Search results for 'species concept' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John S. Wilkins (2003). How to Be a Chaste Species Pluralist-Realist: The Origins of Species Modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):621-638.score: 236.0
    The biological species (biospecies) concept applies only to sexually reproducing species, which means that until sexual reproduction evolved, there were no biospecies. On the universal tree of life, biospecies concepts therefore apply only to a relatively small number of clades, notably plants andanimals. I argue that it is useful to treat the various ways of being a species (species modes) as traits of clades. By extension from biospecies to the other concepts intended to capture the (...)
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  2. Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon (1987). Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.score: 208.0
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of (...)
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  3. Joel D. Velasco (2009). When Monophyly is Not Enough: Exclusivity as the Key to Defining a Phylogenetic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):473-486.score: 180.0
    A natural starting place for developing a phylogenetic species concept is to examine monophyletic groups of organisms. Proponents of “the” Phylogenetic Species Concept fall into one of two camps. The first camp denies that species even could be monophyletic and groups organisms using character traits. The second groups organisms using common ancestry and requires that species must be monophyletic. I argue that neither view is entirely correct. While monophyletic groups of organisms exist, they should (...)
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  4. Christopher D. Horvath (1997). Discussion: Phylogenetic Species Concept: Pluralism, Monism, and History. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):225-232.score: 180.0
    Species serve as both the basic units of macroevolutionary studies and as the basic units of taxonomic classification. In this paper I argue that the taxa identified as species by the Phylogenetic Species Concept (Mishler and Brandon 1987) are the units of biological organization most causally relevant to the evolutionary process but that such units exist at multiple levels within the hierarchy of any phylogenetic lineage. The PSC gives us no way of identifying one of these (...)
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  5. Malcolm J. Kottler (1978). Charles Darwin's Biological Species Concept and Theory of Geographic Speciation: The Transmutation Notebooks. Annals of Science 35 (3):275-297.score: 180.0
    Summary The common view has been that Darwin regarded species as artificial and arbitrary constructions of taxonomists, not as distinct natural units. However, in his transmutation notebooks he clearly subscribed to the reality of species, on the basis of the criterion of non-interbreeding. A consequence of this biological species concept was his identification of the acquisition of reproductive isolation as the mark of the completion of speciation. He developed in the notebooks a theory of geographic speciation (...)
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  6. P. Kämpfer & R. Rosselló-Mora (2004). The Species Concept for Prokaryotic Microorganisms?An Obstacle for Describing Diversity? Poiesis and Praxis 3 (1-2):62-72.score: 180.0
    Species are the basis of the taxonomic scheme. They are the lowest taxonomic category that are used as units for describing biodiversity and evolution. In this contribution we discuss the current species concept for prokaryotes. Such organisms are considered to represent the widest diversity among living organisms. Species is currently circumscribed as follows: A prokaryotic species is a category that circumscribes a (preferably) genomically coherent group of individual isolates/strains sharing a high degree of similarity in (...)
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  7. P. Kämpfer & R. Rosselló-Mora (2004). The Species Concept for Prokaryotic Microorganisms—an Obstacle for Describing Diversity? Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):62-72.score: 180.0
    Species are the basis of the taxonomic scheme. They are the lowest taxonomic category that are used as units for describing biodiversity and evolution. In this contribution we discuss the current species concept for prokaryotes. Such organisms are considered to represent the widest diversity among living organisms. Species is currently circumscribed as follows: A prokaryotic species is a category that circumscribes a (preferably) genomically coherent group of individual isolates/strains sharing a high degree of similarity in (...)
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  8. Darian Meacham (2014). Empathy and Alteration: The Ethical Relevance of a Phenomenological Species Concept. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):543-564.score: 180.0
    The debate over the ethics of radically, technologically altering the capacities and traditional form of the human body is rife with appeals to and dismissals of the importance of the integrity of the human species. Species-integrist arguments can be found in authors as varied as Annas, Fukuyama, Habermas, and Agar. However, the ethical salience of species integrity is widely contested by authors such as Buchanan, Daniels, Fenton, and Juengst. This article proposes a Phenomenological approach to the question (...)
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  9. John S. Wilkins (2007). The Concept and Causes of Microbial Species. Studies in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):389-408.score: 150.0
    Species concepts for bacteria and other microbes are contentious, because they are often asexual. There is a Problem of Homogeneity: every mutation in an asexual lineage forms a new strain, of which all descendents are clones until a new mutation occurs. We should expect that asexual organisms would form a smear or continuum. What causes the internal homogeneity of asexual lineages, if they are in fact homogeneous? Is there a natural “species concept” for “microbes”? Two main concepts (...)
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  10. Th Dobzhansky (1935). A Critique of the Species Concept in Biology. Philosophy of Science 2 (3):344-355.score: 150.0
  11. Giorgio Pini (1999). Species, Concept, and Thing: Theories of Signification in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 8 (1):21-52.score: 150.0
    Students of later medieval semantics are familiar with the controversy that developed at the end of the thirteenth century over the signification of names. The debate focused on the signification of common nouns such as and : Do they signify an extramental thing or a mental representation of an extramental thing? 1 Duns Scotus is commonly recognized as having played an important role in this debate. 2 In his Ordinatio, he alludes to a magnaaltercatio among his contemporaries concerning signification. 3 (...)
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  12. D. J. Kornet & James W. McAllister (2005). The Composite Species Concept: A Rigorous Basis for Cladistic Practice. In. In Thomas Reydon & Lia Hemerik (eds.), Current Themes in Theoretical Biology. Springer. 95--127.score: 150.0
  13. Ernst Mayr (1968). Illiger and the Biological Species Concept. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):163 - 178.score: 150.0
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  14. Georg Northoff & Jaak Panksepp (2008). The Trans-Species Concept of Self and the Subcortical–Cortical Midline System. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (7):259-264.score: 150.0
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  15. Paul A. Fryxell (1962). The “Relict SpeciesConcept. Acta Biotheoretica 15 (1-3).score: 150.0
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  16. Ronald H. Petersen & Karen W. Hughes (1999). Species and Speciation in Mushrooms Development of a Species Concept Poses Difficulties. BioScience 49 (6):440-452.score: 150.0
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  17. Arnold Arb (1994). Sok. Il, RR 1973. The Species Problem Reconsidered. Syst. Zool 22: 360-374. Sokal, RR, and T.]. Crovello. 1970. The Biological Species Concept: A Critical Evaluation. Amer. Nat. 104: 127-153. Stace, CA 1978. Breeding Systems, Variation Patterns and Species Delimitation. Pp. 57-78, in Essays in Plant Taxonomy (HE Street, Ed.). Academic Press, New York. [REVIEW] In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. 31--232.score: 150.0
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  18. Peter Beurton (2002). Ernst Mayr Through Time on the Biological Species Concept - a Conceptual Analysis. Theory in Biosciences 121:81-98.score: 150.0
  19. L. S. Mills, M. E. Soule & D. F. Doak (1993). The History and Current Status of the Keystone Species Concept. BioScience 43:219-224.score: 150.0
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  20. L. Scott Mills & Daniel F. Doak (1993). The Keystone-Species Concept in Ecology and Conservation. BioScience 43 (4):219-224.score: 150.0
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  21. Molecular Variation Phylogenetics (1996). The Species Concept. BioScience 46:502-511.score: 150.0
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  22. E. O. Wiley (1978). The Evolutionary Species Concept Reconsidered. Systematic Zoology 27:17-26.score: 150.0
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  23. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Species as Family Resemblance Concepts: The (Dis-)Solution of the Species Problem? Bioessays 25 (6):596-602.score: 144.0
    The so-called ‘‘species problem’’ has plagued evolution- ary biology since before Darwin’s publication of the aptly titled Origin of Species. Many biologists think the problem is just a matter of semantics; others complain that it will not be solved until we have more empirical data. Yet, we don’t seem to be able to escape discussing it and teaching seminars about it. In this paper, I briefly examine the main themes of the biological and philosophical liter- atures on the (...)
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  24. John S. Wilkins (2011). Philosophically Speaking, How Many Species Concepts Are There? Zootaxa 2765:58–60.score: 130.0
  25. Joel Cracraft (1994). Evolving Species Concepts Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species: Collected Writings Hugh E. H. Paterson. BioScience 44 (1):41-42.score: 130.0
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  26. Peter J. Beurton (1995). How is a Species Kept Together? Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):181-196.score: 120.0
    Over the decades, there has been substantial empirical evidence showing that the unity of species cannot be maintained by gene flow. The biological species concept is inconclusive on this point. The suggestion is made that the unity of species is maintained rather by selection constantly spreading new alleles throughout the species, or bygene circulation. There is a lack in conceptual distinction between gene flow and gene circulation which lies at the heart of the problem. The (...)
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  27. Paul L. Farber (1972). Buffon and the Concept of Species. Journal of the History of Biology 5 (2):259 - 284.score: 120.0
  28. Judy Johns Schloegel (1999). From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954-1957. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (1):93 - 132.score: 120.0
    This article examines the critique of the biological species concept advanced by protozoan geneticist Tracy Sonneborn at the 1955 AAAS symposium on "the species problem," published subsequently in 1957. Although Sonneborn was a strong proponent of a population genetical conception of species, he became critical of the biological species concept for its failure to incorporate asexual and obligatory inbreeding organisms. It is argued that Sonneborn's intimate knowledge of the ciliate protozoan Paramecium aurelia species (...)
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  29. William J. Cahoy (1995). One Species or Two? Kierkegaard's Anthropology and the Feminist Critique of the Concept of Sin. Modern Theology 11 (4):429-454.score: 120.0
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  30. M. J. Sirks (1952). Variability in the Concept of Species. Acta Biotheoretica 10 (1-2).score: 120.0
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  31. Wilkins Js (2006). The Concept and Causes of Microbial Species. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3).score: 120.0
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  32. M. D. Stafleu (2000). The Idionomy of Natural Kinds and the Biological Concept of a Species. Philosophia Reformata 65 (2):154-169.score: 120.0
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  33. Joel Cracraft (1987). Species Concepts and the Ontology of Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):329-346.score: 112.0
    Biologists and philosophers have long recognized the importance of species, yet species concepts serve two masters, evolutionary theory on the one hand and taxonomy on the other. Much of present-day evolutionary and systematic biology has confounded these two roles primarily through use of the biological species concept. Theories require entities that are real, discrete, irreducible, and comparable. Within the neo-Darwinian synthesis, however, biological species have been treated as real or subjectively delimited entities, discrete or nondiscrete, (...)
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  34. Michael Lee & Mieczyslaw Wolsan (2002). Integration, Individuality and Species Concepts. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):651-660.score: 112.0
    Integration (interaction among parts of an entity) is suggested to be necessary for individuality (contra, Metaphysics and the Origin of Species). A synchronic species is an integrated individual that can evolve as a unified whole; a diachronic lineage is a non-integrated historical entity that cannot evolve. Synchronic species and diachronic lineages are consequently suggested to be ontologically distinct entities, rather than alternative perspectives of the same underlying entity (contra Baum (1998), Syst. Biol. 47, 641–653; de Queiroz (1995), (...)
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  35. Ernst Mayr (1988). The Why and How of Species. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):431-441.score: 108.0
    The biological species concept deals both with the meaning of the sexual species as a harmonious gene pool and with its protection against deleterious outbreeding (effected by isolating mechanisms). According to the Darwin-Muller-Mayr theory isolating mechanisms are acquired by incipient species during alloparty. Isolating mechanisms are not the result of ad hoc selection, but of a change of function of properties acquired during the preceding isolation of the incipient species. The role of behavioral properties (recognition) (...)
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  36. John S. Wilkins (2010). What is a Species? Essences and Generation. Theory in Biosciences 129:141-148.score: 102.0
    Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species (...)
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  37. Jean Gayon (1996). The Individuality of the Species: A Darwinian Theory? — From Buffon to Ghiselin, and Back to Darwin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):215-244.score: 102.0
    Since the 1970s, there has been a tremendous amount of literature on Ghiselin's proposal that species are individuals. After recalling the origins and stakes of this thesis in contemporary evolutionary theory, I show that it can also be found in the writings of the French naturalist Buffon in the 18th Century. Although Buffon did not have the conception that one species could be derived from another, there is an interesting similarity between the modern argument and that of Buffon (...)
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  38. Leigh M. Valen (1988). Species, Sets, and the Derivative Nature of Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):49-66.score: 102.0
    Concepts and methods originating in one discipline can distort the structure of another when they are applied to the latter. I exemplify this mostly with reference to systematic biology, especially problems which have arisen in relation to the nature of species. Thus the received views of classes, individuals (which term I suggest be replaced by units to avoid misunderstandings), and sets are all inapplicable, but each can be suitably modified. The concept of fuzzy set was developed to deal (...)
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  39. Joel D. Velasco (2008). Species Concepts Should Not Conflict with Evolutionary History, but Often Do. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (4):407-414.score: 100.0
    Many phylogenetic systematists have criticized the Biological Species Concept (BSC) because it distorts evolutionary history. While defenses against this particular criticism have been attempted, I argue that these responses are unsuccessful. In addition, I argue that the source of this problem leads to previously unappreciated, and deeper, fatal objections. These objections to the BSC also straightforwardly apply to other species concepts that are not defined by genealogical history. What is missing from many previous discussions is the fact (...)
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  40. Julio Torres (2011). Esencialismo, valores epistémicos y conceptos de especie (Essentialism, Epistemic Values and Species Concepts). Theoria 26 (2):177-193.score: 100.0
    RESUMEN: En el actual contexto científico que forma la concepción darwiniana de las especies aún persisten las interpretaciones esencialistas de los conceptos de especie. ¿Se trata aquí sólo de la ignorancia de la teoría biológica? O, más bien, ¿es posible comprender la persistencia de los enfoques esencialistas sobre la base de la potencialidad de estos enfoques para explicar el logro de ciertos valores epistémicos de los actuales conceptos de especie? Me propongo responder afirmativamente a esta última pregunta. En la sección (...)
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  41. Kim Kleinman (2013). Systematics and the Origin of Species From the Viewpoint of a Botanist: Edgar Anderson Prepares the 1941 Jesup Lectures with Ernst Mayr. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):73-101.score: 96.0
    The correspondence between Edgar Anderson and Ernst Mayr leading into their 1941 Jesup Lectures on “Systematics and the Origin of Species” addressed population thinking, the nature of species, the relationship of microevolution to macroevolution, and the evolutionary dynamics of plants and animals, all central issues in what came to be known as the Evolutionary Synthesis. On some points, they found ready agreement; for others they forged only a short term consensus. They brought two different working styles to this (...)
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  42. Roberto Torretti (2010). La proliferación de los conceptos de especie en la biología evolucionista (The proliferation of species concepts in evolutionary biology). Theoria 25 (3):325-377.score: 94.0
    RESUMEN: La biología evolucionista no ha logrado definir un concepto de especie que satisfaga a todos sus colaboradores. El presente panorama crítico de las principales propuestas y sus respectivas dificultades apunta, por un lado, a ilustrar los procesos de formación de conceptos en las ciencias empíricas y, por otro, a socavar la visión parateológica del conocimiento y la verdad que inspiró inicialmente a la ciencia moderna y prevalece aún entre muchas personas educadas. El artículo se divide en dos partes. La (...)
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  43. Marc Ereshefsky (2010). Darwin's Solution to the Species Problem. Synthese 175 (3):405 - 425.score: 84.0
    Biologists and philosophers that debate the existence of the species category fall into two camps. Some believe that the species category does not exist and the term 'species' should be eliminated from biology. Others believe that with new biological insights or the application of philosophical ideas, we can be confident that the species category exists. This paper offers a different approach to the species problem. We should be skeptical of the species category, but not (...)
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  44. Robert E. Ulanowicz (2012). Widening the Third Window. Axiomathes 22 (2):269-289.score: 84.0
    The respondent agrees with William Grassie that many windows on nature are possible; that emphasis must remain on the generation of order; that “chance” would better be recast as “contingency”; and that the ecological metaphysic has wide implications for a “politics of nature”. He accepts the challenge by Pedro Sotolongo to extend his metaphysic into the realm of pan-semiotics and agrees that an ecological perspective offers the best hope for solving the world’s inequities. He replies to Stanley Salthe that he (...)
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  45. Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Wittgenstein Solves (Posthumously) the Species Problem. Philosophy Now (Mar/Apr):51.score: 78.0
    Can Wittgenstein's famous family resemblance concept be applied to resolve the problem of defining species in biology?
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  46. Christy Mag Uidhir & P. D. Magnus (2011). Art Concept Pluralism. Metaphilosophy 42 (1-2):83-97.score: 72.0
    Abstract: There is a long tradition of trying to analyze art either by providing a definition (essentialism) or by tracing its contours as an indefinable, open concept (anti-essentialism). Both art essentialists and art anti-essentialists share an implicit assumption of art concept monism. This article argues that this assumption is a mistake. Species concept pluralism—a well-explored position in philosophy of biology—provides a model for art concept pluralism. The article explores the conditions under which concept pluralism (...)
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  47. Mark Wilkinson (1990). A Commentary on Ridley's Cladistic Solution to the Species Problem. Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):433-446.score: 72.0
    The cladistic species concept proposed by Ridley (1989) rests on an undefined notion of speciation and its meaning is thus indeterminate. If the cladistic concept is made determinate through the definition of speciation, then it reduces to a form of whatever species concept is implicit in the definition of speciation and fails to be a truly alternative species concept. The cladistic formalism advocated by Ridley is designed to ensure that species are monophyletic, (...)
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  48. David N. Stamos (1998). Buffon, Darwin, and the Non-Individuality of Species – a Reply to Jean Gayon. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):443-470.score: 72.0
    Gayon's recent claim that Buffon developed a concept of species as physical individuals is critically examined and rejected. Also critically examined and rejected is Gayon's more central thesis that as a consequence of his analysis of Buffon's species concept, and also of Darwin's species concept, it is clear that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals. While I agree with Gayon's conclusion that modern evolutionary theory does not require (...) to be physical individuals, I disagree with his reasons and instead provide logical rather than historical reasons for the same conclusion. (shrink)
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  49. Halina Macedo Leal & Anna Carolina Krebs Pereira Regner (2010). A racionalidade na explicação Darwiniana da origem das espécies. Principia 3 (2):213-256.score: 72.0
    The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin is a landmark in the history of Biology. It laid down the foundations for the modern theory of evolution and influenced several areas of the Natural History as well as other fields of inquiry. The Origin of Species brings in the theory according to which Natural Selection has been the most important means, although not the only one, of modification and production of new species in Nature. The novelty of Darwin's (...)
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  50. Mark Sagoff (2005). Do Non-Native Species Threaten the Natural Environment? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (3):215-236.score: 66.0
    Conservation biologists and other environmentalists confront five obstacles in building support for regulatory policies that seek to exclude or remove introduced plants and other non-native species that threaten to harm natural areas or the natural environment. First, the concept of “harm to the natural environment” is nebulous and undefined. Second, ecologists cannot predict how introduced species will behave in natural ecosystems. If biologists cannot define “harm” or predict the behavior of introduced species, they must target all (...)
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