Search results for 'separateness of persons' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Marc Fleurbaey & Alex Voorhoeve (2012). Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (3):381-398.score: 180.0
    The difference between the unity of the individual and the separateness of persons requires that there be a shift in the moral weight that we accord to changes in utility when we move from making intrapersonal tradeoffs to making interpersonal tradeoffs. We examine which forms of egalitarianism can, and which cannot, account for this shift. We argue that a form of egalitarianism which is concerned only with the extent of outcome inequality cannot account for this shift. We also (...)
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  2. Matt Zwolinski (2008). The Separateness of Persons and Liberal Theory. Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (2):147-165.score: 123.0
    The fact that persons are separate in some descriptive sense is relatively uncontroversial. But one of the distinctive ideas of contemporary liberal political philosophy is that the descriptive fact of our separateness is normatively momentous. John Rawls and Robert Nozick both take the separateness of persons to provide a foundation for their rejection of utilitarianism and for their own positive political theories. So why do their respective versions of liberalism look so different? This paper claims that (...)
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  3. Alastair Norcross (2009). Two Dogmas of Deontology: Aggregation, Rights, and the Separateness of Persons. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):76-95.score: 120.0
    One of the currently popular dogmata of anti-consequentialism is that consequentialism doesn't respect, recognize, or in some important way account for what is referred to as the The charge is often made, but rarely explained in any detail, much less argued for. In this paper I explain what I take to be the most plausible interpretation of the separateness of persons charge. I argue that the charge itself can be deconstructed into at least two further objections to consequentialist (...)
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  4. Timothy Hinton (2011). Rights, Duties and the Separateness of Persons. Philosophical Papers 38 (1):73-91.score: 120.0
    Let the fact of the separateness of persons be that we are separate individuals, each with his or her own life to lead. This is to be distinguished from the doctrine of the separateness of persons: the claim that the fact of our separateness is especially deep and important, morally speaking. In this paper, I argue that we ought to reject this doctrine. I focus most of my attention on the suggestion that the separateness (...)
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  5. Michael Otsuka (2012). Prioritarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (03):365-380.score: 120.0
    For a prioritarian by contrast to a utilitarian, whether a certain quantity of utility falls within the boundary of one person's life or another's makes the following moral difference: the worse the life of a person who could receive a given benefit, the stronger moral reason we have to confer this benefit on this person. It would seem, therefore, that prioritarianism succeeds, where utilitarianism fails, to ‘take seriously the distinction between persons’. Yet I show that, contrary to these appearances, (...)
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  6. Iwao Hirose (2013). Aggregation and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 25 (2):182-205.score: 120.0
    Many critics of utilitarianism claim that we should reject interpersonal aggregation because aggregative principles do not take the separateness of persons seriously. In this article, I will reject this claim. I will first elucidate the theoretical structure of aggregation. I will then consider various interpretations of the notion of the separateness of persons and clarify what exactly those critics are trying to reject by appealing to the notion of the separateness of persons. I will (...)
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  7. Tim Christie (2009). Natural Separateness: Why Parfit's Reductionist Account of Persons Fails to Support Consequentialism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (2):178-195.score: 114.0
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  8. Dennis McKerlie (1988). Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):205 - 225.score: 93.0
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  9. James Lindemann Nelson (2011). Internal Organs, Integral Selves, and Good Communities: Opt-Out Organ Procurement Policies and the 'Separateness of Persons'. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (5):289-300.score: 93.0
    Most people accept that if they can save someone from death at very little cost to themselves, they must do so; call this the ‘duty of easy rescue.’ At least for many such people, an instance of this duty is to allow their vital organs to be used for transplantation. Accordingly, ‘opt-out’ organ procurement policies, based on a powerfully motivated responsibility to render costless or very low-cost lifesaving aid, would seem presumptively permissible. Counterarguments abound. Here I consider, in particular, objections (...)
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  10. Richard Yetter Chappell (2013). Value Receptacles. Noûs 47 (3):n/a-n/a.score: 90.0
    Utilitarianism is often rejected on the grounds that it fails to respect the separateness of persons, instead treating people as mere “receptacles of value”. I develop several different versions of this objection, and argue that, despite their prima facie plausibility, they are all mistaken. Although there are crude forms of utilitarianism that run afoul of these objections, I advance a new form of the view—‘token-pluralistic utilitarianism’—that does not.
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  11. Carol Rovane (2004). Alienation and the Alleged Separateness of Persons. The Monist 87 (4):554-572.score: 90.0
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  12. Alastair Norcross (2006). Aggregation, Rights, and the Separateness of Persons. Southwest Philosophy Review 22 (1):1-15.score: 90.0
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  13. Sam Black (2001). Altruism and the Separateness of Persons. Social Theory and Practice 27 (3):361-385.score: 90.0
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  14. David O. Brink (1997). Rational Egoism and the Separateness of Persons. In J. Dancy (ed.), Reading Parfit. Blackwell. 96--134.score: 90.0
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  15. Matt Zwolinski (2003). Person-Neutrality and the Separateness of Persons. Southwest Philosophical Studies 25:95.score: 90.0
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  16. Aistė Račkauskaitė-Burneikienė (2013). The Impact of General Human Rights on the Protection of Persons Belonging to National Minorities. Jurisprudence 20 (3):923-950.score: 80.0
    The protection of national minorities forms a constituent part of the international protection of human rights. General human rights treaties (the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and others) create guarantees for the protection of persons belonging to national minorities on the basis of individual human rights. Although the mentioned treaties are not specifically devoted for the protection of (...)
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  17. Caspar Hare (2009). The Ethics of Morphing. Philosophical Studies 145 (1):111 - 130.score: 75.0
    Here's one piece of practical reasoning: "If I do this then a person will reap some benefits and suffer some costs. On balance, the benefits outweigh the costs. So I ought to do it." Here's another: "If I do this then one person will reap some benefits and another will suffer some costs. On balance, the benefits to the one person outweigh the costs to the other. So I ought to do it." Many influential philosophers say that there is something (...)
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  18. Edita Gruodytė, Julija Kiršienė & Paulius Astromskis (2010). The Problem of Bankruptcy of Natural Persons: Legal Aspects (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 121 (3):213-232.score: 72.0
    The modern doctrine of the “fresh start” reflects the differences between the past paradigm of punishment of the insolvent person and the current focus on the economic effectiveness and activeness. Global practice in the field of insolvency shows that the “limited liability rule” is eminently effective in the economic and social perspective. The appending threat of abuse and misapplication of the system might be neutralized through the legal regulation of prevention and rehabilitation means, which are analyzed in this article. The (...)
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  19. Maeve O'Donovan (2010). Cognitive Diversity in the Global Academy: Why the Voices of Persons with Cognitive Disabilities Are Vital to Intellectual Diversity. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (3):171-185.score: 65.0
    In asking scholars to reflect on the structures and practices of academic knowledge that render alternative knowledge traditions irrelevant and invisible, as well as on the ways these must change for the academy to cease functioning as an instrument of westernization rather than as an authentically global and diverse intellectual commons, the editor of this special issue of the Journal of Academic Ethics is envisaging a world much needed and much resisted. A great deal of the conversation about diversity in (...)
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  20. Elizabeth Schechter (2009). Persons and Psychological Frameworks: A Critique of Tye. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (2-3):141-163.score: 65.0
    This paper concerns the relationships between persons, brains, behaviour, and psychological explanation. Tye defines a ‘psychological framework’ (PF) as a set of token beliefs, desires, intentions, memories, streams of consciousness, higher-order mental states, etc., that ‘form a coherent whole’ and against which a creature’s ‘behavior can be explained’ (p. 141). A person is the subject of such a psychological framework. Each person has one PF, and with each new PF there is a new person. Meanwhile materialism tells us, according (...)
     
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  21. Anik Waldow (2010). Identity of Persons and Objects: Why Hume Considered Both as Two Sides of the Same Coin. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 8 (2):147-167.score: 64.0
    By investigating one of the major inconsistencies that Hume's parallel treatment of the identity of persons and objects issues, this essay offers an unconventional account of what it needs to avoid a dualist picture of mind and world. It will be argued that much hinges on the question of whether or not one is willing to allow the principally unperceivable to enter into one's concept of reality. Hume, as will be shown, rejects this approach: he denies that we have (...)
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  22. Duncan Macintosh (1993). Persons and the Satisfaction of Preferences: Problems in the Rational Kinematics of Values. Journal of Philosophy 60 (4):163-180.score: 63.0
    If one can get the targets of one's current wants only by acquiring new wants (as in the Prisoner's Dilemma), is it rational to do so? Arguably not. For this could justify adopting unsatisfiable wants, violating the rational duty to maximize one's utility. Further, why cause a want's target if one will not then want it? And people "are" their wants. So if these change, people will not survive to enjoy their wants' targets. I reply that one rationally need not (...)
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  23. Jack Martin (2011). The Interactivist Social Ontology of Persons: A Descriptive and Evaluative Synthesis, with Two Suggestions. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 21 (1):173-183.score: 62.0
    Within the interactivist, process approach to metaphysics, Bickhard (Social life and social knowledge: toward a process account of development. Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2008a; Topoi 27: 139–149, 2008b; New Ideas Psychol, in press) has developed a social ontology of persons that avoids many well-known philosophical difficulties concerning the genesis, development, and application of the rational and moral capabilities and responsibilities that characterize persons. Interactivism positions developing persons inside sets of social conventions within which they participate in their (...)
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  24. Renante Pilapil (2012). From Psychologism to Personhood: Honneth, Recognition, and the Making of Persons. Res Publica 18 (1):39-51.score: 60.7
    The paper explores the philosophical anthropology and the moral grammar of recognition. It does so by examining how the formation of the self is informed by social recognition, the result of which can motivate individuals and groups to engage in struggles for recognition. To pursue this task, the discussion focuses on the insights of Honneth, who grounds his theory of recognition in the intersubjective relations between persons. The idea that recognition impacts the formation of personal identity is regarded as (...)
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  25. Domènec Melé (2012). The Firm as a “Community of Persons”: A Pillar of Humanistic Business Ethos. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 106 (1):89-101.score: 59.0
    The article starts by arguing that seeing the firm as a mere nexus of contracts or as an abstract entity where different stakeholder interests concur is insufficient for a “humanistic business ethos”, which entails a complete view of the human being. It seems more appropriate to understand the firm as a human community, a concept which can be found in several sources, including managerial literature, business ethics scholars, and Catholic Social Teaching. In addition, there are also philosophical grounds that support (...)
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  26. Sheila Wildeman (2013). Protecting Rights and Building Capacities: Challenges to Global Mental Health Policy in Light of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):48-73.score: 59.0
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified mental health as a priority for global health promotion and international development to be targeted through promulgation of evidence-based medical practices, health systems reform, and respect for human rights. Yet these overlapping strategies are marked by tensions as the historical primacy of expert-led initiatives is increasingly subject to challenge by new social movements — in particular, disabled persons' organizations (DPOs). These tensions come into focus upon situating the WHO's mental health policy initiatives (...)
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  27. Janet E. Lord, David Suozzi & Allyn L. Taylor (2010). Lessons From the Experience of U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Addressing the Democratic Deficit in Global Health Governance. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):564-579.score: 59.0
    This article reviews the contributions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) to the progressive development of both international human rights law and global health law and governance. It provides a summary of the global situation of persons with disabilities and outlines the progressive development of international disability standards, noting the salience of the shift from a medical model of disability to a rights-based social model reflected in the CRPD. Thereafter, the article considers (...)
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  28. I. I. I. Dunson (2010). The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-Historical Selves (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (2):195-197.score: 59.0
    After so much scholarship has been devoted to the dispute between the defenders and critics of liberalism, it is reasonable to ask whether the topic has been exhausted or, at the very least, if the rival and incommensurable options have been so thoroughly defined that one simply has to pick a side. John Christman's new book, The Politics of Persons, demonstrates that this intuition is flawed. The central concern of this compelling work is to outline an alternative conception of (...)
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  29. Keith Graham (2004). Altruism, Self-Interest, and the Indistinctness of Persons. In Jonathan Seglow (ed.), The Ethics of Altruism. F. Cass Publishers. 49-67.score: 59.0
    The problem of altruism is to determine intellectually compelling grounds for allowing others' interests and desires to weigh with us as well as our own. Two considerations impact on that problem. One concerns the clustering of particular interests and desires. The doctrine of the distinctness of persons gives prime importance to their origin in a particular individual. But clustering across individuals, rather than within individuals, may be more reasonable in the light of meta-attitudes towards our interests and desires and (...)
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  30. John Finnis (2013). The Priority of Persons Revisited. American Journal of Jurisprudence 58 (1):45-62.score: 59.0
    This essay, in the context of a conference on justice, reviews and reaffirms the main theses of “The Priority of Persons” (2000), and supplements them with the benefit of hindsight in six theses. The wrongness of Roe v. Wade goes wider than was indicated. The secularist scientistic or naturalist dimension of the reigning contemporary ideology is inconsistent with the spiritual reality manifested in every word or gesture of its proponents. The temporal continuity of the existence of human persons (...)
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  31. Nandini Devi (2013). Supported Decision‐Making and Personal Autonomy for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):792-806.score: 59.0
    Making decisions is an important component of everyday living, and issues surrounding autonomy and self-determination are crucial for persons with intellectual disabilities. Article 12 (Equal Recognition before the Law) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities addresses this issue of decision-making for persons with disabilities: the recognition of legal capacity. Legal capacity means recognizing the right to make decisions for oneself. Article 12 is also moving in the direction of supported decision-making, as an (...)
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  32. Lynne Rudder Baker (2002). The Ontological Status of Persons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):370-388.score: 58.0
    Throughout his illustrious career, Roderick Chisholm was concerned with the nature of persons. On his view, persons are what he called ‘entia per se.’ They exist per se, in their own right. I too have developed an account of persons—I call it the ‘Constitution View’—an account that is different in important ways from Chisholm’s. Here, however, I want to focus on a thesis that Chisholm and I agree on: that persons have ontological significance in virtue of (...)
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  33. Ingmar Persson (1999). Our Identity and the Separability of Persons and Organisms. Dialogue 38 (03):519-.score: 58.0
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  34. Eric Entrican Wilson (2013). Kant on Autonomy and the Value of Persons. Kantian Review 18 (2):241-262.score: 58.0
    This essay seeks to contribute to current debates about value in Kant's ethics. Its main objective is to dislodge the widely shared intuition that his view of autonomy requires constructivism or some other alternative to moral realism. I argue the following. Kant seems to think that the value of persons is due to their very nature, not to what anyone decides is the case (however rational or pure those decisions may be). He also seems to think that when we (...)
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  35. Devon D. Brewer (1995). The Social Structural Basis of the Organization of Persons in Memory. Human Nature 6 (4):379-403.score: 58.0
    This paper summarizes and discusses three studies of patterns in the recall of persons in socially bounded communities. Individual sin three different communities (a graduate academic program, a religious fellowship, and a department in a formal organization) free-listed the names of persons in their respective communities. Results indicate that the individuals in each community share a common cognitive structure of community members that is based on the community’s social structure. These studies, combined with the results of other research, (...)
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  36. René Lefebvre (1999). Our Identity and the Separability of Persons and Organisms. Dialogue 38 (3):519-534.score: 58.0
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  37. Linda Zagzebski (2001). The Uniqueness of Persons. Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):401 - 423.score: 57.7
    Persons are thought to have a special kind of value, often called "dignity," which, according to Kant, makes them both infinitely valuable and irreplaceably valuable. The author aims to identify what makes a person a person in a way that can explain both aspects of dignity. She considers five definitions of "person": (1) an individual substance of a rational nature (Boethius), (2) a self-conscious being (Locke), (3) a being with the capacity to act for ends (Kant), (4) a being (...)
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  38. Ines M. Barrio-Cantalejo, Pablo Simón-Lorda, Adoración Molina-Ruiz, Fátima Herrera-Ramos, Encarnación Martínez-Cruz, Rosa Maria Bailon-Gómez, Antonio López-Rico & Patricia Peinado Gorlat (2013). Stability Over Time in the Preferences of Older Persons for Life-Sustaining Treatment. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):103-114.score: 57.0
    Objective: To measure the stability of life-sustaining treatment preferences amongst older people and analyse the factors that influence stability. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Primary care centres, Granada (Spain). Eighty-five persons age 65 years or older. Participants filled out a questionnaire with six contexts of illness (LSPQ-e). They had to decide whether or not to receive treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and 18 months later. Results: 86 percent of the patients did not change preferences. Sex, age, marital (...)
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  39. Arno L. Goudsmit (2000). On the Construction of Mental Objects in Third and in First Persons. Foundations of Science 5 (4):399-428.score: 57.0
    This paper deals with some formal properties of objects that are supposed to be internal to persons, that is, mental structures and mental functions. Depending on the ways of talking about these internal objects, they will appear different. Two types of discourse will be presented, to be called the realist and the nominalist discourses, and for eachdiscourse I will focus upon the construction of `self'.The realist discourse assumes an identity between the person and his construction of himself. I will (...)
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  40. Soren Holm (1988). The Peaceable Pluralistic Society and the Question of Persons. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (4):379-386.score: 57.0
    In his recent book The Foundation of Bioethics , H. Tristam Engelhardt Jr. advances the idea of a peaceable pluralist moral society based on principles of autonomy, beneficience, and ownership. This paper tries to show that unless there is one and only one rationally sustainable definition of "a person", then the peaceable society cannot remain peaceable, but will be stirred up by groups with different and equally rational definitions. The paper further tries to show that Engelhardt's own definition of "a (...)
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  41. Jean Hampton (2007). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 56.0
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the (...)
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  42. John Philip Christman (2009). The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-Historical Selves. Cambridge University Press.score: 56.0
    It is both an ideal and an assumption of traditional conceptions of justice for liberal democracies that citizens are autonomous, self-governing persons. Yet standard accounts of the self and of self-government at work in such theories are hotly disputed and often roundly criticized in most of their guises. John Christman offers a sustained critical analysis of both the idea of the 'self' and of autonomy as these ideas function in political theory, offering interpretations of these ideas which avoid such (...)
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  43. Ernest Sosa (1999). The Essentials of Persons. Dialectica 53 (3-4):227-41.score: 56.0
    This paper tries to clarify the nature of philosophical questions as to the ontological nature of things, especially persons. It considers implications of an Aristotelian account, which leads to an ontology that makes subjects and other things epistemologically remote. This makes the account doubtfully reconcilable with the special epistemic relation that each of us has to oneself, via for example the cogito.
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  44. William Hasker (2004). The Constitution View of Persons: A Critique. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (1):23-34.score: 56.0
    This paper discusses the “constitution view” of human persons, as set forth by Lynne Rudder Baker in her book, Persons and Bodies. The metaphysical notion of constitution is explained and briefly defended. It is shown, however, that the view that human persons are constituted by their bodies faces difficulties in specifying the “person-favorable conditions” under which a human body constitutes a person. Furthermore, none of the arguments in support of the claim that humans are constituted by (but (...)
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  45. C. Valenzuela-Moguillansky (2013). Pain and Body Awareness. An Exploration of the Bodily Experience of Persons Suffering From Fibromyalgia. Constructivist Foundations 8 (3):339-350.score: 56.0
    Context: Despite the fact that pain and body awareness are by definition subjective experiences, most studies assessing these phenomena and the relationship between them have done so from a “third-person” perspective, meaning that they have used methods whose aim is to try to objectify the phenomena under study. Problem: This article assesses the question of what is the impact of a widespread chronic pain condition in the bodily experience of persons suffering from fibromyalgia. Method: I used an interview methodology (...)
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  46. James Duerlinger (2008). Candrakīrti on the Theories of Persons of the Sāṃmitīyas and Āryasāṃmitīyas. Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 446-469.score: 56.0
    Here it is argued, with the help of Tsongkhapa's interpretation of Candrakīrti's theory of persons, and on the basis of the character of Vasubandhu's encounter with the Pudgalavādins in the "Refutation of the Theory of Self," that in his Madhyamakāvatārabhāṣya . Candrakīrti most likely identifies the theory of persons he attributes to the Sāṃmitīyas with the theory of persons Vasubandhu presents in the "Refutation," and the theory of persons he attributes to the Āryasāṃmitīyas with the Pudgalavādins' (...)
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  47. F. J. Beckwith (2004). The Explanatory Power of the Substance View of Persons. Christian Bioethics 10 (1):33-54.score: 56.0
    The purpose of this essay is to offer support for the substance view of persons, the philosophical anthropology defended by Patrick Lee in his essay. In order to accomplish this the author (1) presents a brief definition of the substance view; (2) argues that the substance view has more explanatory power in accounting for why we believe that human persons are intrinsically valuable even when they are not functioning as such (e.g., when one is temporarily comatose), why human (...)
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  48. Martin Peterson (2010). Can Consequentialists Honour the Special Moral Status of Persons? Utilitas 22 (4):434-446.score: 56.0
    It is widely believed that consequentialists are committed to the claim that persons are mere containers for well-being. In this article I challenge this view by proposing a new version of consequentialism, according to which the identities of persons matter. The new theory, two-dimensional prioritarianism, is a natural extension of traditional prioritarianism. Two-dimensional prioritarianism holds that wellbeing matters more for persons who are at a low absolute level than for persons who are at a higher level (...)
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  49. Mark H. Bickhard, The Social Ontology of Persons.score: 56.0
    Persons are biological beings who participate in social environments. Is human sociality different from that of insects? Is human sociality different from that of a computer or robot with elaborate rules for social interaction in its program memory? What is the relationship between the biology of humans and the sociality of persons? I argue that persons constitute an emergent ontological level that develops out of the biological and psychological realm, but that is largely social in its own (...)
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  50. Richard Eldridge (1986). Metaphysics and the Interpretation of Persons: Davidson on Thinking and Conceptual Schemes. [REVIEW] Synthese 66 (3):477 - 503.score: 56.0
    Certain metaphysical and epistemological presuppositions are shown to play a role in the defense of Davidson's claims that an empirically constructed theory of truth provides an adequate theory of meaning for any natural language. Dadivson puts forward demonstrative arguments in favor of these presuppositions in On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme, Thought and Talk, and The Method of Truth in Metaphysics. These arguments are examined and found to include controversial and dubitable assumptions as premises. It is then suggested (...)
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