Search results for 'situations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  7
    Michael Litschka, Michaela Suske & Roman Brandtweiner (2011). Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples From Austrian Managers. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 104 (4):473-484.
    This article is the result of an empirical research project analyzing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analyzing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of the theoretical literature dealing with such notions, the article shows the results (...)
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  2. Tim Fernando (2011). Constructing Situations and Time. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):371 - 396.
    Situations serving as partial worlds as well as events in natural language semantics are constructed from a type-theoretic interpretation of firstorder formulae and (after a type reduction) temporal formulae. Limitations of the Russell-Wiener-Kamp derivation of time from events are discussed and overcome to give a more widely applicable account of temporal granularity. Finite situations are formulated as strings of observations, conceptualized to persist inertially (in the absence of forces).
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  3.  40
    Tim Fernando (2009). Situations as Indices and as Denotations. Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (2):185-206.
    A distinction is drawn between situations as indices required for semantically evaluating sentences and situations as denotations resulting from such evaluation. For atomic sentences, possible worlds may serve as indices, and events as denotations. The distinction is extended beyond atomic sentences according to formulae-as-types and applied to implicit quantifier domain restrictions, intensionality and conditionals.
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  4.  2
    Snieguolė Matulienė & Rolandas Krikščiūnas (2011). Issues of the Theory of Criminalistics Situations. Jurisprudence 18 (1):345-366.
    The word ‘situation’ is met quite often not only in everyday life but also in legal literature. It describes the interrelations among the society, officials, public administration entities, institutions, states, etc. Frequently it is a characterization of certain controversial phenomena. In criminal justice, however, this word carries a special practical and applied meaning and requires constant in-depth analysis not only of the etymology of ‘a situation’ but also of its legal theoretic meaning, purpose, function and practical application. In the present (...)
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  5.  2
    Janusz Kaczmarek (2012). Two Types of Ontological Structure. Concepts Structures and Lattices of Elementary Situations. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (2):165-174.
    In 1982, Wolniewicz proposed a formal ontology of situations based on the lattice of elementary situations (cf. [7, 8]). In [3], I constructed some types of formal structure Porphyrian Tree Structures (PTS), Concepts Structures (CS) and the Structures of Individuals (U) that formally represent ontologically fundamental categories: species and genera (PTS), concepts (CS) and individual beings (U) (cf. [3, 4]). From an ontological perspective, situations and concepts belong to different categories. But, unexpectedly, as I shall show, some (...)
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  6.  48
    Friederike Moltmann (2005). Part Structures in Situations: The Semantics of 'Individual' and 'Whole'. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (5):599 - 641.
    This paper develops the notion of a situated part structure and applies it to the semantics of the modifiers 'whole' and 'individual'. It argues that the ambiguity of 'whole' should be traced to two different conceptions of part structures of objects being at play: one according to which the parts of an objects are just the material parts and another, Aristotelian conception according to which the parts of an object include properties of form.
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  7.  14
    Janet Marta, Anusorn Singhapakdi, Dong-Jin Lee, Sebnem Burnaz, Y. Ilker Topcu, M. G. Serap Atakan & Tugrul Ozkaracalar (2012). The Effects of Corporate Ethical Values and Personal Moral Philosophies on Ethical Intentions in Selling Situations: Evidence From Turkish, Thai, and American Businesspeople. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 106 (2):229-241.
    The goals of this study are to test a pattern of ethical decision making that predicts ethical intentions of individuals within corporations based primarily on the ethical values embedded in corporate culture, and to see whether that model is generally stable across countries. The survey instrument used scales to measure the effects of corporate ethical values, idealism, and relativism on ethical intentions of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. The samples include practitioner members of the American Marketing Association in the U.S., (...)
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  8.  2
    Bernard Pyron (1964). Choice Behavior in Game Playing Situations as a Function of Amount and Probability of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (4):420.
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  9.  5
    Tarek Sayed-Ahmed (2013). Neat Embeddings as Adjoint Situations. Synthese:1-37.
    Looking at the operation of forming neat $\alpha $ -reducts as a functor, with $\alpha $ an infinite ordinal, we investigate when such a functor obtained by truncating $\omega $ dimensions, has a right adjoint. We show that the neat reduct functor for representable cylindric algebras does not have a right adjoint, while that of polyadic algebras is an equivalence. We relate this categorial result to several amalgamation properties for classes of representable algebras. We show that the variety of cylindric (...)
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  10.  3
    E. E. Robinson (1940). An Experimental Investigation of Two Factors Which Produce Stereotyped Behavior in Problem Situations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (4):394.
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  11.  3
    Janet Marta, Anusorn Singhapakdi, Dong-Jin Lee, Sebnem Burnaz, Y. Ilker Topcu, M. G. Serap Atakan & Tugrul Ozkaracalar (2012). The Effects of Corporate Ethical Values and Personal Moral Philosophies on Ethical Intentions in Selling Situations: Evidence From Turkish, Thai, and American Businesspeople. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 106 (2):229 - 241.
    The goals of this study are to test a pattern of ethical decision making that predicts ethical intentions of individuals within corporations based primarily on the ethical values embedded in corporate culture, and to see whether that model is generally stable across countries. The survey instrument used scales to measure the effects of corporate ethical values, idealism, and relativism on ethical intentions of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. The samples include practitioner members of the American Marketing Association in the U.S., (...)
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  12.  1
    Scarvia B. Anderson (1957). Problem Solving in Multiple-Goal Situations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):297.
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  13.  3
    Richard C. Atkinson & Patrick Suppes (1958). An Analysis of Two-Person Game Situations in Terms of Statistical Learning Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):369.
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  14.  1
    Vladimir Cervin (1956). Individual Behavior in Social Situations: Its Relation to Anxiety, Neuroticism, and Group Solidarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (2):161.
  15.  2
    J. G. Beebe-Center & S. S. Stevens (1937). Cardiac Acceleration in Emotional Situations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (1):72.
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  16.  1
    Ulrika Lundh Snis and Lars Svensson Lars-Olof Johansson (2011). Exploring Brokering Situations in an Innovation Boundary Context. Iris 34.
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  17.  10
    Lucie Roger, Philippe Maubant & Bernard Mercier (2012). Une perspective bachelardienne pour lire et comprendre les situations d'aprentissage professionnel de la formation à l'enseignement. Phronesis 1 (1):92-101.
    This text presents a few preliminary results of research currently being conducted at the Université de Sherbrooke’s Research Institute on Educational Practices. The study seeks to understand how situations presented in teacher education can support the functioning and success of trainee teachers’ professional learning. The article’s aim is to identify the points of convergence between situations of professional activity, situations of professional learning, and training situations. The text will attempt to analyze the role that can be (...)
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  18.  10
    Lucie Roger, Philippe Maubant & Bernard Mercier (2012). Une perspective bachelardienne pour lire et comprendre les situations d'aprentissage professionnel de la formation à l'enseignementA Bachelardian Perspective for Reading and Understanding Professional Learning Situations in Teacher Education. Phronesis 1 (1):92.
    This text presents a few preliminary results of research currently being conducted at the Université de Sherbrooke’s Research Institute on Educational Practices. The study seeks to understand how situations presented in teacher education can support the functioning and success of trainee teachers’ professional learning. The article’s aim is to identify the points of convergence between situations of professional activity, situations of professional learning, and training situations. The text will attempt to analyze the role that can be (...)
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  19.  6
    George Kachergis, Chen Yu & Richard M. Shiffrin (2013). Actively Learning Object Names Across Ambiguous Situations. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):200-213.
    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended (...)
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  20.  3
    Eytan Zweig (2006). When the Donkey Lost its Fleas: Persistence, Minimal Situations, and Embedded Quantifiers. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 14 (4):283-296.
    This paper revisits the question of whether propositions in situation semantics must be persistent [Kratzer (1989). Linguistics and Philosophy, 12, 607–653]. It shows that ignoring persistence causes empirical problems for theories which use quantification over minimal situations as a solution for donkey anaphora [Elbourne (2005). Situations and individuals. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press]. At the same time, modifying these theories to incorporate persistence makes them incompatible with the use of situations for contextual restriction [Kratzer (2004). Ms., University of (...)
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  21. Jon Barwise & John Perry (1981). Situations and Attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 78 (11):668-691.
  22.  3
    C. Varcoe, B. Pauly, J. Storch, L. Newton & K. Makaroff (2012). Nurses' Perceptions of and Responses to Morally Distressing Situations. Nursing Ethics 19 (4):488-500.
    Research on moral distress has paid limited attention to nurses’ responses and actions. In a survey of nurses’ perceptions of moral distress and ethical climate, 292 nurses answered three open-ended questions about situations that they considered morally distressing. Participants identified a range of situations as morally distressing, including witnessing unnecessary suffering, being forced to provide care that compromised values, and negative judgments about patients. They linked these situations to contextual constraints such as workload and described responses, including (...)
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  23. Angelika Kratzer, Situations in Natural Language Semantics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Situation semantics was developed as an alternative to possible worlds semantics. In situation semantics, linguistic expressions are evaluated with respect to partial, rather than complete, worlds. There is no consensus about what situations are, just as there is no consensus about what possible worlds or events are. According to some, situations are structured entities consisting of relations and individuals standing in those relations. According to others, situations are particulars. In spite of unresolved foundational issues, the partiality provided (...)
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  24.  22
    M. Lynnette Smyth & James R. Davis (2004). Perceptions of Dishonesty Among Two-Year College Students: Academic Versus Business Situations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (1):63-73.
    This study statistically analyzes two-year college students' attitudes toward cheating via a survey containing academic and business situations that the students evaluated on a seven point scale from unethical to ethical. When both the general questions concerning attitudes about cheating and the opinions on the ethical statements are considered, the business students were generally more unethical in their behavior and attitudes than non-business majors. These results indicate a need for more ethical exposure in business courses to help students distinguish (...)
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  25.  9
    D. L. Wiegand & M. Funk (2012). Consequences of Clinical Situations That Cause Critical Care Nurses to Experience Moral Distress. Nursing Ethics 19 (4):479-487.
    Little is known about the consequences of moral distress. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical situations that caused nurses to experience moral distress, to understand the consequences of those situations, and to determine whether nurses would change their practice based on their experiences. The investigation used a descriptive approach. Open-ended surveys were distributed to a convenience sample of 204 critical care nurses employed at a university medical center. The analysis of participants’ responses used an inductive (...)
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  26.  98
    G. Piccinini & J. Garson (2014). Functions Must Be Performed at Appropriate Rates in Appropriate Situations. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (1):1-20.
    We sketch a novel and improved version of Boorse’s biostatistical theory of functions. Roughly, our theory maintains that (i) functions are non-negligible contributions to survival or inclusive fitness (when a trait contributes to survival or inclusive fitness); (ii) situations appropriate for the performance of a function are typical situations in which a trait contributes to survival or inclusive fitness; (iii) appropriate rates of functioning are rates that make adequate contributions to survival or inclusive fitness (in situations appropriate (...)
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  27. Jon Barwise & John Perry (1983). Situations and Attitudes. MIT Press.
  28.  64
    Stephen Hetherington (2011). Abnormality and Gettier Situations: An Explanatory Proposal. Ratio 24 (2):176-191.
    Analytic epistemologists reach regularly for favoured ‘intuitions’. And the anti-luck intuition (as Duncan Pritchard calls it) is possibly one of the best-entrenched epistemological intuitions at present, seemingly guiding standard reactions to Gettier situations. But why is that intuition true (if it is)? This paper argues that the anti-luck intuition (like the ability intuition) rests upon something even more deeply explanatory – the normality intuition. And to recognise this is to understand better what most epistemologists want from a concept of (...)
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  29.  33
    Daulatram B. Lund (2000). An Empirical Examination of Marketing Professionals' Ethical Behavior in Differing Situations. Journal of Business Ethics 24 (4):331 - 342.
    The ethical behavior of a national sample of marketing professionals was examined by analyzing their responses to four different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical situations operationalize the concepts of coercion and control, deceit and falsehood, conflict of interest, and self integrity, within the context of the marketing mix elements – place, promotion, price, and product. Responses were examined to determine whether behavior varied by type of ethical situation, and whether demographic factors affected their responses. (...)
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  30.  8
    Patrick Mayen (2012). Les situations professionnelles : un point de vue de didactique professionnelleProfessional Situations: A Professional Didactics Point of View. Phronesis 1 (1):59-67.
    This article proposes to develop the notion of professional situation from the standpoint of professional didactics. To do so, it proposes to first examine the notion of professional situation from the perspective of its contributions in terms of thinking about a few questions relating to vocational training. The notion of professional situation is then re-examined in connection with the notion of the work situation as used in professional didactics, then with the notion of situation: what it is, what it is (...)
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  31.  6
    Dawn S. Carlson & K. Michele Kacmar (1997). Perceptions of Ethics Across Situations: A View Through Three Different Lenses. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (2):147-160.
    This paper examined three approaches for understanding perceptions of ethics: moral philosophies, cognitive moral development, and ethical value systems. First, the dimensionality of the moral philosophy approach was examined. Next, an attempt was made to integrate the models. Finally, each of the model's various components were used in a regression equation to isolate the best predictors of ethicality. Results indicated that the moral philosophies can be considered distinct entities, but the common underlying theme between the approaches was not as predicted. (...)
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  32.  24
    Emanuela Ceva (2007). Plural Values and Heterogeneous Situations. Considerations on the Scope for a Political Theory of Justice. European Journal of Political Theory 6 (3):359-375.
    This article aims to investigate the way in which a political theory of justice should respond to the endorsement of pluralism. After offering reasons in support of the necessity for such a theory to take pluralism seriously, an argument is put forward for its characterization in minimal and procedural terms. However, taking issue with the straightforward relationship of implication identified by a number of scholars between pluralism and procedural justice, this article contends that a direct relation can only be established (...)
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  33.  8
    A. Söderberg, F. Gilje & A. Norberg (1999). Transforming Desolation Into Consolation: The Meaning of Being in Situations of Ethical Difficulty in Intensive Care. Nursing Ethics 6 (5):357-373.
    The purpose of this phenomenological-hermeneutic study was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult care situations. The participants were 20 enrolled nurses employed in six intensive care units in Sweden. The results reveal a complex human process manifested in relation to one’s inner self and the other person, which transforms desolation into consolation through becoming present to the suffering other when perceiving fragility rather than tragedy. The main point of significance here is for all health professionals to (...)
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  34.  26
    Scott J. Vitell & Foo Nin Ho (1997). Ethical Decision Making in Marketing: A Synthesis and Evaluation of Scales Measuring the Various Components of Decision Making in Ethical Situations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):699-717.
    The authors present a comprehensive synthesis and evaluation of the published scales measuring the components of the decision making process in ethical situations using the Hunt-Vitell (1993) theory of ethics as a framework to guide the research. Suggestions for future scale development are also provided.
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  35.  6
    Jan Krawczyk (2008). Cooperation or Defection Strategies of Conduct in Conflict-Prone Situations. Dialogue and Universalism 18 (4/6):119-125.
    The simple model of conflict-prone situations called Prisoner’s Dilemma is discussed. Whereas the best strategy for the model is to defect, in the case of its iterated version (Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma—IPD) it is possible and more profitable to cooperate with the opponent.The simple strategy called Tit for Tat (TFT) which is easy to recognize, never defects first, punishes every defection but is also forgiving is presented. The TFT strategy is very successful being able to establish the cooperation with its (...)
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  36.  4
    Velda Chen & Peter D. Drummond (2008). Fear of Negative Evaluation Augments Negative Affect and Somatic Symptoms in Social-Evaluative Situations. Cognition and Emotion 22 (1):21-43.
    (2008). Fear of negative evaluation augments negative affect and somatic symptoms in social-evaluative situations. Cognition & Emotion: Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 21-43.
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  37.  1
    George E. Marcus (2008). Different Situations, Different Responses: Threat, Partisanship, Risk, and Deliberation. Critical Review 20 (1-2):75-89.
    The theory of affective intelligence dichotomizes challenging situations into threatening and risky ones. When people perceive a familiar threat, they tend to be dogmatic and partisan, since they are mobilizing decisive action based on habitual behaviors and nearly instinctual perceptions that have proved their worth in similar situations. When facing a novel risk, however, people tend to become more open‐minded and deliberative, since old solutions do not apply. An experiment with students' reactions to challenges to their opinions about (...)
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  38.  15
    Tim Fernando (2007). Observing Events and Situations in Time. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (5):527-550.
    Events and situations are represented by strings of temporally ordered observations, on the basis of which the events and situations are recognized. Allen’s basic interval relations are derived from superposing strings that mark interval boundaries, and Kamp’s event structures are constructed as projective limits of strings. Observations are generalized to temporal propositions, leading to event-types that classify event-instances. Working with sets of strings built from temporal propositions, we obtain natural notions of bounded entailment from set inclusions. These inclusions (...)
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  39.  73
    Tim Fernando, Situations From Events to Proofs.
    String representations of events are applied to Robin Cooper’s proposal that propositions in natural language semantics are types of situations. Links with the higher types of prooftheoretic semantics are forged, deepening type-theoretic interpretations of Discourse Representation Structures to encompass event structures.
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  40.  4
    Daniel Cownden, Kimmo Eriksson & Pontus Strimling (forthcoming). The Implications of Learning Across Perceptually and Strategically Distinct Situations. Synthese:1-18.
    Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical (...)
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  41.  21
    Timothy J. Beck (2013). A Phenomenological Analysis of Anxiety as Experienced in Social Situations. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 44 (2):179-219.
    In this study, three individual descriptions of anxiety as experienced in social situations were analyzed so that a general structure representing social anxiety could potentially be obtained. The descriptions analyzed produced results that not only overlapped with already existing literature from various perspectives on the topic, but also highlighted certain key factors that have largely been unaccounted for by prior studies. By utilizing the Descriptive Phenomenological Method in Psychology , these factors were brought to light in more depth and (...)
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  42.  23
    Roger R. Straughan (1975). Hypothetical Moral Situations. Journal of Moral Education 4 (3):183-189.
    Abstract: Hypothetical moral situations are often used by teachers and researchers in order to simulate real?life moral problems. This article draws some logical distinctions between different types of moral conflict and the different types of question that can be asked about them. It is suggested that this approach must have serious limitations if it is assumed that there is a direct and straightforward connection between hypothetical and real?life moral judgments, as the former necessarily lack the situational features of the (...)
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  43.  20
    Patrick Mayen (2012). Les situations professionnelles : un point de vue de didactique professionnelle. Phronesis 1 (1):59-67.
    This article proposes to develop the notion of professional situation from the standpoint of professional didactics. To do so, it proposes to first examine the notion of professional situation from the perspective of its contributions in terms of thinking about a few questions relating to vocational training. The notion of professional situation is then re-examined in connection with the notion of the work situation as used in professional didactics, then with the notion of situation: what it is, what it is (...)
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  44.  9
    Norman Mooradian (2004). Information Requirements and the Characteristics of Sales Situations. Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):123-139.
    The focus of this paper is the ethics of information giving in the context of complex sales. It is argued that, while current theoriesprovide a broad framework for describing the responsibilities of sales agents, they lack adequate descriptions of the conditionscharacteristic of complex sales situations. Without an adequate model of complex sales, ethical theories will fail to provide guidanceto sales agents facing issues that arise from features of sales situations not accounted for in the theories. To motivate this (...)
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  45.  38
    Paul Franceschi (2006). Situations Probabilistes Pour N-Univers Goodmaniens. Journal of Philosophical Research 31:123-141.
    I describe several applications of the theory of n-universes through several different probabilistic situations. I describe fi rst how n-universes can be used as an extension of the probability spaces used in probability theory. The extended probability spaces thus defined allow for a finer modeling of complex probabilistic situations and fi ts more intuitively with our intuitions related to our physical universe. I illustrate then the use of n-universes as a methodological tool, with two thought experiments described by (...)
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  46.  5
    V. Sørlie, A. Lindseth, G. Udén & A. Norberg (2000). Women Physicians' Narratives About Being in Ethically Difficult Care Situations in Paediatrics. Nursing Ethics 7 (1):47-62.
    This study is part of a comprehensive investigation of ethical thinking among male and female physicians and nurses. Nine women physicians with different levels of expertise, working in various wards in paediatric clinics at two of the university hospitals in Norway, narrated 37 stories about their experience of being in ethically difficult care situations. All of the interviewees’ narrations were concerned with problems relating to both action ethics and relation ethics. The main focus was on problems in a relation (...)
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  47.  1
    Åshild Slettebø & Eli Haugen Bunch (2004). Solving Ethically Difficult Care Situations in Nursing Homes. Nursing Ethics 11 (6):543-552.
    Patients in nursing homes sometimes give accounts of episodes in which they feel their autonomy and/or self-respect are violated as a result of the care they receive from nursing staff. In these ethically difficult care situations nurses use strategies such as negotiation, explanation and, in some cases, restraint. This study investigates how nurses apply these strategies to resolve ethical dilemmas in such a way that patients experience respect rather than violation. Critical issues that will be discussed include the definition (...)
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  48.  5
    Katherine E. Rowan (1994). The Technical and Democratic Approaches to Risk Situations: Their Appeal, Limitations, and Rhetorical Alternative. [REVIEW] Argumentation 8 (4):391-409.
    Because of the increasing number of “man-made” hazards in contemporary life, as well as the growing number of disastrous industrial accidents, interest in risk communication has burgeoned. Consequently, scholars and practitioners need to understand two of the more common responses to risk situations, the technical and democratic. This paper describes these two responses, identifies types of individuals likely to prefer each, and explains why, historically and sociologically, they are so intuitively compelling for many people. Arguing that both responses to (...)
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  49.  0
    A. Laruelle & F. Valenciano (2004). On The Meaning Of Owen–Banzhaf Coalitional Value In Voting Situations. Theory and Decision 56 (1-2):113-123.
    In this paper we discuss the meaning of Owen's coalitional extension of the Banzhaf index in the context of voting situations. It is discussed the possibility of accommodating this index within the following model: in order to evaluate the likelihood of a voter to be crucial in making a decision by means of a voting rule a second input (apart from the rule itself) is necessary: an estimate of the probability of different vote configurations. It is shown how Owen's (...)
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  50.  11
    Werner Raub & Vincent Buskens (2008). Theory and Empirical Research in Analytical Sociology: The Case of Cooperation in Problematic Social Situations. Analyse & Kritik 30 (2):689-722.
    The integration of theory and empirical research in analytical social science has always been a core topic of Analyse & Kritik. This paper focuses on how analytical theory and empirical research have moved closer to each other in sociology, using rational choice theory and game-theoretic models as well as empirical research on problematic social situations as an example. We try to highlight the use of complementary research designs for testing the same hypotheses. We also try to show that empirical (...)
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