Search results for 'soft science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  16
    George S. Howard (1993). When Psychology Looks Like a "Soft" Science, It's for Good Reasonp. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 13 (1):42-47.
    The natural sciences are sometimes called "hard" sciences in contrast to the social sciences , which are thought to represent "soft" sciences. L. V. Hedges made an important effort to determine the empirical cumulativeness of various scientific research programs, with an eye toward assessing if this criterion is related to a discipline's "hardness" or "softness." This article discusses another criterion, a research program's predictive accuracy, that might also be considered along with a program's empirical cumulativeness. Finally, recent improvements in (...)
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  2.  4
    Milos Jenicek (2006). The Hard Art of Soft Science: Evidence‐Based Medicine, Reasoned Medicine or Both? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):410-419.
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  3.  7
    Michael Loughlin (2006). Blinded by 'Science': Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) 'The Hard Art of Soft Science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):423-426.
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  4.  7
    Sheldon Pollock (2009). Future Philology? The Fate of a Soft Science in a Hard World. Critical Inquiry 35 (4):931-961.
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  5.  21
    B. Pratt & K. Johnson (2005). SoftScience in the Courtroom?: The Effects of Admitting Neuroimaging Evidence Into Legal Proceedings. Penn Bioethics Journal 1 (1).
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  6.  2
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). Evidence‐Based Medicine, Reasoned Medicine or Both? Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) 'The Hard Art of Soft Science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
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  7.  5
    Ross E. G. Upshur B. A. Hons Ma (2006). Jenicek, M.(2006)'The Hard Art of Soft Science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
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  8.  5
    Clifford Miller & Donald W. Miller (2014). Medicine is Not Science. European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 2 (2):144-153.
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Most modern knowledge is not science. The physical sciences have successfully validated theories to infer they can be used universally to predict in previously unexperienced circumstances. According to the conventional conception of science such inferences are falsified by a single irregular outcome. And verification is by the scientific method which requires strict regularity of outcome and establishes cause and effect. -/- Medicine, medical research and many “soft” sciences are concerned with individual people in complex heterogeneous (...)
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  9. Massimo Pigliucci (2002). Are Ecology and Evolutionary Biology “Soft” Sciences? Annales Zoologici Finnici 39:87-98.
    Research in ecology and evolutionary biology (evo-eco) often tries to emulate the “hard” sciences such as physics and chemistry, but to many of its practitioners feels more like the “soft” sciences of psychology and sociology. I argue that this schizophrenic attitude is the result of lack of appreciation of the full consequences of the peculiarity of the evo-eco sciences as lying in between a-historical disciplines such as physics and completely historical ones as like paleontology. Furthermore, evo-eco researchers have gotten (...)
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  10.  1
    Mike Walsh, Gordon Grant & Zoë Coleman (2008). Action Research—a Necessary Complement to Traditional Health Science? Health Care Analysis 16 (2):127-144.
    There is continuing interest in action research in health care. This is despite action researchers facing major problems getting support for their projects from mainstream sources of R&D funds partly because its validity is disputed and partly because it is difficult to predict or evaluate and is therefore seen as risky. In contrast traditional health science dominates and relies on compliance with strictly defined scientific method and rules of accountability. Critics of scientific health care have highlighted many problems including (...)
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  11.  94
    Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science From Bunk. University of Chicago Press.
    Introduction : science versus pseudoscience and the "demarcation problem" -- Hard science, soft science -- Almost science -- Pseudoscience -- Blame the media? -- Debates on science : the rise of think tanks and the decline of public intellectuals -- Science and politics : the case of global warming -- Science in the courtroom : the case against intelligent design -- From superstition to natural philosophy -- From natural philosophy to modern (...) -- The science wars I : do we trust science too much? -- The science wars II : do we trust science too little? -- Who's your expert? -- Conclusion : so, what is science after all? (shrink)
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  12. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
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  13. Anton Moser (2000). The Wisdom of Nature in Integrating Science, Ethics and the Arts. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (3):365-382.
    This paper deals with an approach to the integration of science (with technology and economics), ethics (with religion and mysticism), the arts (aesthetics) and Nature, in order to establish a world-view based on holistic, evolutionary ethics that could help with problem solving. The author suggests that this integration is possible with the aid of “Nature’s wisdom” which is mirrored in the macroscopic pattern of the ecosphere. The corresponding eco-principles represent the basis for unifying soft and hard sciences resulting (...)
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  14. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
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  15. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
     
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  16. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
     
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  17. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
     
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  18.  53
    Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
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  19.  12
    Simone van der Burg (2011). Taking the “Soft Impacts” of Technology Into Account: Broadening the Discourse in Research Practice. Social Epistemology 23 (3):301-316.
    Public funding institutions are able to influence what aspects researchers take into account when they consider the future impacts of their research. On the basis of a description of the evaluation systems that public research funding institutes in the Netherlands (STW and SenterNovem) use to estimate the quality of engineering science, this article shows that researchers are now predominantly required to reflect on the intellectual merit of their research and on the usability and marketability of the technology it contributes (...)
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  20.  16
    Sheldon Krimsky (2000). Commentary on “the Politics of Certainty” (C. A. Rubino). Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (4):509-510.
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  21.  63
    Thomas Sturm (2011). Freedom and the Human Sciences: Hume’s Science of Man Versus Kant’s Pragmatic Anthropology. Kant Yearbook 3 (1):23-42.
    In his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, Kant formulates the idea of the empirical investigation of the human being as a free agent. The notion is puzzling: Does Kant not often claim that, from an empirical point of view, human beings cannot be considered as free? What sense would it make anyway to include the notion of freedom in science? The answer to these questions lies in Kant’s notion of character. While probably all concepts of character are (...)
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  22.  29
    Giles Oatley, Brian Ewart & John Zeleznikow (2006). Decision Support Systems for Police: Lessons From the Application of Data Mining Techniques to “Soft” Forensic Evidence. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (1-2):35-100.
    The paper sets out the challenges facing the Police in respect of the detection and prevention of the volume crime of burglary. A discussion of data mining and decision support technologies that have the potential to address these issues is undertaken and illustrated with reference the authors’ work with three Police Services. The focus is upon the use of “soft” forensic evidence which refers to modus operandi and the temporal and geographical features of the crime, rather than “hard” evidence (...)
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  23. Joseph Grünfeld (2000). Soft Logic: The Epistemic Role of Aesthetic Criteria. Upa.
    Soft Logic is a fascinating study that links scientific and mathematical reasoning to literature and the arts. In this work, Joseph Grünfeld argues that justification by resemblance is more common in science than is generally recognized. That is, symbolic and metaphorical modes of thinking, which are largely analogical, often play a significant role in the interpretation of formal systems. Noting that twentieth century non-Aristotelian forms of reasoning have greatly expanded our understanding of what constitutes logic, Grünfeld explores a (...)
     
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  24.  3
    J. Herman (2001). Medicine: The Science and the Art. Medical Humanities 27 (1):42-46.
    Medicine has been said to be both a science and an art. Many practitioners regard this statement as containing an element of “either/or”. A brief look at what scientists and artists have written about their work and their world views, however, suggests that the two fields of endeavour form a complementary part of our attempts to understand ourselves and the world about us. Moreover, on occasion, each can perform some of the other's tasks. This paper quotes from the writings (...)
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  25. Michael Banner & Jonathan Suk (2006). Genomics in the UK: Mapping the Social Science Landscape. Genomics, Society and Policy 2:4-31.
    This paper has been prepared from the perspective of the ESRC Genomics Policy & Research Forum, which has the particular mandate of linking social science research on genomics with ongoing public and policy debates. It is intended as a contribution to discussions about the future agenda for social scientific analyses of genomics. Given its scope, this paper is necessarily painted with a broad brush. It is presented in the hope that it can serve both as a useful reference for (...)
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  26. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
     
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  27. Plamen L. Simeonov, Edwin Brezina, Ron Cottam, Andreé C. Ehresmann, Arran Gare, Ted Goranson, Jaime Gomez-­‐Ramirez, Brian D. Josephson, Bruno Marchal, Koichiro Matsuno, Robert S. Root-­Bernstein, Otto E. Rössler, Stanley N. Salthe, Marcin Schroeder, Bill Seaman & Pridi Siregar (2012). Stepping Beyond the Newtonian Paradigm in Biology. Towards an Integrable Model of Life: Accelerating Discovery in the Biological Foundations of Science. In Plamen L. Simeonov, Leslie S. Smith & Andreé C. Ehresmann (eds.), Integral Biomathics: Tracing the Road to Reality. Springer 328-427.
    The INBIOSA project brings together a group of experts across many disciplines who believe that science requires a revolutionary transformative step in order to address many of the vexing challenges presented by the world. It is INBIOSA’s purpose to enable the focused collaboration of an interdisciplinary community of original thinkers. This paper sets out the case for support for this effort. The focus of the transformative research program proposal is biology-centric. We admit that biology to date has been more (...)
     
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  28.  12
    Wayne D. Gray & Wai‐Tat Fu (2004). Soft Constraints in Interactive Behavior: The Case of Ignoring Perfect Knowledge in‐the‐World for Imperfect Knowledge in‐the‐Head*,*. Cognitive Science 28 (3):359-382.
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  29.  14
    Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson (1990). Soft Laws. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):256-279.
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  30.  87
    Eduardo H. Flichman (1995). Hard and Soft Accidental Uniformities. Philosophy of Science 62 (1):31-43.
    I discuss some aspects of the epistemological distinction between laws of nature and accidental uniformities. In order that the exposition be self-contained I briefly provide a taxonomy proposed in another work for statements that appear in a scientific theory. Once this taxonomy has been presented I attempt to prove two very different types of accidental uniformities: hard and soft. The distinction is fundamental because the latter have frequently been confused with laws of nature. I try to justify why I (...)
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  31.  17
    Matthew A. Baum (2007). Soft News and Foreign Policy: How Expanding the Audience Changes the Policies. Japanese Journal of Political Science 8 (1):115-145.
    Since the 1980s, the mass media have changed the way they cover major political stories, like foreign policy crises. As a consequence, what the public learns about these events has changed. More media outlets cover major events than in the past, including the entertainment-oriented soft news media. When they do cover a political story, soft news outlets focus more on than traditional news media and less on the political or strategic context, or substantive nuances, of policy debates. Many (...)
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  32.  6
    A. J. M. Oerlemans, M. E. C. Hoek, E. Leeuwen, S. Burg & W. J. M. Dekkers (2013). Towards a Richer Debate on Tissue Engineering: A Consideration on the Basis of NEST-Ethics. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):963-981.
    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or “NEST-ethics”). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering the (...)
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  33.  3
    Kosuke Shimizu (2014). The Ambivalent Relationship of Japan's Soft Power Diplomacy and Princess Mononoke : Tosaka Jun's Philosophy of Culture as Moral Reflection. Japanese Journal of Political Science 15 (4):683-698.
    Culture is a demanding word, particularly when it is used in the context of the contemporary academic discipline of international relations . It is often employed in order to distinguish one identity from another, allegedly illuminating idiosyncrasies embedded in a particular society or group of people. The essentialized understanding of culture is also detectable in the case of the current debate on the non-Western international relations theories . Non-Western politicians and scholars often employ the term culture in order to distinguish (...)
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  34. Mitchell R. Haney (1999). Dynamical Cognition, Soft Laws, and Moral Theorizing. Acta Analytica 22 (22):227-240.
     
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  35. A. J. M. Oerlemans, M. E. C. van Hoek, E. van Leeuwen, S. van der Burg & W. J. M. Dekkers (2013). Towards a Richer Debate on Tissue Engineering: A Consideration on the Basis of NEST-Ethics. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):963-981.
    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or “NEST-ethics”). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering the (...)
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  36.  20
    Katharina T. Kraus (2011). Kant and the 'Soft Sciences'. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):618-624.
  37.  5
    Syed Tofail, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins & Karena Hester (2015). Anticipatory Ethics and Governance : Towards a Future Care Orientation Around Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 9 (2):123-136.
    Nanotechnology presents significant challenges in terms of developing a regulatory framework. This is due to a lack of scientific knowledge about the behaviour of the technology in its interactions with biological and ecological processes, the environment and other technologies. Crucially, there is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the potential environmental and human health and safety impacts of NT. Consequently, the development of NT is a potential test case for framing new models of ‘soft law’ voluntary governance as a (...)
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  38. Paul Edwards (1958). Hard and Soft Determinism. In Sidney Hook (ed.), Determinism and Freedom in the Age of Modern Science. Collier-Macmillan 117--25.
     
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  39.  4
    Douglas L. Medin, Woo‐Kyoung Ahn, Jeffrey Bettger, Judy Florian, Robert Goldstone, Mary Lassaline, Arthur Markman, Joshua Rubinstein & Edward Wisniewski (1990). Safe Takeoffs—Soft Landings. Cognitive Science 14 (1):169-178.
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  40.  3
    Kanavillil Rajagopalan (2002). Science, Rhetoric, and the Sociology of Knowledge: A Critique of Dascal's View of Scientific Controversies. Manuscrito 25 (2):433-464.
    Dascal’s position on scientific controversies is submitted to a critical examination. It is pointed out that his distinction between knowledge and understanding, between ‘hard rationality’ and ‘soft rationality’ is unlikely to survive sustained critical probing. What is egregiously missing in his approach is a recognition of the role of so-called ‘sociology of knowledge’ in the way scientific controversies play out. It is argued that, insofar as they constitute pragmatic events, scientific controversies cannot be studied properly without taking into account (...)
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  41.  4
    Erik Conrad (2011). Soft Architectures for Everyday Life. AI and Society 26 (2):123-128.
    Technologies not only change “external reality” but also change our internal consciousness, shaping the way we experience the world. As the reality of intelligent environments is upon us—ushered along with the age of ubiquitous computing—we must be careful that the ideology these technologies embody is not blindly incorporated into the environment. As disciplines, engineering and computer science make implicit assumptions about the world that conflict with traditional modes of cultural production. For example, space is commonly understood to be the (...)
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  42.  4
    Takashi Inoguchi (2012). Introduction to the Special Issue: Soft Power of Civil Society in International Relations. Japanese Journal of Political Science 13 (4):473-476.
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  43.  1
    Mark C. Hollstein (2005). Matthew A. Baum, Soft News Goes To War, Princeton University Press, 2003, 343 Pp., $49.95, ISBN 0-691-11586–9. [REVIEW] Japanese Journal of Political Science 6 (3):443-444.
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  44. W. Gray (2004). Soft Constraints in Interactive Behavior: The Case of Ignoring Perfect Knowledge in-the-World for Imperfect Knowledge in-the-Head*1, *2. Cognitive Science 28 (3):359-382.
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  45. Karena Hester, Martin Mullins, Finbarr Murphy & Syed A. M. Tofail (2015). Anticipatory Ethics and Governance : Towards a Future Care Orientation Around Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 9 (2):123-136.
    Nanotechnology presents significant challenges in terms of developing a regulatory framework. This is due to a lack of scientific knowledge about the behaviour of the technology in its interactions with biological and ecological processes, the environment and other technologies. Crucially, there is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the potential environmental and human health and safety impacts of NT. Consequently, the development of NT is a potential test case for framing new models of ‘soft law’ voluntary governance as a (...)
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  46. D. Medin (1990). Safe Takeoffs—Soft Landings. Cognitive Science 14 (1):169-178.
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  47. Anthony J. Marcel & E. Bisiach (eds.) (1988). Consciousness in Contemporary Science. Oxford University Press.
    The significance of consciousness in modern science is discussed by leading authorities from a variety of disciplines. Presenting a wide-ranging survey of current thinking on this important topic, the contributors address such issues as the status of different aspects of consciousness; the criteria for using the concept of consciousness and identifying instances of it; the basis of consciousness in functional brain organization; the relationship between different levels of theoretical discourse; and the functions of consciousness.
     
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  48.  21
    Evelyn Fox Keller (1996). Reflections on Gender and Science. Yale University Press.
    "-Barbara Ehrenreich, Mother Jones "This book represents the expression of a particular feminist perspective made all the more compelling by Keller's evident commitment to and understanding of science.
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  49. Nancy Cartwright (1999). The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science. Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others (...)
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  50. Jerry A. Fodor (1998). Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong. Oxford University Press.
    The renowned philosopher Jerry Fodor, a leading figure in the study of the mind for more than twenty years, presents a strikingly original theory on the basic constituents of thought. He suggests that the heart of cognitive science is its theory of concepts, and that cognitive scientists have gone badly wrong in many areas because their assumptions about concepts have been mistaken. Fodor argues compellingly for an atomistic theory of concepts, deals out witty and pugnacious demolitions of rival theories, (...)
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