Search results for 'sociopath' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kent G. Bailey (1995). The Sociopath: Cheater or Warrior Hawk? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):542-543.score: 18.0
    Mealey's excellent target article rests on several assumptions that may be questioned, including the overarching assumption that sociopathy reflects the failure of a small minority of males to cooperate with the larger group. I suggest that violent competition in ancestral bands cheatinggame was the primary evolutionary precursor of sociopathy. Today's violent sociopath is far more a than a failed cooperator.
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  2. Donald Phillip Verene (2010). The Sociopath and the Ring of Gyges: A Problem in Rhetorical and Moral Philosophy. Philosophy and Rhetoric 43 (3):201-221.score: 15.0
    Moral philosophy in all its contemporary forms, whether consequentialist, formalist, contractarian, utilitarian, or virtue ethicist, presumes the possibility of formulating principles of conduct that apply universally to all human beings. Standard exceptions are infants and young children, persons who are clinically insane, and persons with reduced mental capacity. These exceptions are recognized by all modern systems of morality and law. The inability to distinguish right from wrong, due to immature age, mental disorganization, or insufficient intelligence is grounds to exempt any (...)
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  3. George J. Seidel (2008). The Beautiful Soul, the Sociopath, and Fichte's Ethics. Philosophy Today 52 (3-4):365-369.score: 15.0
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  4. Daniel Moseley & Gary Gala (forthcoming). On the Nature of Psychopathy. In Fabrice Jotterand & James Giordano (eds.), The Neurobiology of Social Disruption: International Perspectives of Psychiatry, Pathology and Society. Potomic Institute Press.score: 6.0
    The primary goal of this essay is to clarify the concept of psychopathy and distinguish it from other, related, concepts. We contend that the paradigmatic trait of psychopathy is a propensity to violence that is accompanied by a lack of conscience. We also argue that conceptual clarity on this point is important for devising empirical criteria for identifying psychopaths. We also argue that a full theory of psychopathy will require one to utilize theories and assumptions that pertain to central issues (...)
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  5. Yuval Wolf (1995). Moral Judgments by Alleged Sociopaths as a Means for Coping with Problems of Definition and Identification in Mealey's Model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):577-578.score: 6.0
    Problems of definition and identification in the integrated evolutionary model of sociopathy are suggested by Schoenfeld's (1974) criticism of the field of race differences in intelligence. Moral judgments by those labeled primary and secondary sociopaths may offer a way to validate the assumptions of the model.
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  6. Marvin Zuckerman (1995). Is the Distinction Between Primary and Secondary Sociopaths a Matter of Degree, Secondary Traits, or Nature Vs. Nurture? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):578-579.score: 5.0
    Psychopathy has as its central traits socialization, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. These are combined in a supertrait: Impulsive Unsocialized Sensation Seeking (ImpUSS). Secondary types are defined by combinations of ImpUSS and neuroticism or sociability. All broad personality traits have both genetic and environmental determination, and therefore different etiologies (primary as genetic, secondary as environmental) for primary and secondary sociopathy are unlikely.
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  7. J. Carlebach (1967). Deviant Children Grown Up. A Sociological and Psychiatric Study of Sociopathic Personality. The Eugenics Review 59 (1):59.score: 5.0
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  8. Joe Cruz (1997). Simulation and the Psychology of Sociopathy. Behavioral And Brain Sciences 20 (3):525-527.score: 3.0
    Mealey's (1995a) psychological explanation of the sociopath's antisocial activity appeals to an incomplete or nonstandard theory of mind. This is not the only possible mechanism of mental state attribution. The simulation theory of mental state ascription offers a better hope of explaining the diverse elements of sociopathy reported by Mealey.
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  9. H. J. Eysenck (1995). Psychopathology: Type or Trait? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):555-556.score: 3.0
    Mealey proposes two categorical classes of sociopath, primary and secondary. I criticize this distinction on the basis that constructs of this kind have proved unrealistic in personality taxonomy and that dimensional systems capture reality much more successfully. I suggest how such a system could work in this particular context.
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  10. R. J. R. Blair & John Morton (1995). Putting Cognition Into Sociopathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-548.score: 3.0
    We make three suggestions with regard to Mealey's work. First, her lack of a cognitive analysis of the sociopath results in underspecified mappings between sociobiology and behavior. Second, the developmental literature indicates that Mealey's implicit assumption, that moral socialisation is achieved through punishment, is invalid. Third, we advance the use of causal modelling to map the developmental relationships between biology, cognition, and behaviour.
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  11. Richard Machalek (1995). Sociobiology, Sociopathy, and Social Policy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):564-564.score: 3.0
    Evolutionary analysis suggests that policies based on deterrence may cope effectively with primary sociopathy if the threat of punishment fits the crime in the cost/benefit calculus of the sociopath, not that of the public. On the other hand, policies designed to offset serious disadvantage in social competition may help inhibit the development of secondary sociopathy, rather than deter its expression.
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  12. Richard Joyce, Review By.score: 1.0
    The lead text of this book is based on primatologist Frans de Waal’s 2003 Tanner Lectures at Princeton University, to which he adds three short appendices. There are commentaries by Robert Wright, Christine Korsgaard, Philip Kitcher, and Peter Singer, followed by a 20-page response. Josiah Ober and Stephen Macedo provide a brief introduction. As befits a Tanner lecturer, de Waal’s scope is broad, his writing accessible, and the pace lively. He continues his crusade against the “veneer theory”—the idea that (...)
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  13. Wade Rowland (2009). Reflections on Metaphor and Identity in the Cyber-Corporation. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):15 - 28.score: 1.0
    This essay attempts to establish an alternative and more accurate way of thinking about the modern business corporation, its role in society, and its frequently sociopathic behavior. It proposes that corporations as they currently exist are a product of rationalist, positivist thought of the nineteenth century, and have in recent decades emerged from their increasingly complex conditions of existence into autonomous, self-regulating entities that can best be described as cyber-corporations or cybercorps. The cybercorp, as an emergent being, is capable of (...)
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  14. Paul Bloom (2013). Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil. Crown.score: 1.0
    A leading cognitive scientist argues that a deep sense of good and evil is bred in the bone. From John Locke to Sigmund Freud, philosophers and psychologists have long believed that we begin life as blank moral slates. Many of us take for granted that babies are born selfish and that it is the role of society—and especially parents—to transform them from little sociopaths into civilized beings. In Just Babies, Paul Bloom argues that humans are in fact hardwired with a (...)
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  15. N. S. Miceli (1996). Deviant Managerial Behavior: Costs, Outcomes and Prevention. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (6):703 - 709.score: 1.0
    This paper examines deviant managerial behavior, and compares such behavior to the clinical psychological sociopathic model. The scope of a multinational corporate operation can enhance or degrade the quality of life for individuals with more impact than at any previous time in history. Social costs are compared to the results of sociopathic behavior and examined as the result of amoral or immoral behavior. The idea of the sociopathic manager is discussed, and theoretical causes of sociopathic development are examined with bases (...)
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  16. Linda Mealey (1995). Primary Sociopathy (Psychopathy) is a Type, Secondary is Not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):579-599.score: 1.0
    Recent studies lend support to the two-pathway model of the evolution of sociopathy with evidence that: 1) psychopathy (primary sociopathy) is a discrete type and 2) in general, sociopaths have relatively high levels of reproductive success. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist may provide a start for the revision of terminology that will be necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary trajectories.
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  17. Linda Mealey (2006). The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Integrated Evolutionary Model.(Vol 18, Pg 523, 1995). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):523-541.score: 1.0
    Sociopaths are members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most ofus cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to (...)
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  18. Robert Plutchik (1995). Emotions and Sociopathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):570-571.score: 1.0
    Questions are raised about several issues discussed by Mealey: (1) the nature of the distinction between primary and secondary sociopaths, (2) some difficulties with a general arousal theory of criminality, and (3) the possible role of countervailing forces in the development of sociopathy. An important area that calls for attention is the patterning of different specific emotions in the lives of sociopaths as compared to other groups.
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  19. Anne Campbell (1995). Sociopathy or Hyper-Masculinity? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-549.score: 1.0
    Definitional slippage threatens to equate secondary sociopathy with mere criminality and leaves the status of noncriminal sociopaths ambiguous. Primary sociopathy appears to show more environmental contingency than would be implied by a strong genetic trait approach. A reinterpretation in terms of hypermasculinity and hypofemininity is compatible with the data.
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  20. David C. Rowe (1995). Evolution, Mating Effort, and Crime. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):573-574.score: 1.0
    Unlike some psychiatric illnesses, criminal lifestyles are not reproductive dead ends and may represent frequency-dependent adaptations. Sociopaths may gain reproductively from their greater relative to nonsociopaths. This mating-effort construct should be assessed directly in future studies of sociopathy. Collaboration between biologically oriented and environmentally oriented researchers is needed to investigate the biosocial basis of sociopathy.
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  21. John D. Baldwin (1995). Continua Outperform Dichotomies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):543-544.score: 1.0
    Mealey's data do not support her dichotomous model of primary and secondary sociopathy; this data supports the view that there is a continuum of degrees of sociopathy, from zero to the maximal manifestation. There are multitudes of factors that can contribute to sociopathy and the countless different mixes of them can produce multiple degrees and variations of sociopathic behavior.
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  22. Ernest S. Barratt & Russell Gardner (1995). Sociopathy, Evolution, and the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):544-544.score: 1.0
    We propose that Mealey's model is limited in its description of sociopathy because it does not provide an adequate role for the main organ mediating genes and behavior, namely, the brain. Further, on the basis of our research, we question the view of sociopaths as a homogeneous group.
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  23. Nancy Eisenberg (1995). The Role of Emotion in Sociopathy: Contradictions and Unanswered Questions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):553-554.score: 1.0
    Emotion is critical in Mealey's conceptual arguments. However, several of her assertions about the role of emotion in sociopathy are problematic. Questions are raised regarding the link between lack of anxiety and low levels of secondary emotions such as love and sympathy, the argument that sociopaths are low in anxiety but high in neuroticism, and the designation of anxiety as a secondary emotion.
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  24. Andrew Futterman & Garland E. Allen (1995). “Just So” Stories and Sociopathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):557-558.score: 1.0
    Sociobiological explanation requires both a reliable and a valid definition of the sociopathy phenotype. Mealey assumes that such reliable and valid definition of sociopathy exists in her A review of psychiatric literature on the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder clearly demonstrates that this assumption is faulty. There is substantial disagreement among diagnostic systems (e.g., RDC, DSM-III) over what constitutes the antisocial phenotype, different systems identify different individuals as sociopathic. Without a valid definition of sociopathy, sociobiological theories like Mealey's should be (...)
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  25. Debbie Epstein & Deborah Lynn Steinberg (2011). The Bourne Tragedy: Lost Subjects of the Bioconvergent Age. Mediatropes 3 (1):89-112.score: 1.0
    This paper examines the Bourne trilogy to explore several characteristics of what we term the bioconvergent age. First, we consider the imagined and actual interfaces of bioconvergence—of body, gadgetry, and electronic communications. We explore the ways in which the bioconvergent tendencies represented in and by Bourne reflect and cultivate a cultural unconscious deeply seduced by and imbricated in surveillant governmentality. Second, we consider the ways in which the trilogy achieves its effects through the deployment of both hyperrealism and verisimilitude. In (...)
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  26. Richard W. J. Neufeld (1995). Touchstones of Abnormal Personality Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):567-568.score: 1.0
    Strengths of Mealey's target article are its implementation of results from game-theoretic analyses and its potential links with other formal developments. In recent dynamic decision/choice models, reduced salience of avoidance tendencies, said to typify primary sociopaths, has quantifiable consequences for response latencies and choices. Also, formal models of stress effects on information processing predict selected effects of hypoarousability.
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  27. Jaak Panksepp, Brian Knutson & Laura Bird (1995). On the Brain and Personality Substrates of Psychopathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):568-570.score: 1.0
    Further understanding at neuroscientific and personality levels should considerably advance our ability to deal with individuals that have strong sociopathic tendencies. An analysis of neurodynamic responses to emotional stimuli will eventually be able to detect sociopathic tendencies of the brain. Such information could be used to enhance the options available to individuals at risk without limiting their personal freedoms.
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  28. Nancy L. Segal (1995). Pathways to Sociopathy: Twin Analyses Offer Direction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):574-575.score: 1.0
    Understanding the bases of complex behavioral phenotypes, such as sociopathy, is assisted by an evolutionary approach, in addition to other theoretical perspectives. Unraveling genetic and environmental factors underlying variant forms of sociopathy remains a key challenge for behavioral science investigators. Twin research methods (e.g., longitudinal analyses; twins reared apart) offer informative means of assessing novel hypotheses relevant to sociopathic behaviors.
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