Search results for 'species' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Species as Family Resemblance Concepts: The (Dis-)Solution of the Species Problem? BioEssays 25 (6):596-602.score: 18.0
    The so-called ‘‘species problem’’ has plagued evolution- ary biology since before Darwin’s publication of the aptly titled Origin of Species. Many biologists think the problem is just a matter of semantics; others complain that it will not be solved until we have more empirical data. Yet, we don’t seem to be able to escape discussing it and teaching seminars about it. In this paper, I briefly examine the main themes of the biological and philosophical liter- atures on the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Michael T. Ghiselin (1974). A Radical Solution to the Species Problem. Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.score: 18.0
    Traditionally, species (like other taxa) have been treated as classes (universals). In fact they may be considered individuals (particular things). The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties (intensions), 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “Species" may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Marc Ereshefsky (2010). Darwin's Solution to the Species Problem. Synthese 175 (3):405 - 425.score: 18.0
    Biologists and philosophers that debate the existence of the species category fall into two camps. Some believe that the species category does not exist and the term 'species' should be eliminated from biology. Others believe that with new biological insights or the application of philosophical ideas, we can be confident that the species category exists. This paper offers a different approach to the species problem. We should be skeptical of the species category, but not (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Julia Tanner (2011). The Argument From Marginal Cases: Is Species a Relevant Difference. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (32):225-235.score: 18.0
    Marginal humans are not rational yet we still think they are morally considerable. This is inconsistent with denying animals moral status on the basis of their irrationality. Therefore, either marginal humans and animals are both morally considerable or neither are. In this paper I consider a major objection to this argument: that species is a relevant difference between humans animals.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. John S. Wilkins (2010). What is a Species? Essences and Generation. Theory in Biosciences 129:141-148.score: 18.0
    Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Joel Cracraft (1987). Species Concepts and the Ontology of Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):329-346.score: 18.0
    Biologists and philosophers have long recognized the importance of species, yet species concepts serve two masters, evolutionary theory on the one hand and taxonomy on the other. Much of present-day evolutionary and systematic biology has confounded these two roles primarily through use of the biological species concept. Theories require entities that are real, discrete, irreducible, and comparable. Within the neo-Darwinian synthesis, however, biological species have been treated as real or subjectively delimited entities, discrete or nondiscrete, and (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson (2010). Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species. Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.score: 18.0
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of gene (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. John S. Wilkins (2007). The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation. Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.score: 18.0
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. John S. Wilkins (2003). How to Be a Chaste Species Pluralist-Realist: The Origins of Species Modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):621-638.score: 18.0
    The biological species (biospecies) concept applies only to sexually reproducing species, which means that until sexual reproduction evolved, there were no biospecies. On the universal tree of life, biospecies concepts therefore apply only to a relatively small number of clades, notably plants andanimals. I argue that it is useful to treat the various ways of being a species (species modes) as traits of clades. By extension from biospecies to the other concepts intended to capture the natural (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Mark Sagoff (2005). Do Non-Native Species Threaten the Natural Environment? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (3):215-236.score: 18.0
    Conservation biologists and other environmentalists confront five obstacles in building support for regulatory policies that seek to exclude or remove introduced plants and other non-native species that threaten to harm natural areas or the natural environment. First, the concept of “harm to the natural environment” is nebulous and undefined. Second, ecologists cannot predict how introduced species will behave in natural ecosystems. If biologists cannot define “harm” or predict the behavior of introduced species, they must target all non-native (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Jan-Erik Jones (2007). Locke Vs. Boyle: The Real Essence of Corpuscular Species. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (4):659 – 684.score: 18.0
    While the tradition of Locke scholarship holds that both Locke and Boyle are species anti-realists, there is evidence that this interpretation is false. Specifically, there has been some recent work on Boyle showing that he is, unlike Locke, a species realist. In this paper I argue that once we see Boyle as a realist about natural species, it is plausible to read some of Locke’s most formidable anti-realist arguments as directed specifically at Boyle’s account of natural (...). This is a break from the tradition because no one in the literature has yet suggested that some of Locke’s arguments in Book III of the Essay include a criticism of Boyle’s doctrine of species. Moreover, identifying Boyle as Locke’s intended target illuminates some of the more vexing passages in the Essay concerning real essences. (shrink)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Wittgenstein Solves (Posthumously) the Species Problem. Philosophy Now (Mar/Apr):51.score: 18.0
    Can Wittgenstein's famous family resemblance concept be applied to resolve the problem of defining species in biology?
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon (1987). Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.score: 18.0
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any (...) concept is necessary. A phylogenetic species concept is advocated that uses a (monistic) grouping criterion of monophyly in a cladistic sense, and a (pluralistic) ranking criterion based on those causal processes that are most important in producing and maintaining lineages in a particular case. Such causal processes can include actual interbreeding, selective constraints, and developmental canalization. The widespread use of the biological species concept is flawed for two reasons: because of a failure to distinguish grouping from ranking criteria and because of an unwarranted emphasis on the importance of interbreeding as a universal causal factor controlling evolutionary diversification. The potential to interbreed is not in itself a process; it is instead a result of a diversity of processes which result in shared selective environments and common developmental programs. These types of processes act in both sexual and asexual organisms, thus the phylogenetic species concept can reflect an underlying unity that the biological species concept can not. (shrink)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Bryan Bannon (2007). Reading the Living Signs: A Proposal for a Merleau-Pontian Concept of Species. Chiasmi International 9:96-111.score: 18.0
    This paper seeks to propose a direction of research based upon the transformation of Merleau-Ponty's thinking with respect to animal life over the course of his writings. In his earlier works, Merleau-Ponty takes up the position that “life” does not mean the same thing when applied to an animal and a human being because of the manner in which the “human dialectic” alters the human being's relation to life. In his later works, particularly in his lectures on nature, this position (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Daniel Simberloff (2005). Non-Native Species DO Threaten the Natural Environment! Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (6):595-607.score: 18.0
    Sagoff [Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2005), 215–236] argues, against growing empirical evidence, that major environmental impacts of non-native species are unproven. However, many such impacts, including extinctions of both island and continental species, have both been demonstrated and judged by the public to be harmful. Although more public attention has been focused on non-native animals than non-native plants, the latter more often cause ecosystem-wide impacts. Increased regulation of introduction of non-native species is, therefore, warranted, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Julia Tanner (2008). Species as a Relationship. Acta Analytica 23 (4):337-347.score: 18.0
    The fact that humans have a special relationship to each other insofar as they belong in the same species is often taken to be a morally relevant difference between humans and other animals, one which justifies a greater moral status for all humans, regardless of their individual capacities. I give some reasons why this kind of relationship is not an appropriate ground for differential treatment of humans and nonhumans. I then argue that even if relationships do matter morally (...) membership cannot justify a difference in moral status. This has important implications because it removes one barrier to giving animals greater moral status. (shrink)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Michael Lee & Mieczyslaw Wolsan (2002). Integration, Individuality and Species Concepts. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):651-660.score: 18.0
    Integration (interaction among parts of an entity) is suggested to be necessary for individuality (contra, Metaphysics and the Origin of Species). A synchronic species is an integrated individual that can evolve as a unified whole; a diachronic lineage is a non-integrated historical entity that cannot evolve. Synchronic species and diachronic lineages are consequently suggested to be ontologically distinct entities, rather than alternative perspectives of the same underlying entity (contra Baum (1998), Syst. Biol. 47, 641–653; de Queiroz (1995), (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Thomas A. C. Reydon (2008). Species in Three and Four Dimensions. Synthese 164 (2):161 - 184.score: 18.0
    There is an interesting parallel between two debates in different domains of contemporary analytic philosophy. One is the endurantism–<span class='Hi'>perdurantism</span>, or three-dimensionalism vs. four-dimensionalism, debate in analytic metaphysics. The other is the debate on the species problem in philosophy of biology. In this paper I attempt to cross-fertilize these debates with the aim of exploiting some of the potential that the two debates have to advance each other. I address two issues. First, I explore what the case of (...) implies regarding the feasibility of particular positions in the endurantism– <span class='Hi'>perdurantism</span> debate. I argue that the case of species casts doubt on the recent claim that three-dimensionalism and four-dimensionalism are equivalent descriptions of the same underlying reality. Second, and conversely, I examine whether the metaphysical worry about three-dimensionalism and four-dimensionalism can help us to better understand the nature of biological species. I show that analyzing the thesis that species are individuals against the background of the endurantism–<span class='Hi'>perdurantism</span> debate allows us to explicate two different ways in which this thesis can be interpreted. (shrink)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Arnold G. Kluge (1990). Species as Historical Individuals. Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):417-431.score: 18.0
    The species category is defined as thesmallest historical individual within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent. The use of historical individual in this definition is consistent with the prevailing notion that speciesper se are not involved in processes — they are effects, not effectors. Reproductive isolation distinguishes biparental historical species from their parts, and it provides a basis for understanding the nature of the evidence used to discover historical individuals.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Jean Gayon (1996). The Individuality of the Species: A Darwinian Theory? — From Buffon to Ghiselin, and Back to Darwin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):215-244.score: 18.0
    Since the 1970s, there has been a tremendous amount of literature on Ghiselin's proposal that species are individuals. After recalling the origins and stakes of this thesis in contemporary evolutionary theory, I show that it can also be found in the writings of the French naturalist Buffon in the 18th Century. Although Buffon did not have the conception that one species could be derived from another, there is an interesting similarity between the modern argument and that of Buffon (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Jeffrey Lockwood (2012). Species Are Processes: A Solution to the 'Species Problem' Via an Extension of Ulanowicz's Ecological Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 22 (2):231-260.score: 18.0
    Abstract The ‘species problem’ in the philosophy of biology concerns the nature of species. Various solutions have been proposed, including arguments that species are sets, classes, natural kinds, individuals, and homeostatic property clusters. These proposals parallel debates in ecology as to the ontology and metaphysics of populations, communities and ecosystems. A new solution—that species are processes—is proposed and defended, based on Robert Ulanowicz’s metaphysics of process ecology. As with ecological systems, species can be understood as (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. David N. Stamos (2002). Species, Languages, and the Horizontal/Vertical Distinction. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):171-198.score: 18.0
    In addition to the distinction between species as a category and speciesas a taxon, the word species is ambiguous in a very different butequally important way, namely the temporal distinction between horizontal andvertical species. Although often found in the relevant literature, thisdistinction has thus far remained vague and undefined. In this paper the use ofthe distinction is explored, an attempt is made to clarify and define it, andthen the relation between the two dimensions and the implications of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Bradley E. Wilson (1995). A (Not-so-Radical) Solution to the Species Problem. Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):339-356.score: 18.0
    What are species? One popular answer is that species are individuals. Here I develop another approach to thinking about species, an approach based on the notion of a lineage. A lineage is a sequence of reproducing entities, individuated in terms of its components. I argue that one can conceive of species as groups of lineages, either organism lineages or population lineages. Conceiving of species as groups of lineages resolves the problems that the individual conception of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Richard A. Richards (2010). The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    There is long-standing disagreement among systematists about how to divide biodiversity into species. Over twenty different species concepts are used to group organisms, according to criteria as diverse as morphological or molecular similarity, interbreeding and genealogical relationships. This, combined with the implications of evolutionary biology, raises the worry that either there is no single kind of species, or that species are not real. This book surveys the history of thinking about species from Aristotle to modern (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Peter J. Beurton (1995). How is a Species Kept Together? Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):181-196.score: 18.0
    Over the decades, there has been substantial empirical evidence showing that the unity of species cannot be maintained by gene flow. The biological species concept is inconclusive on this point. The suggestion is made that the unity of species is maintained rather by selection constantly spreading new alleles throughout the species, or bygene circulation. There is a lack in conceptual distinction between gene flow and gene circulation which lies at the heart of the problem. The concept (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Samuel Alexander (2013). Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.score: 18.0
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch a (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Martin Mahner (1993). What Is a Species? A Contribution to the Never Ending Species Debate in Biology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 24 (1):103 - 126.score: 18.0
    The continuing discussion of the species problem suffers from the lack of a coherent ontological theory as a basis for determining whether species have an ontological status. It has attempted to apply a full-fledged metaphysical theory to the species problem: the ontology of Mario Bunge. In doing so a few ontological fundamentals including system, individual, real and conceptual object, and law are briefly introduced. It is with the help of these fundamentals that an analysis of the (...)-as-individuals thesis is carried out, concluding that species are not individuals (things), but natural kinds, and that they have no ontological status. In contradistinction to the traditional view of natural kinds involving possible worlds metaphysics and semantics a notion of natural kind is given in terms of the state space approach and of nomological equivalence. (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. David N. Stamos (1998). Buffon, Darwin, and the Non-Individuality of Species – a Reply to Jean Gayon. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):443-470.score: 18.0
    Gayon's recent claim that Buffon developed a concept of species as physical individuals is critically examined and rejected. Also critically examined and rejected is Gayon's more central thesis that as a consequence of his analysis of Buffon's species concept, and also of Darwin's species concept, it is clear that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals. While I agree with Gayon's conclusion that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Ernst Mayr (1988). The Why and How of Species. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):431-441.score: 18.0
    The biological species concept deals both with the meaning of the sexual species as a harmonious gene pool and with its protection against deleterious outbreeding (effected by isolating mechanisms). According to the Darwin-Muller-Mayr theory isolating mechanisms are acquired by incipient species during alloparty. Isolating mechanisms are not the result of ad hoc selection, but of a change of function of properties acquired during the preceding isolation of the incipient species. The role of behavioral properties (recognition) among (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Joseph LaPorte (2003). Does a Type Specimen Necessarily or Contingently Belong to its Species? Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):583-588.score: 18.0
    In a recent article, Alex Levine raises a paradox. It appears that, given some relatively uncontroversial premises about how a species term comes to refer to its species, a type specimen belongs necessarily and contingently to its species. According to Levine, this problem arises if species are individuals rather than natural kinds. I argue that the problem can be generalized: the problem also arises if species are kinds and type specimens are paradigmatic members used to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Bradley E. Wilson (1996). Changing Conceptions of Species. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):405-420.score: 18.0
    Species are thought by many to be important units of evolution. In this paper, I argue against that view. My argument is based on an examination of the role of species in the synthetic theory of evolution. I argue that if one adopts a gradualist view of evolution, one cannot make sense of the claim that species are units in the minimal sense needed to claim that they are units of evolution, namely, that they exist as discrete (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Ross Inman (forthcoming). De Re Essentialism, Species, and Modal Ambiguity. Metaphysica.score: 18.0
    I offer a concise critique of a recurring line of reasoning advanced by Joseph LaPorte and Samir Okasha that all modern species concepts render the view that biological organisms essentially belong to their species empirically untenable. The argument, I claim, trades on a crucial modal ambiguity that collapses the de re/de dicto distinction. Contra their claim that the continued adherence of such a view on behalf of contemporary metaphysicians stems from the latter’s ignorance of developments in modern biology, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Catherine Kendig (2014). Towards a Multidimensional Metaconception of Species. Ratio 27 (2):155-172.score: 18.0
    Species concepts aim to define the species category. Many of these rely on defining species in terms of natural lineages and groupings. A dominant gene-centred metaconception has shaped notions of what constitutes both a natural lineage and a natural grouping. I suggest that relying on this metaconception provides an incomplete understanding of what constitute natural lineages and groupings. If we take seriously the role of epigenetic, behavioural, cultural, and ecological inheritance systems, rather than exclusively genetic inheritance, a (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Mahdi Muhammad Moosa & S. M. Minhaz Ud-Dean (2011). The Role of Dominance Hierarchy in the Evolution of Social Species. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (2):203-208.score: 18.0
    A number of animal species from different lineages live socially. One of the features of social living is the formation of dominance hierarchy. Despite its obvious benefit in the survival probability of the species, the hierarchical structureitself poses psychological and physiological burden leading to the chronic activation of stress related pathways. Considering these apparently conflicting observations, here we propose that social hierarchy can act as a selective force in the evolution of social species. We also discuss its (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Curtis N. Johnson (2007). The Preface to Darwin's Origin of Species: The Curious History of the "Historical Sketch". [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):529 - 556.score: 18.0
    Almost any modern reader's first encounter with Darwin's writing is likely to be the "Historical Sketch," inserted by Darwin as a preface to an early edition of the Origin of Species, and having since then appeared as the preface to every edition after the second English edition. The Sketch was intended by him to serve as a short "history of opinion" on the species question before he presented his own theory in the Origin proper. But the provenance of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Benton M. Stidd & David L. Wade (1995). Is Species Selection Dependent Upon Emergent Characters? Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):55-76.score: 18.0
    The architects of punctuated equilibrium and species selection as well as more recent workers (Vrba) have narrowed the original formulation of species selection and made it dependent upon so-called emergent characters. One criticism of this narrow version is the dearth of emergent characters with a consequent diminution in the robustness of species selection as an important evolutionary process. We argue that monomorphic species characters may at times be the focus of selection and that under these circumstances (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Martin Mahner (1993). What is a Species? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (1):103 - 126.score: 18.0
    The continuing discussion of the species problem suffers from the lack of a coherent ontological theory as a basis for determining whether species have an ontological status. It has attempted to apply a full-fledged metaphysical theory to the species problem: the ontology of Mario Bunge. In doing so a few ontological fundamentals including system, individual, real and conceptual object, and law are briefly introduced. It is with the help of these fundamentals that an analysis of the (...)-as-individuals thesis is carried out, concluding that species are not individuals (things), but natural kinds, and that they have no ontological status. In contradistinction to the traditional view of natural kinds involving possible worlds metaphysics and semantics a notion of natural kind is given in terms of the state space approach and of nomological equivalence. (shrink)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2001). Non-Indigenous Species and Ecological Explanation. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):507-519.score: 18.0
    Within the last 20 years, the US has mounted amassive campaign against invasions bynon-indigenous species (NIS) such as zebramussels, kudzu, water hyacinths, and brown treesnakes. NIS have disrupted native ecosystemsand caused hundreds of billions of dollars ofannual damage. Many in the scientificcommunity say the problem of NIS is primarilypolitical and economic: getting governments toregulate powerful vested interests thatintroduce species through such vehicles asships' ballast water. This paper argues that,although politics and economics play a role,the problem is primarily one (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Mark Wilkinson (1990). A Commentary on Ridley's Cladistic Solution to the Species Problem. Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):433-446.score: 18.0
    The cladistic species concept proposed by Ridley (1989) rests on an undefined notion of speciation and its meaning is thus indeterminate. If the cladistic concept is made determinate through the definition of speciation, then it reduces to a form of whatever species concept is implicit in the definition of speciation and fails to be a truly alternative species concept. The cladistic formalism advocated by Ridley is designed to ensure that species are monophyletic, that they are objectively (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Kim Kleinman (2013). Systematics and the Origin of Species From the Viewpoint of a Botanist: Edgar Anderson Prepares the 1941 Jesup Lectures with Ernst Mayr. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):73-101.score: 18.0
    The correspondence between Edgar Anderson and Ernst Mayr leading into their 1941 Jesup Lectures on “Systematics and the Origin of Species” addressed population thinking, the nature of species, the relationship of microevolution to macroevolution, and the evolutionary dynamics of plants and animals, all central issues in what came to be known as the Evolutionary Synthesis. On some points, they found ready agreement; for others they forged only a short term consensus. They brought two different working styles to this (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Judy Johns Schloegel (1999). From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954-1957. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (1):93 - 132.score: 18.0
    This article examines the critique of the biological species concept advanced by protozoan geneticist Tracy Sonneborn at the 1955 AAAS symposium on "the species problem," published subsequently in 1957. Although Sonneborn was a strong proponent of a population genetical conception of species, he became critical of the biological species concept for its failure to incorporate asexual and obligatory inbreeding organisms. It is argued that Sonneborn's intimate knowledge of the ciliate protozoan Paramecium aurelia species complex brought (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Leigh M. Valen (1988). Species, Sets, and the Derivative Nature of Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):49-66.score: 18.0
    Concepts and methods originating in one discipline can distort the structure of another when they are applied to the latter. I exemplify this mostly with reference to systematic biology, especially problems which have arisen in relation to the nature of species. Thus the received views of classes, individuals (which term I suggest be replaced by units to avoid misunderstandings), and sets are all inapplicable, but each can be suitably modified. The concept of fuzzy set was developed to deal with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. M. Zisenis (2012). EU DAISIE Research Project: Wanted—Death Penalty to Keep Native Species Competitive? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):597-606.score: 18.0
    Neobiota as non-native species are commonly considered as alien species. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) intends to “prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species”. The European Union has financed the DAISIE research project for the first pan-European inventory of Invasive Alien Species (IAS), which is supposed to serve as a basis for prevention and control of biological invasions. This paper discusses the evaluation approach for classifying (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Oscar Horta (2014). The Scope of the Argument From Species Overlap. Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):142-154.score: 18.0
    The argument from species overlap has been widely used in the literature on animal ethics and speciesism. However, there has been much confusion regarding what the argument proves and what it does not prove, and regarding the views it challenges. This article intends to clarify these confusions, and to show that the name most often used for this argument (‘the argument from marginal cases’) reflects and reinforces these misunderstandings. The article claims that the argument questions not only those defences (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Elena Baltuta (2013). Aquinas on Intellectual Cognition: The Case of Intelligible Species. Philosophia 41 (3):589-602.score: 18.0
    The paper argues in favour of a direct realist reading of Aquinas’s theory of intelligible species, in opposition to the recent representationalist challenges. In order to secure the direct realist reading, the paper follows three steps: a short description of Aquinas’s process of cognition, a survey of the direct realist arguments and the analysis of the representationalist interpretation. The final step consists of investigating the representationalist reading as it is suggested by two scholars, Claude Panaccio in Aquinas on Intellectual (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Jason M. Evans, Ann C. Wilkie & Jeffrey Burkhardt (2008). Adaptive Management of Nonnative Species: Moving Beyond the “Either-or” Through Experimental Pluralism. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (6):521-539.score: 18.0
    This paper develops the outlines of a pragmatic, adaptive management-based approach toward the control of invasive nonnative species (INS) through a case study of Kings Bay/Crystal River, a large artesian springs ecosystem that is one of Florida’s most important habitats for endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Building upon recent critiques of invasion biology, principles of adaptive management, and our own interview and participant–observer research, we argue that this case study represents an example in which rigid application of invasion (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Lantz Fleming Miller (2013). Is Species Integrity a Human Right? A Rights Issue Emerging From Individual Liberties with New Technologies. Human Rights Review:1-23.score: 18.0
    Currently, some philosophers and technicians propose to change the fundamental constitution of Homo sapiens, as by significantly altering the genome, implanting microchips in the brain, and pursuing related techniques. Among these proposals are aspirations to guide humanity’s evolution into new species. Some philosophers have countered that such species alteration is unethical and have proposed international policies to protect species integrity; yet, it remains unclear on what basis such right to species integrity would rest. An answer may (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Patricia M. Greenfield, Yunping Feng, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh & Heidi Lyn (2013). A Cross-Species Study of Gesture and Its Role in Symbolic Development: Implications for the Gestural Theory of Language Evolution. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffolded the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child’s symbols were spoken words; the apes’ symbols were lexigrams, noniconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Mark Greene (2011). On the Origin of Species Notions and Their Ethical Limitations. In Tom L. Beauchamp & R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press. 577-602.score: 18.0
    I argue that defenders of general duties of species preservation are faced with an impossible task. I distinguish derivative from non-derivative value and argue that the derivative value of species can yield only limited and contingent duties of preservation. There can be no general duty of species preservation unless all species have non-derivative value. Ongoing controversy over the ’species’ notion has not deterred some from claiming settled authority for whatever notion appears most conducive to their (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Lauren M. Guillette, Tara M. Farrell, Marisa Hoeschele & Christopher B. PhD Sturdy (2010). Acoustic Mechanisms of a Species-Based Discrimination of the Chick-a-Dee Call in Sympatric Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) and Mountain Chickadees (P. Gambeli). Frontiers in Psychology 1:229.score: 18.0
    Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other’s namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000