Despite differences in their scientific work, each saw science as an essentially creative act relying (...)
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  42.  9
    Gary G. Tibbetts (2013). How the Great Scientists Reasoned: The Scientific Method in Action. Elsevier.
    1. Introduction : humanity's urge to understand -- 2. Elements of scientific thinking : skepticism, careful reasoning, and exhaustive evaluation are all vital. Science Is universal -- Maintaining a critical attitude. Reasonable skepticism -- Respect for the truth -- Reasoning. Deduction -- Induction -- Paradigm shifts -- Evaluating scientific hypotheses. Ockham's razor -- Quantitative evaluation -- Verification by others -- Statistics : correlation and causation -- Statistics : the indeterminacy of the small -- Careful definition -- Science at (...)
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  43.  6
    Salim Rashid (1994). John von Neumann, Scientific Method and Empirical Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 1 (2):279-294.
    The evolution of John von Neumann's scientific interests and a study of his writings show that von Neumann increasingly supported an empirical, computational method. This is in stark contrast with the extant view of von Neumann as a pure theorist.
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  44. Mary Tiles (1988). Scientific Method: Mary Tiles. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 24:31-68.
    The thought that it might be possible to develop a method of scientific discovery, a procedure of investigation and reasoning which, so long as its principles were studiously followed, would be guaranteed to result in scientific knowledge, has long been recognized to be a mere philosophers' dream, with no more possibility of fulfilment than the alchemists' dream of producing a philosophers' stone which would turn base metals into gold. Yet it remains the case that the authority of (...)
     
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  45.  41
    Luca Moretti (2014). String Theory and the Scientific Method: Interview with Richard Dawid. The Reasoner 8 (8):87-89.
  46. Paul Feyerabend (1981). Realism, Rationalism, and Scientific Method. Cambridge University Press.
    Over the past thirty years Paul Feyerabend has developed an extremely distinctive and influentical approach to problems in the philosophy of science. The most important and seminal of his published essays are collected here in two volumes, with new introductions to provide an overview and historical perspective on the discussions of each part. Volume 1 presents papers on the interpretation of scientific theories, together with papers applying the views developed to particular problems in philosophy and physics. The essays in (...)
     
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  47.  60
    Barry Gower (1997). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    The results, conclusions and claims of science are often taken to be reliable because they arise from the use of a distinctive method. Yet today, there is widespread skepticism as to whether we can validly talk of method in modern science. This outstanding survey explains how this controversy has developed since the 17th century, and explores its philosophical basis.
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  48.  43
    Imre Lakatos, Paul Feyerabend & Matteo Motterlini (2000). For and Against Method: Including Lakatos's Lectures on Scientific Method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend Correspondence. University of Chicago Press.
    The work that helped to determine Paul Feyerabend's fame and notoriety, Against Method,stemmed from Imre Lakatos's challenge: "In 1970 Imre cornered me at a party. 'Paul,' he said, 'you have such strange ideas.
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  49.  9
    Morris Raphael Cohen (1944). An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method. [Madison, Wis.]Pub. For the United States Armed Forces Institute by Harcourt, Brace and Company.
    A text that would find a place for the realistic formalism of Aristotle, the scientific penetration of Peirce, the pedagogical soundness of Dewey, and the ...
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  50.  55
    Fedde Benedictus (2014). String Theory & the Scientific Method. Foundations of Physics 44 (6):589-593.
    The PreambleIn the early seventies the newly discovered gauge symmetries had made it possible to give a unified description of three of the four basic forces in nature.Dawid [1]. However, it remained a mystery how the force of gravity was to be incorporated in the resulting standard model. In 1974 it was proposed by Joel Scherk and John Schwarz that string theory—which until then was regarded as a theory only of hadrons—was a theory that could unite the whole of microphysics. (...)
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