Search results for 'social contract' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Samuel Richard Freeman (2007). Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    John Rawls (1921-2002) was one of the 20th century's most important philosophers and continues to be among the most widely discussed of contemporary thinkers. His work, particularly A Theory of Justice, is integral to discussions of social and international justice, democracy, liberalism, welfare economics, and constitutional law, in departments of philosophy, politics, economics, law, public policy, and others. Samuel Freeman is one of Rawls's foremost interpreters. This volume contains nine of his essays on Rawls and Rawlsian justice, two of (...)
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  2. Matthew Simpson (2006). A Paradox of Sovereignty in Rousseau's Social Contract. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):45-56.score: 180.0
    One unique part of Rousseau's Social Contract is his argument that a just society must have a specific constitutional arrangement of powers centred around what he calls the Sovereign and the Prince. This makes his philosophy different from other contractualists, such as Hobbes and Locke, who think that the principles of good government are compatible with any number of institutional structures. Rousseau's constitutional theory is thus significant in a way that has no parallel in Hobbes or Locke. More (...)
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  3. Wesley Cragg (2000). Human Rights and Business Ethics: Fashioning a New Social Contract. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):205 - 214.score: 180.0
    This paper argues that widely accepted understanding of the respective responsibilities of business and government in the post war industrialized world can be traced back to a tacit social contract that emerged following the second world war. The effect of this contract was to assign responsibility for generating wealth to business and responsibility for ensuring the equitable sharing of wealth to governments. Without question, this arrangement has resulted in substantial improvements in the quality of life in the (...)
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  4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1973/1986). The Social Contract ; and, Discourses. C.E. Tuttle Co..score: 180.0
    A discourse on the arts and sciences -- A discourse on the origin of inequality -- A discourse on political economy -- The general society of the human race -- The social contract.
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  5. Henry S. Richardson (2006). Rawlsian Social-Contract Theory and the Severely Disabled. Journal of Ethics 10 (4):419 - 462.score: 180.0
    Martha Nussbaum has powerfully argued in Frontiers ofJustice and elsewhere that John Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory cannot usefully be deployed to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled. To counter this claim, this article deploys Rawls’s sort of social-contract theory in order to deal with issues pertaining to justice for the disabled—or, since, as Nussbaum stresses, we all have some degree of disability—for the severely disabled. In this way, rather than questioning one by (...)
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  6. E. Palmer (2001). Multinational Corporations and the Social Contract. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):245 - 258.score: 180.0
    The constitutions of many nations have been explicitly or implicitly founded upon principles of the social contract derived from Thomas Hobbes. The Hobbesian egoism at the base of the contract fairly accurately represents the structure of market enterprise. A contractarian analysis may, then, allow for justified or rationally acceptable universal standards to which businesses should conform. This paper proposes general rational restrictions upon multi-national enterprises, and includes a critique of unjustified restrictions recently proposed by the Organization for (...)
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  7. Elisabeth Ellis (2006). Citizenship and Property Rights: A New Look at Social Contract Theory. Journal of Politics 68 (3):544-555.score: 180.0
    Social contract thought has always contained multiple and mutually conflicting lines of argument; the minimalist contractarianism so influential today represents the weaker of two main constellations of claims. I make the case for a Kantian contract theory that emphasizes the bedrock principle of consent of the governed instead of the mere heuristic device of the exit from the state of nature. Such a shift in emphasis resolves two classic difficulties: tradi- tional contract theory’s ahistorical presumption of (...)
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  8. Justin Cruickshank (2000). Ethnocentrism, Social Contract Liberalism and Positivistic-Conservatism: Rorty's Three Theses on Politics. Res Publica 6 (1):1-23.score: 180.0
    In this article I argue that Rorty has three separatearguments for liberalism. The pragmatic-ethnocentric argument for liberalism,as a system which works for `us liberals'', is rejectedfor entailing relativism. The social contract argument results in an extreme formof individualism. This renders politics redundantbecause there is no need for the (liberal) state toprotect poetic individuals, who are capable ofdefending themselves. Even if the less able areharmed, the state could not prevent this, givenRorty''s arguments about discursive enrichment withina language game. Finally, (...)
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  9. Jeffery A. Thompson & David W. Hart (2006). Psychological Contracts: A Nano-Level Perspective on Social Contract Theory. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):229 - 241.score: 180.0
    Social contract theory has been criticized as a “theory in search of application.” We argue that incorporating the nano, or individual, level of analysis into social contract inquiry will yield more descriptive theory. We draw upon the psychological contract perspective to address two critiques of social contract theory: its rigid macro-orientation and inattention to the process of contract formation. We demonstrate how a psychological contract approach offers practical insight into the impact (...)
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  10. Danny Frederick (2013). Social Contract Theory Should Be Abandoned. Rationality, Markets and Morals 4:178-89.score: 180.0
    I argue that social-contract theory cannot succeed because reasonable people may always disagree, and that social-contract theory is irrelevant to the problem of the legitimacy of a form of government or of a system of moral rules. I note the weakness of the appeal to implicit agreement, the conflation of legitimacy with stability, the undesirability of “public justification” and the apparent blindness to the evolutionary critical-rationalist approach of Hayek and Popper. I employ that approach to sketch (...)
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  11. A. P. Martinich (2012). Egoism, Reason, and the Social Contract. Hobbes Studies 25 (2):209-222.score: 180.0
    Bernard Gert’s distinctive interpretation of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes in his recent book may be questioned in at least three areas: (1) Even if Hobbes is not a psychological egoist, he seems to be a desire egoist, which has the consequence, as he understands it, that a person acts at least for his own good in every action. (2) Although there are several senses of reason, it seems that Hobbes uses the idea that reason is calculation of means to (...)
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  12. Jos V. M. Welie (2012). Social Contract Theory as a Foundation of the Social Responsibilities of Health Professionals. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):347-355.score: 180.0
    This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract.
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  13. Anita Cava & Don Mayer (2007). Integrative Social Contract Theory and Urban Prosperity Initiatives. Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):263 - 278.score: 180.0
    Urban communities in 21st century America are facing severe economic challenges, ones that suggest a mandate to contemplate serious changes in the way America does business. The middle class is diminishing in many parts of the country, with consequences for the economy as a whole. When faced with the loss of its economic base, any business community must make some difficult decisions about its proper role and responsibilities. Decisions to support the community must be balanced alongside and against responsibilities to (...)
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  14. Kirsten E. Martin (2012). Diminished or Just Different? A Factorial Vignette Study of Privacy as a Social Contract. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):519-539.score: 180.0
    A growing body of theory has focused on privacy as being contextually defined, where individuals have highly particularized judgments about the appropriateness of what, why, how, and to whom information flows within a specific context. Such a social contract understanding of privacy could produce more practical guidance for organizations and managers who have employees, users, and future customers all with possibly different conceptions of privacy across contexts. However, this theoretical suggestion, while intuitively appealing, has not been empirically examined. (...)
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  15. Simon Cushing (1998). Representation and Obligation in Rawls' Social Contract Theory. Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (1):47-54.score: 180.0
    The two justificatory roles of the social contract are establishing whether or not a state is legitimate simpliciter and establishing whether any particular individual is politically obligated to obey the dictates of its governing institutions. Rawls's theory is obviously designed to address the first role but less obviously the other. Rawls does offer a duty-based theory of political obligation that has been criticized by neo-Lockean A. John Simmons. I assess Simmons's criticisms and the possible responses that could be (...)
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  16. Nenad Miscevic (2013). In Search of the Reason and the Right—Rousseau's Social Contract as a Thought Experiment. Acta Analytica 28 (4):509-526.score: 180.0
    For Rousseau, social contract is a hypothetical one; the paper claims that it is, in contemporary terms, a political thought-experiment (TE). The abductive way of thinking, looking for the best normative pattern in the data, finds its counterpart in the historical abduction in the Second Discourse; the analogy between the two secures the methodological unity of Rousseau’s political philosophy. The proposed reading of the work as a TE shows that it fulfills the necessary requirements put by (hopefully) intuitively (...)
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  17. Paul Neiman (2013). A Social Contract for International Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):75-90.score: 180.0
    This article begins with a detailed analysis of how the choice situation of a social contract for international business ethics can be constructed and justified. A choice situation is developed by analyzing conceptions of the multinational firm and the domain of international business. The result is a hypothetical negotiation between two fictional characters, J. Duncan Grey and Elizabeth Redd, who respectively represent the interests of businesses and communities seeking to engage in international trade. The negotiators agree on ethical (...)
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  18. Paresh Kathrani (2010). Social Contract Theory and the International Normative Order: A New Global Ethic? Jurisprudence 119 (1):97-109.score: 180.0
    Although people establish norms that enable them to live together, some of these have to be coupled with a system of enforcement. This conforms to broad social contract theory and can also be applied to the international sphere. The international community is also based on a system of norms. However, unlike the domestic context, there is no overreaching authority to direct states on what they should do. Rather it is left to states themselves to police this framework. However, (...)
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  19. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1997). The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings. Cambridge University Press.score: 180.0
    The work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau is presented in two volumes, together forming the most comprehensive anthology of Rousseau's political writings in English. Volume II contains the later writings such as The Social Contract and a selection of Rousseau's letters on important aspects of his thought. The Social Contract has become Rousseau's most famous single work, but on publication was condemned by both the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities in France and Geneva. Rousseau fled and it is (...)
     
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  20. Lorenzo Sacconi (2006). A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.score: 174.0
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the (...)
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  21. Jean Hampton (1986/1988). Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition. Cambridge University Press.score: 156.0
    This major study of Hobbes's political philosophy draws on recent developments in game and decision theory to explore whether the thrust of the argument in Leviathan, that it is in the interests of the people to create a ruler with absolute power, can be shown to be cogent. Professor Hampton has written a book of vital importance to political philosophers, political and social scientists, and intellectual historians.
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  22. Donald M. Bruce (2002). A Social Contract for Biotechnology: Shared Visions for Risky Technologies? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):279-289.score: 156.0
    Future technological developmentsconcerning food, agriculture, and theenvironment face a gulf of social legitimationfrom a skeptical public and media, in the wakeof the crises of BSE, GM food, and foot andmouth disease in the UK (House of Lords, 2000). Keyethical issues were ignored by the bioindustry,regulators, and the Government, leaving alegacy of distrust. The paper examinesagricultural biotechnology in terms of a socialcontract, whose conditions would have to be fulfilled togain acceptance of novel applications. Variouscurrent and future GM applications areevaluated against (...)
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  23. Celeste Friend, Social Contract Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 150.0
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  24. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2004/2006). The Social Contract. Penguin Books.score: 150.0
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
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  25. Mohammed Dore (1997). On Playing Fair: Professor Binmore on Game Theory and the Social Contract. Theory and Decision 43 (3):219-239.score: 150.0
    This paper critically reviews Ken Binmore’s non- utilitarian and game theoretic solution to the Arrow problem. Binmore’s solution belongs to the same family as Rawls’ maximin criterion and requires the use of Nash bargaining theory, empathetic preferences, and results in evolutionary game theory. Harsanyi has earlier presented a solution that relies on utilitarianism, which requires some exogenous valuation criterion and is therefore incompatible with liberalism. Binmore’s rigorous demonstration of the maximin principle for the first time presents a real alternative to (...)
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  26. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1974). The Social Contract: Or, Principles of Political Right. New American Library.score: 150.0
    THE first and most important deduction from the principles we have so far laid down is that the general will alone can direct the State according to the object ...
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  27. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1953). Political Writings; Containing the Social Contract, Considerations on the Government of Poland, and Part I of the Constitutional Project for Corsica. New York]Nelson.score: 150.0
    In addition, this edition offers the best available translation of the late and important Government of Poland and the only published English translation of the fragment Constitutional Project for Corsica, which, says Watkins, provides the ...
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  28. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1953/1986). Political Writings: Containing the Social Contract, Considerations on the Government of Poland, Constitutional Project for Corsica, Part I. University of Wisconsin Press.score: 150.0
    In addition, this edition offers the best available translation of the late and important Government of Poland and the only published English translation of the fragment Constitutional Project for Corsica, which, says Watkins, provides the ...
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  29. John McManners (1968). The Social Contract and Rousseau's Revolt Against Society: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Leicester 6 November 1967. London, Leicester U.P..score: 150.0
     
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  30. Ellen Frankel Paul (ed.) (1988). The New Social Contract: Essays on Gauthier. B. Blackwell for the Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University.score: 150.0
     
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  31. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2007/1988). On the Social Contract. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub. Ltd..score: 150.0
     
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  32. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1974). The Essential Rousseau: The Social Contract, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, the Creed of a Savoyard Priest. New York,New American Library.score: 150.0
     
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  33. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1968/2006). The Social Contract. Harmondsworth, Penguin.score: 150.0
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  34. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1950/2006). The Social Contract. New York, Dutton.score: 150.0
    The perfect books for the true book lover, Penguin’s Great Ideas series features twelve more groundbreaking works by some of history’s most prodigious thinkers. Each volume is beautifully packaged with a unique type-driven design that highlights the bookmaker’s art. Offering great literature in great packages at great prices, this series is ideal for those readers who want to explore and savor the Great Ideas that have shaped our world.
     
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  35. Milorad Stupar (2011). Social Contract Theory and Wider Context: Some Thoughts and Clarifications. Filozofija I Drustvo 22 (3):3-9.score: 150.0
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  36. Richard Marens (2007). Returning to Rawls: Social Contracting, Social Justice, and Transcending the Limitations of Locke. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):63 - 76.score: 132.0
    A generation ago, the field of business ethics largely abandoned analyzing the broader issue of social justice to focus upon more micro concerns. Donaldson applied the social contract tradition of Locke and Rawls to the ethics of management decision-making, and with Dunfee, has advanced this project ever since. Current events suggest that if the field is to remain relevant it needs to return to examining social and economic fairness, and Rawl's approach to social contracting suggests (...)
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  37. Olga Stuchebrukhov (2007). “Ridiculous” Dream Versus Social Contract: Dostoevskij, Rousseau, and the Problem of Ideal Society. Studies in East European Thought 59 (1-2):101 - 169.score: 132.0
    Drawing on the Second Discourse and the Social Contract and Notes from Underground and “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man,” this essay examines the striking similarities and fundamental differences between Dostoevskij’s and Rousseau’s treatment of the problem of individual vs. society and their notions of ideal social relations. The essay investigates Rousseau’s attempt to absorb morality into politics and “to concretize” Diderot’s universal moral man into citizen. It also suggests that Dostoevskij takes Rousseau’s attempt at concretization a (...)
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  38. Robert A. Phillips & Michael E. Johnson-Cramer (2006). Ties That Unwind: Dynamism in Integrative Social Contracts Theory. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):283 - 302.score: 132.0
    Social contract theory offers a powerful method and metaphor for the study of organizational ethics. This paper considers the variant of the social contract that has arguably gained the most attention among business ethicists: integrative social contracts theory or ISCT [Donaldson and Dunfee: 1999, Ties That Bind (Harvard Business School Press, Boston)]. A core precept of ISCT - that consent to membership in an organization entails obligations to follow the norms of that organization, subject to (...)
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  39. Brian Skyrms (2013). Natural Social Contracts. Biological Theory 8 (2):179-184.score: 132.0
    There are two fundamental problems for instituting a social contract. The first is cooperating to produce a surplus; the second is deciding how to divide this surplus. I represent each problem by a simple paradigm game, a Stag Hunt game for cooperating to produce a surplus, and a bargaining game for its division. I will discuss these simple games in isolation, and end by discussing their composition.
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  40. Ken Binmore (2004). Reciprocity and the Social Contract. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):5-35.score: 120.0
    This article is extracted from a forthcoming book, ‘Natural Justice’. It is a nontechnical introduction to the part of game theory immediately relevant to social contract theory. The latter part of the article reviews how concepts such as trust, responsibility, and authority can be seen as emergent phenomena in models that take formal account only of equilibria in indefinitely repeated games. Key Words: game theory • equilibrium • evolutionary stability • reciprocity • folk theorem • trust • altruism (...)
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  41. Sally Haslanger, Comments on Charles Mills' "Race and the Social Contract Tradition&Quot;.score: 120.0
    The framing question of Mills' important and thought-provoking paper is whether there is reason for political progressives and radicals to employ the notion of a social contract for either descriptive or normative purposes. In contrast to the common response that the social contract is a piece of "bourgeois mystification" he argues instead that a reformulated conception of the contract, one which he calls the..
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  42. Christopher Bertram (2004). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Rousseau and the Social Contract. Routledge.score: 120.0
    Rousseau's Social Contract is a benchmark in political philosophy. It has inspired and influenced moral and political thought since publication and is widely studied for this reason. This GuideBook takes a thematic look at the text, discussing and examining ideas in the context of the time and their implications for future philosophical and political thought. It will be vital reading for anyone coming to the book for the first time.
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  43. P. F. Brownsey (1978). Hume and the Social Contract. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (111):132-148.score: 120.0
    Doubts the adequacy of teh accounts of Humes' successful refutation of the theory of a social contract. Groups Humes' refutation into three arguments: 1) hardly any social contracts are idscernible in the hoistories of actual governments 2) contract theory must be wrong because it conflicts with ordinary people's views on the sunject 3) utilitarian Argues that it is doubtful whether any of these arguments or clusters of arguments really refutes contract theory; certainly, none achieves a (...)
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  44. Jeffrie G. Murphy (1978). Hume and Kant on the Social Contract. Philosophical Studies 33 (1):65 - 79.score: 120.0
    The central or dominant intellectual model which provided the structure of social and political thought in the 18th century was the "social contract". Both hume and kant felt obliged to assess it carefully-Hume coming out an opponent and kant a supporter of the model. This opposition is particularly interesting for the following reason: hume's attack on social contract theory is directed primarily against hobbes and locke, And it is interesting to see if post-Humean social (...)
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  45. Zachary Ernst (2001). Explaining the Social Contract. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):1-24.score: 120.0
    Brian Skyrms has argued that the evolution of the social contract may be explained using the tools of evolutionary game theory. I show in the first half of this paper that the evolutionary game-theoretic models are often highly sensitive to the specific processes that they are intended to simulate. This sensitivity represents an important robustness failure that complicates Skyrms's project. But I go on to make the positive proposal that we may none the less obtain robust results by (...)
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  46. Bryn Williams-Jones & Michael M. Burgess (2004). Social Contract Theory and Just Decision Making: Lessons From Genetic Testing for the BRCA Mutations. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (2):115-142.score: 120.0
    : Decisions about funding health services are crucial to controlling costs in health care insurance plans, yet they encounter serious challenges from intellectual property protection—e.g., patents—of health care services. Using Myriad Genetics' commercial genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast cancer (BRCA testing) in the context of the Canadian health insurance system as a case study, this paper applies concepts from social contract theory to help develop more just and rational approaches to health care decision making. Specifically, Daniels's and (...)
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  47. P. Weirich (2011). Exclusion From the Social Contract. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (2):148-169.score: 120.0
    Does rational bargaining yield a social contract that is efficient and so inclusive? A core allocation, that is, an allocation that gives each coalition at least as much as it can get on its own, is efficient. However, some coalitional games lack a core allocation, so rationality does not require one in those games. Does rationality therefore permit exclusion from the social contract? I replace realization of a core allocation with another type of equilibrium achievable in (...)
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  48. Allan J. Kimmel, N. Craig Smith & Jill Gabrielle Klein (2011). Ethical Decision Making and Research Deception in the Behavioral Sciences: An Application of Social Contract Theory. Ethics and Behavior 21 (3):222 - 251.score: 120.0
    Despite significant ethical advances in recent years, including professional developments in ethical review and codification, research deception continues to be a pervasive practice and contentious focus of debate in the behavioral sciences. Given the disciplines' generally stated ethical standards regarding the use of deceptive procedures, researchers have little practical guidance as to their ethical acceptability in specific research contexts. We use social contract theory to identify the conditions under which deception may or may not be morally permissible and (...)
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  49. Helena Rosenblatt (1997). Rousseau and Geneva: From the First Discourse to the Social Contract, 1749-1762. Cambridge University Press.score: 120.0
    Rousseau and Geneva reconstructs the main aspects of Genevan socio-economic, political and religious thought in the first half of the eighteenth century. In this way Dr Rosenblatt effectively contextualizes the development of Rousseau's thought from the First Discourse through to the Social Contract. Over time Rousseau has been adopted as a French thinker, but this adoption obscures his Genevan origin. Dr Rosenblatt points out that he is, in fact, a Genevan thinker and illustrates for the first time that (...)
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  50. Kimberly K. Smith (2008). Animals and the Social Contract. Environmental Ethics 30 (2):195-207.score: 120.0
    In The Frontiers of Justice, Martha Nussbaum argues that social contract theory cannot accommodate political duties to animals because it requires the parties to the contract to enjoy rough physical and mental equality. Her interpretation of the social contract tradi­tion is unpersuasive; social contract theory requires only that the parties be equally free and deserving of moral consideration. Moreover, social contract theory is superior to her capabilities approach in that it allows (...)
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