Search results for 'separateness of persons' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Marc Fleurbaey & Alex Voorhoeve (2012). Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (3):381-398.
    The difference between the unity of the individual and the separateness of persons requires that there be a shift in the moral weight that we accord to changes in utility when we move from making intrapersonal tradeoffs to making interpersonal tradeoffs. We examine which forms of egalitarianism can, and which cannot, account for this shift. We argue that a form of egalitarianism which is concerned only with the extent of outcome inequality cannot account for this shift. We also (...)
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  2.  39
    Tim Christie (2009). Natural Separateness: Why Parfit's Reductionist Account of Persons Fails to Support Consequentialism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (2):178-195.
    My goal in this essay will be to show, contra Parfit, that the separateness of human persons—although metaphysically shallow—has a moral significance that should not be overlooked. Parfit holds that his reductionist view of personal identity lends support to consequentialism; I reject this claim because it rests on the assumption that the separateness of human persons has an arbitrariness that renders it morally insignificant. This assumption is flawed because this separateness is grounded in our 'person (...)
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  3.  53
    Iwao Hirose (2013). Aggregation and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 25 (2):182-205.
    Many critics of utilitarianism claim that we should reject interpersonal aggregation because aggregative principles do not take the separateness of persons seriously. In this article, I will reject this claim. I will first elucidate the theoretical structure of aggregation. I will then consider various interpretations of the notion of the separateness of persons and clarify what exactly those critics are trying to reject by appealing to the notion of the separateness of persons. I will (...)
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  4.  57
    Michael Otsuka (2012). Prioritarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 24 (03):365-380.
    For a prioritarian by contrast to a utilitarian, whether a certain quantity of utility falls within the boundary of one person's life or another's makes the following moral difference: the worse the life of a person who could receive a given benefit, the stronger moral reason we have to confer this benefit on this person. It would seem, therefore, that prioritarianism succeeds, where utilitarianism fails, to ‘take seriously the distinction between persons’. Yet I show that, contrary to these appearances, (...)
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  5.  97
    Matt Zwolinski (2008). The Separateness of Persons and Liberal Theory. Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (2):147-165.
    The fact that persons are separate in some descriptive sense is relatively uncontroversial. But one of the distinctive ideas of contemporary liberal political philosophy is that the descriptive fact of our separateness is normatively momentous. John Rawls and Robert Nozick both take the separateness of persons to provide a foundation for their rejection of utilitarianism and for their own positive political theories. So why do their respective versions of liberalism look so different? This paper claims that (...)
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  6. Alastair Norcross (2009). Two Dogmas of Deontology: Aggregation, Rights, and the Separateness of Persons. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):76-95.
    One of the currently popular dogmata of anti-consequentialism is that consequentialism doesn't respect, recognize, or in some important way account for what is referred to as the The charge is often made, but rarely explained in any detail, much less argued for. In this paper I explain what I take to be the most plausible interpretation of the separateness of persons charge. I argue that the charge itself can be deconstructed into at least two further objections to consequentialist (...)
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  7.  18
    Keith Hyams (2015). Hypothetical Choice, Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Utilitas 27 (2):217-239.
    Luck egalitarians claim that disadvantage is worse when it emerges from an unchosen risk than when it emerges from a chosen risk. I argue that disadvantage is also worse when it emerges from an unchosen risk that the disadvantaged agent would have declined to take, had he or she been able to do so, than when it emerges from an unchosen risk that the disadvantaged agent would not have declined to take. Such a view is significant because it allows both (...)
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  8.  46
    Timothy Hinton (2011). Rights, Duties and the Separateness of Persons. Philosophical Papers 38 (1):73-91.
    Let the fact of the separateness of persons be that we are separate individuals, each with his or her own life to lead. This is to be distinguished from the doctrine of the separateness of persons: the claim that the fact of our separateness is especially deep and important, morally speaking. In this paper, I argue that we ought to reject this doctrine. I focus most of my attention on the suggestion that the separateness (...)
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  9. Matt Zwolinski (2003). The Separateness of Persons. Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    One of the distinctive ideas of contemporary liberal political philosophy is that the separateness of persons is somehow normatively momentous. A proper respect for separateness is supposed to lead us not only to reject aggregative theories such as utilitarianism, but to embrace some particular positive theory about the sorts of obligations and claims we have amongst each other. Typically, philosophers have focused on the way in which the separateness of persons is important to matters of (...)
     
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  10.  34
    Matthew Rendall (2015). Mere Addition and the Separateness of Persons. Journal of Philosophy 112 (8):442-455.
    How can we resist the repugnant conclusion? James Griffin has plausibly suggested that part way through the sequence we may reach a world—let us call it “J”—in which the lives are lexically superior to those that follow. If it would be preferable to live a single life in J than through any number of lives in the next one, then it would be strange to judge K the better world. Instead, we may reasonably “suspend addition” and judge J superior, as (...)
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  11.  30
    Dennis McKerlie (1988). Egalitarianism and the Separateness of Persons. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):205 - 225.
  12.  11
    James Lindemann Nelson (2011). Internal Organs, Integral Selves, and Good Communities: Opt-Out Organ Procurement Policies and the 'Separateness of Persons'. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (5):289-300.
    Most people accept that if they can save someone from death at very little cost to themselves, they must do so; call this the ‘duty of easy rescue.’ At least for many such people, an instance of this duty is to allow their vital organs to be used for transplantation. Accordingly, ‘opt-out’ organ procurement policies, based on a powerfully motivated responsibility to render costless or very low-cost lifesaving aid, would seem presumptively permissible. Counterarguments abound. Here I consider, in particular, objections (...)
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  13. David O. Brink (1997). Rational Egoism and the Separateness of Persons. In J. Dancy (ed.), Reading Parfit. Blackwell 96--134.
  14.  22
    David Brink (1993). The Separateness of Persons, Distributive Norms, and Moral Theory. In R. G. Frey & Christopher Morris (eds.), Value, Welfare, and Morality. Cambridge University Press 252-289.
  15.  38
    Carol Rovane (2004). Alienation and the Alleged Separateness of Persons. The Monist 87 (4):554-572.
  16.  34
    Alastair Norcross (2006). Aggregation, Rights, and the Separateness of Persons. Southwest Philosophy Review 22 (1):1-15.
  17.  26
    Sam Black (2001). Altruism and the Separateness of Persons. Social Theory and Practice 27 (3):361-385.
  18. Matt Zwolinski (2003). Person-Neutrality and the Separateness of Persons. Southwest Philosophical Studies 25:95.
  19. Richard Yetter Chappell (2015). Value Receptacles. Noûs 49 (2):322-332.
    Utilitarianism is often rejected on the grounds that it fails to respect the separateness of persons, instead treating people as mere “receptacles of value”. I develop several different versions of this objection, and argue that, despite their prima facie plausibility, they are all mistaken. Although there are crude forms of utilitarianism that run afoul of these objections, I advance a new form of the view—‘token-pluralistic utilitarianism’—that does not.
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  20.  31
    Caspar Hare (2009). The Ethics of Morphing. Philosophical Studies 145 (1):111 - 130.
    Here's one piece of practical reasoning: "If I do this then a person will reap some benefits and suffer some costs. On balance, the benefits outweigh the costs. So I ought to do it." Here's another: "If I do this then one person will reap some benefits and another will suffer some costs. On balance, the benefits to the one person outweigh the costs to the other. So I ought to do it." Many influential philosophers say that there is something (...)
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  21.  5
    Jan Gertken (forthcoming). Mixed Feelings About Mixed Solutions. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-11.
    The numbers problem concerns the question of what is the right thing to do in trade-off cases where one can save different non-overlapping groups of persons, but not everyone. Proponents of mixed solutions argue that both saving the many and holding a lottery to determine whom to save can each be morally right in such cases, depending on the relative sizes of the groups involved. In his book The Dimensions of Consequentialism, Martin Peterson presents an ingenious version of such (...)
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  22.  6
    Jillian Craigie (2015). A Fine Balance: Reconsidering Patient Autonomy in Light of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Bioethics 29 (6):398-405.
    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is increasingly seen as driving a paradigm shift in mental health law, particularly in relation to the understanding that it requires a shift from substituted to supported decisions. This article identifies two competing moral commitments implied by this shift, both of which appeal to the notion of autonomy. It is argued that because of these commitments the Convention is in tension with more general calls in the medical ethics literature for (...)
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  23.  6
    Aistė Račkauskaitė-Burneikienė (2013). The Impact of General Human Rights on the Protection of Persons Belonging to National Minorities. Jurisprudence 20 (3):923-950.
    The protection of national minorities forms a constituent part of the international protection of human rights. General human rights treaties (the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and others) create guarantees for the protection of persons belonging to national minorities on the basis of individual human rights. Although the mentioned treaties are not specifically devoted for the protection of (...)
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  24.  32
    David Ellerman (2015). On the Renting of Persons: The Neo-Abolitionist Case Against Today's Peculiar Institution. Economic Thought 4 (1):1-20.
    Liberal thought is based on the juxtaposition of consent to coercion. Autocracy and slavery were seen as based on coercion whereas today's political democracy and economic 'employment system' are based on consent to voluntary contracts. This paper retrieves an almost forgotten dark side of contractarian thought that based autocracy and slavery on explicit or implicit voluntary contracts. To answer these 'best case' arguments for slavery and autocracy, the democratic and abolitionist movements forged arguments not simply in favour of consent, but (...)
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  25.  6
    Edita Gruodytė, Julija Kiršienė & Paulius Astromskis (2010). The Problem of Bankruptcy of Natural Persons: Legal Aspects (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 121 (3):213-232.
    The modern doctrine of the “fresh start” reflects the differences between the past paradigm of punishment of the insolvent person and the current focus on the economic effectiveness and activeness. Global practice in the field of insolvency shows that the “limited liability rule” is eminently effective in the economic and social perspective. The appending threat of abuse and misapplication of the system might be neutralized through the legal regulation of prevention and rehabilitation means, which are analyzed in this (...)
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  26.  69
    Gordon-Roth Jessica (2015). Locke on the Ontology of Persons. Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (1):97-123.
    The importance of John Locke's discussion of persons is undeniable. Locke never explicitly tells us whether he thinks persons are substances or modes, however. We are thus left in the dark about a fundamental aspect of Locke's view. Many commentators have recently claimed that Lockean persons are modes. In this paper I swim against the current tide in the secondary literature and argue that Lockean persons are substances. Specifically I argue that what Locke says about substance, (...)
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  27.  12
    Maeve O'Donovan (2010). Cognitive Diversity in the Global Academy: Why the Voices of Persons with Cognitive Disabilities Are Vital to Intellectual Diversity. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (3):171-185.
    In asking scholars to reflect on the structures and practices of academic knowledge that render alternative knowledge traditions irrelevant and invisible, as well as on the ways these must change for the academy to cease functioning as an instrument of westernization rather than as an authentically global and diverse intellectual commons, the editor of this special issue of the Journal of Academic Ethics is envisaging a world much needed and much resisted. A great deal of the conversation about diversity in (...)
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  28.  59
    John Philip Christman (2009). The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-Historical Selves. Cambridge University Press.
    It is both an ideal and an assumption of traditional conceptions of justice for liberal democracies that citizens are autonomous, self-governing persons. Yet standard accounts of the self and of self-government at work in such theories are hotly disputed and often roundly criticized in most of their guises. John Christman offers a sustained critical analysis of both the idea of the 'self' and of autonomy as these ideas function in political theory, offering interpretations of these ideas which avoid such (...)
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  29.  37
    Domènec Melé (2012). The Firm as a “Community of Persons”: A Pillar of Humanistic Business Ethos. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 106 (1):89-101.
    The article starts by arguing that seeing the firm as a mere nexus of contracts or as an abstract entity where different stakeholder interests concur is insufficient for a “humanistic business ethos”, which entails a complete view of the human being. It seems more appropriate to understand the firm as a human community, a concept which can be found in several sources, including managerial literature, business ethics scholars, and Catholic Social Teaching. In addition, there are also philosophical grounds that (...)
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  30.  36
    Jack Martin (2011). The Interactivist Social Ontology of Persons: A Descriptive and Evaluative Synthesis, with Two Suggestions. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 21 (1):173-183.
    Within the interactivist, process approach to metaphysics, Bickhard (Social life and social knowledge: toward a process account of development. Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2008a; Topoi 27: 139–149, 2008b; New Ideas Psychol, in press) has developed a social ontology of persons that avoids many well-known philosophical difficulties concerning the genesis, development, and application of the rational and moral capabilities and responsibilities that characterize persons. Interactivism positions developing persons inside sets of social conventions within which they participate in their (...)
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  31.  17
    Renante Pilapil (2012). From Psychologism to Personhood: Honneth, Recognition, and the Making of Persons. Res Publica 18 (1):39-51.
    The paper explores the philosophical anthropology and the moral grammar of recognition. It does so by examining how the formation of the self is informed by social recognition, the result of which can motivate individuals and groups to engage in struggles for recognition. To pursue this task, the discussion focuses on the insights of Honneth, who grounds his theory of recognition in the intersubjective relations between persons. The idea that recognition impacts the formation of personal identity is regarded as (...)
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  32.  58
    John Finnis (2013). The Priority of Persons Revisited. American Journal of Jurisprudence 58 (1):45-62.
    This essay, in the context of a conference on justice, reviews and reaffirms the main theses of “The Priority of Persons” (2000), and supplements them with the benefit of hindsight in six theses. The wrongness of Roe v. Wade goes wider than was indicated. The secularist scientistic or naturalist dimension of the reigning contemporary ideology is inconsistent with the spiritual reality manifested in every word or gesture of its proponents. The temporal continuity of the existence of human persons (...)
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  33. Bennett W. Helm (2010). Love, Friendship, and the Self: Intimacy, Identification, and the Social Nature of Persons. Oxford University Press.
    Bennett Helm re-examines our common understanding of ourselves as persons in light of the phenomena of love and friendship.
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  34.  29
    Sheila Wildeman (2013). Protecting Rights and Building Capacities: Challenges to Global Mental Health Policy in Light of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):48-73.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified mental health as a priority for global health promotion and international development to be targeted through promulgation of evidence-based medical practices, health systems reform, and respect for human rights. Yet these overlapping strategies are marked by tensions as the historical primacy of expert-led initiatives is increasingly subject to challenge by new social movements — in particular, disabled persons' organizations (DPOs). These tensions come into focus upon situating the WHO's mental health policy initiatives (...)
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  35.  14
    Tse-fu Kuan (2015). Abhidhamma Interpretations of “Persons” : With Particular Reference to the Aṅguttara Nikāya. Journal of Indian Philosophy 43 (1):31-60.
    General opinion holds that the Abhidhamma treats the Buddha’s teachings in terms of ultimate realities, i.e. dhammas, and that conventional constructs such as persons fall outside the primary concern of the Abhidhamma. The present paper re-examines this ultimate-conventional dichotomy drawn between dhammas and persons and argues that this dichotomy does not hold true for the canonical Abhidhamma in Pali. This study explores how various types of persons are interpreted and approached by the Abhidhamma material, including Abhidhamma texts (...)
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  36.  5
    Charles Varela (1999). Determinism and the Recovery of Human Agency: The Embodying of Persons. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 29 (4):385–402.
    Intending the recovery of human agency with the aid of theories of human socio-cultural life, Turner and Harre do so however in terms of conflicting conceptions of the embodying of persons. Consequently, their theories share the problem of determinism and embodied human agency. This is the problem of the proper location of agency with regard to the person, the body, and society. These theories then are in fundamental conflict on exactly this issue of the proper location of agency. Turner's (...)
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  37.  7
    Ruth Boeker (2014). The Moral Dimension in Locke's Account of Persons and Personal Identity. History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (3):229-247.
    I offer an interpretation of John Locke’s account of persons and personal identity that gives full credit to Locke’s claim that “person” is a forensic term, sheds new light on the relation between Locke’s characterizations of a person in sections 9 and 26, and explains how Locke links his moral and legal account of personhood to his account of personal identity in terms of sameness of consciousness. I show that Locke’s claim that sameness of consciousness is necessary for personal (...)
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  38.  31
    Ian Burkitt (1998). Bodies of Knowledge: Beyond Cartesian Views of Persons, Selves and Mind. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (1):63–82.
    In this piece, I argue against the Cartesian trend of seeing persons, selves and mind as something distinct from the body. It is claimed that Descartes realized the importance of the link between body and mind, but never pursued this connection, and this then becomes the aim of the paper. Another effect of Cartesian modes of thinking is to divorce human knowledge from its material contexts, driving a wedge between mind and matter. Some forms of social constructionism appear to (...)
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  39.  8
    Nandini Devi (2013). Supported Decision‐Making and Personal Autonomy for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (4):792-806.
    Making decisions is an important component of everyday living, and issues surrounding autonomy and self-determination are crucial for persons with intellectual disabilities. Article 12 (Equal Recognition before the Law) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities addresses this issue of decision-making for persons with disabilities: the recognition of legal capacity. Legal capacity means recognizing the right to make decisions for oneself. Article 12 is also moving in the direction of supported decision-making, as an (...)
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  40.  22
    Anik Waldow (2010). Identity of Persons and Objects: Why Hume Considered Both as Two Sides of the Same Coin. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 8 (2):147-167.
    By investigating one of the major inconsistencies that Hume's parallel treatment of the identity of persons and objects issues, this essay offers an unconventional account of what it needs to avoid a dualist picture of mind and world. It will be argued that much hinges on the question of whether or not one is willing to allow the principally unperceivable to enter into one's concept of reality. Hume, as will be shown, rejects this approach: he denies that we have (...)
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  41.  21
    Janet E. Lord, David Suozzi & Allyn L. Taylor (2010). Lessons From the Experience of U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Addressing the Democratic Deficit in Global Health Governance. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38 (3):564-579.
    This article reviews the contributions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to the progressive development of both international human rights law and global health law and governance. It provides a summary of the global situation of persons with disabilities and outlines the progressive development of international disability standards, noting the salience of the shift from a medical model of disability to a rights-based social model reflected in the CRPD. Thereafter, the article considers the (...)
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  42.  17
    I. I. I. Dunson (2010). The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-Historical Selves (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (2):195-197.
    After so much scholarship has been devoted to the dispute between the defenders and critics of liberalism, it is reasonable to ask whether the topic has been exhausted or, at the very least, if the rival and incommensurable options have been so thoroughly defined that one simply has to pick a side. John Christman's new book, The Politics of Persons, demonstrates that this intuition is flawed. The central concern of this compelling work is to outline an alternative conception of (...)
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  43.  15
    Keith Graham (2004). Altruism, Self-Interest, and the Indistinctness of Persons. In Jonathan Seglow (ed.), Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. F. Cass Publishers 49-67.
    The problem of altruism is to determine intellectually compelling grounds for allowing others' interests and desires to weigh with us as well as our own. Two considerations impact on that problem. One concerns the clustering of particular interests and desires. The doctrine of the distinctness of persons gives prime importance to their origin in a particular individual. But clustering across individuals, rather than within individuals, may be more reasonable in the light of meta-attitudes towards our interests and desires and (...)
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  44. Linda Zagzebski (2001). The Uniqueness of Persons. Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):401 - 423.
    Persons are thought to have a special kind of value, often called "dignity," which, according to Kant, makes them both infinitely valuable and irreplaceably valuable. The author aims to identify what makes a person a person in a way that can explain both aspects of dignity. She considers five definitions of "person": (1) an individual substance of a rational nature (Boethius), (2) a self-conscious being (Locke), (3) a being with the capacity to act for ends (Kant), (4) a being (...)
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  45. Jean Hampton (2007). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, and the (...)
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  46.  4
    Vikki A. Entwistle & Ian S. Watt (2013). Treating Patients as Persons: A Capabilities Approach to Support Delivery of Person-Centered Care. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):29-39.
    Health services internationally struggle to ensure health care is ?person-centered? (or similar). In part, this is because there are many interpretations of ?person-centered care? (and near synonyms), some of which seem unrealistic for some patients or situations and obscure the intrinsic value of patients? experiences of health care delivery. The general concern behind calls for person-centered care is an ethical one: Patients should be ?treated as persons.? We made novel use of insights from the capabilities approach to characterize person-centered (...)
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  47.  24
    Wayne Martin, Sabine Michalowski, Timo Jütten & Matthew Burch, Achieving CRPD Compliance: Is the Mental Capacity Act of England and Wales Compatible with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability? If Not, What Next?
    In 2014 the Essex Autonomy Project undertook a six month project, funded by the AHRC, to provide technical advice to the UK Ministry of Justice on the question of whether the Mental Capacity Act is compliant with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Over the course of the project, the EAP research team organised a series of public policy roundtables, hosted by the Ministry of Justice, and which brought together leading experts to discuss and (...)
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  48.  17
    James T. Turner Jr (2014). No Explanation of Persons, No Explanation of Resurrection: On Lynne Baker’s Constitution View and the Resurrection of Human Persons. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (3):297-317.
    I don’t think Lynne Rudder Baker’s constitution view can account for personal identity problems of a synchronic or diachronic nature. As such, it cannot accommodate the Christian’s claim of eschatological bodily resurrection-a principle reason for which she gives this account. In light of this, I press objections against her constitution view in the following ways: First, I critique an analogy she draws between Aristotle’s “accidental sameness” and constitution. Second, I address three problems for Baker’s constitution view [‘Constitution Problems’ ], each (...)
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  49. Lynne Rudder Baker (2002). The Ontological Status of Persons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (2):370-388.
    Throughout his illustrious career, Roderick Chisholm was concerned with the nature of persons. On his view, persons are what he called ‘entia per se.’ They exist per se, in their own right. I too have developed an account of persons—I call it the ‘Constitution View’—an account that is different in important ways from Chisholm’s. Here, however, I want to focus on a thesis that Chisholm and I agree on: that persons have ontological significance in virtue of (...)
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  50.  1
    Soren Holm (1988). The Peaceable Pluralistic Society and the Question of Persons. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (4):379-386.
    In his recent book The Foundation of Bioethics , H. Tristam Engelhardt Jr. advances the idea of a peaceable pluralist moral society based on principles of autonomy, beneficience, and ownership. This paper tries to show that unless there is one and only one rationally sustainable definition of "a person", then the peaceable society cannot remain peaceable, but will be stirred up by groups with different and equally rational definitions. The paper further tries to show that Engelhardt's own definition of "a (...)
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