Search results for 'standardized tests' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Cris Mayo (2005). Testing Resistance: Busno-Cratic Power, Standardized Tests, and Care of the Self. Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (3):357–363.score: 94.0
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  2. Gilbert Plumer (2001). Phenomenological Argumentative Structure. Argumentation 15 (2):173-189.score: 90.0
    The nontechnical ability to identify or match argumentative structure seems to be an important reasoning skill. Instruments that have questions designed to measure this skill include major standardized tests for graduate school admission, for example, the United States-Canadian Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), and the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). Writers and reviewers of such tests need an appropriate foundation for developing such questions--they need a proper representation of phenomenological argumentative structure--for legitimacy, (...)
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  3. Kenneth Olson & Gilbert Plumer (2002). What Constitutes a Formal Analogy? In Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson & Robert C. Pinto (eds.), Argumentation and its Applications [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation.score: 90.0
    There is ample justification for having analogical material in standardized tests for graduate school admission, perhaps especially for law school. We think that formal-analogy questions should compare different scenarios whose structure is the same in terms of the number of objects and the formal properties of their relations. The paper deals with this narrower question of how legitimately to have formal analogy test items, and the broader question of what constitutes a formal analogy in general.
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  4. Gilbert Plumer (1999). Necessary Assumptions. Informal Logic 19 (1):41-61.score: 90.0
    In their book EVALUATING CRITICAL THINKING Stephen Norris and Robert Ennis say: “Although it is tempting to think that certain [unstated] assumptions are logically necessary for an argument or position, they are not. So do not ask for them.” Numerous writers of introductory logic texts as well as various highly visible standardized tests (e.g., the LSAT and GRE) presume that the Norris/Ennis view is wrong; the presumption is that many arguments have (unstated) necessary assumptions and that readers and (...)
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  5. C. J. Fazzaro (2006). Freedom of Speech, American Public Education, and Standardized Tests: A Critical Enquiry. Journal of Thought 41 (4):11.score: 90.0
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  6. Massimo Pigliucci (2012). Testing My Own Morality. Philosophy Now 91 (Jul/Aug):41-41.score: 68.0
    Apparently, I’m a righteous son of a bitch, morally speaking. At least that’s the conclusion I would have to reach if I trusted the results of a morality test I took at the BBC website (bbc.co.uk/labuk/experiments/morality). The test was devised to collect data for a “new theory” that seeks to make sense of human morality in terms of a super-organism concept. Briefly, the idea is that “we, as individuals, behave as if we are part of a bigger ‘superorganism’ when we (...)
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  7. James N. Butcher & Kenneth S. Pope (1993). Seven Issues in Conducting Forensic Assessments: Ethical Responsibilities in Light of New Standards and New Tests. Ethics and Behavior 3 (3 & 4):267 – 288.score: 66.0
    The publication of a new ethics code for the American Psychological Association (1992), new guidelines (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991), and two new versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (the MMPI-2, Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989; and the MMPI-A, Butcher et al., 1992) provide an opportunity to review ethical aspects of forensic assessment. Seven major issues-appropriate graduate training, competence in the use of standardized tests, using tests that fit the task, using (...)
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  8. Gilbert Plumer & Kenneth Olson (2007). Reasoning From Conflicting Sources. In Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson & David M. Godden (eds.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Proceedings 2007 [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation.score: 62.0
    One might ask of two or more texts—what can be inferred from them, taken together? If the texts happen to contradict each other in some respect, then the unadorned answer of standard logic is EVERYTHING. But it seems to be a given that we often successfully reason with inconsistent information from multiple sources. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to develop an adequate approach to accounting for this given.
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  9. M. B. Fisher, J. E. Birren & A. L. Leggett (1945). Standardization of Two Tests of Equilibrium: The Railwalking Test and the Ataxiagraph. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (4):321.score: 50.0
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  10. Cheryl A. Logan (2002). Before There Were Standards: The Role of Test Animals in the Production of Empirical Generality in Physiology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (2):329 - 363.score: 48.0
    After 1900, the selective breeding of a few standard animals for research in the life sciences changed the way science was done. Among the pervasive changes was a transformation in scientists' assumptions about relationship between diversity and generality. Examination of the contents of two prominent physiology journals between 1885 and 1900, reveals that scientists used a diverse array of organisms in empirical research. Experimental physiologists gave many reasons for the choice of test animals, some practical and others truly comparative. (...)
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  11. Glenn Fulcher & Fred Davidson (2008). Tests in Life and Learning: A Deathly Dialogue. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (3):407–417.score: 46.0
    This article is an imaginary Socratic dialogue between J. S. Mill and Michel Foucault, principally concerning educational assessment.
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  12. M. B. Fisher (1946). Note on Subjects Used in Standardizing a Railwalking Test and the Ataxiagraph. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (1):93-93.score: 40.0
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  13. Michele S. Moses & Michael J. Nanna (2007). The Testing Culture and the Persistence of High Stakes Testing Reforms. Education and Culture 23 (1):55-72.score: 36.0
    : The purposes of this critical analysis are to clarify why high stakes testing reforms have become so prevalent in the United States and to explain the connection between current federal and state emphases on standardized testing reforms and educational opportunities. The article outlines the policy context for high stakes examinations, as well as the ideas of testing and accountability as major tenets of current education reform and policy. In partial explanation of the widespread acceptance and use of (...) tests in the United States, we argue that there is a pervasive testing culture, in addition to other contributing factors such as administrative utility, profit motives, and political ideology. Finally, we offer a critique of high stakes testing reforms in light of concerns about equality of educational opportunity. (shrink)
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  14. Frederic Lyman Wells (1907). Standard Tests of Arithmetical Associations. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 4 (19):510-512.score: 36.0
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  15. Tricia Bertram Gallant (2011). Understanding Integrity in Standardized Testing and Admissions : Misconduct in the Academic Selection Process. In Tricia Bertram Gallant (ed.), Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct and Empowering Change in Higher Education. Routledge.score: 36.0
  16. Loretta M. Kopelman (2007). Using the Best Interests Standard to Decide Whether to Test Children for Untreatable, Late-Onset Genetic Diseases. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (4):375 – 394.score: 34.0
    A new analysis of the Best Interests Standard is given and applied to the controversy about testing children for untreatable, severe late-onset genetic diseases, such as Huntington's disease or Alzheimer's disease. A professional consensus recommends against such predictive testing, because it is not in children's best interest. Critics disagree. The Best Interests Standard can be a powerful way to resolve such disputes. This paper begins by analyzing its meaning into three necessary and jointly sufficient conditions showing it: is an "umbrella" (...)
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  17. Robert M. French (2000). Peeking Behind the Screen: The Unsuspected Power of the Standard Turing Test. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (3):331-340.score: 32.0
    No computer that had not experienced the world as we humans had could pass a rigorously administered standard Turing Test. We show that the use of “subcognitive” questions allows the standard Turing Test to indirectly probe the human subcognitive associative concept network built up over a lifetime of experience with the world. Not only can this probing reveal differences in cognitive abilities, but crucially, even differences in _physical aspects_ of the candidates can be detected. Consequently, it is unnecessary (...)
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  18. David M. Kent, Mkaya Mwamburi, Richard A. Cash, Tracy L. Rabin & Michael L. Bennish (2003). Testing Therapies Less Effective Than the Best Current Standard: Ethical Beliefs in an International Sample of Researchers. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):28 – 33.score: 32.0
    Objectives: To test the range of beliefs regarding the ethics of testing, in resource poor settings, new therapies that are less efficacious but more affordable and feasible than the best current therapeutic standard. Design: Using a web-based survey, we presented a hypothetical scenario proposing to test a therapy for HIV disease ("therapeutic inoculation") known to be less efficacious than highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Respondents evaluated various trial designs as ethical or unethical. Participants: 604 subscribers to two listservs for individuals (...)
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  19. Joselin Linder (2009). The Purity Test: Your Filth and Depravity Cheerfully Exposed by 2,000 Nosy Questions. St. Martin's Griffin.score: 32.0
    By the early 80s, kids were already trawling the message boards of the Internet for perverse kicks. Well before Star Ways Kid or "flash mobs," one of the first online fads was the "Purity Test," a series of questions to rate your moral purity, from the raunchy ("Ever had sex in your parents' bedroom?") to the absurd ("Ever snorted cocaine off the dashboard of a car doing 80 mph?").The tests would be printed out, brought to school, and pored (...)
     
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  20. Lainie Friedman Ross (2013). Predictive Genetic Testing of Children and the Role of the Best Interest Standard. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):899-906.score: 32.0
    The “best interest standard” is the guidance principle for pediatric healthcare in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). In the UK, the best interest standard may also be used as an intervention principle when parents make good but non-ideal decisions whereas intervention in the US requires a determination of abuse or neglect. I examine whether and how the different uses of the best interest standard influence predictive genetic testing of children.
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  21. Rafe Esquith (2007). Teach Like Your Hair's on Fire: The Methods and Madness Inside Room 56. Viking.score: 30.0
    From one of America’s most celebrated educators, an inspiring guide to transforming every child’s education In a Los Angeles neighborhood plagued by guns, gangs, and drugs, there is an exceptional classroom known as Room 56. The fifth graders inside are first-generation immigrants who live in poverty and speak English as a second language. They also play Vivaldi, perform Shakespeare, score in the top 1 percent on standardized tests, and go on to attend Ivy League universities. Rafe Esquith is (...)
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  22. Ann Dowker, Sheila Bala & Delyth Lloyd (2008). Linguistic Influences on Mathematical Development: How Important is the Transparency of the Counting System? Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):523 – 538.score: 30.0
    Wales uses languages with both regular (Welsh) and irregular (English) counting systems. Three groups of 6- and 8-year-old Welsh children with varying degrees of exposure to the Welsh language—those who spoke Welsh at both home and school; those who spoke Welsh only at home; and those who spoke only English—were given standardized tests of arithmetic and a test of understanding representations of two-digit numbers. Groups did not differ on the arithmetic tests, but both groups of Welsh speakers (...)
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  23. David F. Foster (2011). Worldwide Testing and Test Security Issues: Ethical Challenges and Solutions. Ethics and Behavior 20 (3):207-228.score: 30.0
    As psychology ethics begins to become more standardized and formalized globally (e.g., Gauthier, 2007) there are still educational, political, and psychological areas that require significant discussion. For example, test security has become a global issue, as psychological tests and even college entrance and graduate school admission tests have found their way online.
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  24. Roger C. Schank (2004). Making Minds Less Well Educated Than Our Own. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 30.0
    In the author's words: "This book is an honest attempt to understand what it means to be educated in today's world." His argument is this: No matter how important science and technology seem to industry or government or indeed to the daily life of people, as a society we believe that those educated in literature, history, and other humanities are in some way better informed, more knowing, and somehow more worthy of the descriptor "well educated." This 19th-century conception of the (...)
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  25. Judith Mulholland *, Paul Hansen & Eugene Kaminski (2004). Do Single-Gender Classrooms in Coeducational Settings Address Boys' Underachievement? An Australian Study. Educational Studies 30 (1):19-32.score: 30.0
    This paper reports a research project developed in partnership with the Principal and Leadership Team of an Australian secondary school. It monitored a school-based initiative designed to address the underachievement of male students. Students in Year 9 selected single-gender or coeducational classes in mathematics and English during the second half of a school year. Student scores in standardized tests and school-based assessment in these subjects were obtained before and after the establishment of the initiative. Results indicate no significant (...)
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  26. Jenn Neilson (2010). Freedom of Expression, Obscenity and the Community Standards Test. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):171-179.score: 30.0
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  27. Lisa Kilman, Adriana A. Zekveld, Mathias Hällgren & Jerker Rönnberg (forthcoming). The Influence of Non-Native Language Proficiency on Speech Perception Performance. Frontiers in Psychology.score: 30.0
    The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating) and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English) maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. (...)
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  28. Gerald M. Long, Brian J. Lyman, Edward P. Monaghan, David L. Penn, Hope A. Brochin & Edgar B. Morano (1984). Further Investigation of Viewing Conditions on Standard Pseudoisochromatic Tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (6):525-528.score: 30.0
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  29. Gerald M. Long & J. Porter Tuck (1990). A Simple Behavioral Demonstration of Blue-Cone Anisotropy: Distance-Induced Tritanopia on Standard Color Vision Tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (2):123-125.score: 30.0
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  30. V. S. Troitskij (1996). Observational Tests of the Standard Model: Status and Perspectives. Apeiron 3 (3-4):77.score: 30.0
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  31. Cody S. Ding, Kim Song & Lloyd I. Richardson (2006). Do Mathematical Gender Differences Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Gender Difference and Excellence in Mathematics Performance in the U.S. Educational Studies 40 (3):279-295.score: 26.0
    A persistent belief in American culture is that males both outperform and have a higher inherent aptitude for mathematics than females. Using data from two school districts in two different states in the United States, this study used longitudinal multilevel modeling to examine whether overall performance on standardized as well as classroom tests reveals a gender difference in mathematics performance. The results suggest that both male and female students demonstrated the same growth trend in mathematics performance (as measured (...)
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  32. Bryan Roche, Anthony O'Reilly, Amanda Gavin, Maria R. Ruiz & Gabriela Arancibia (2012). Using Behavior-Analytic Implicit Tests to Assess Sexual Interests Among Normal and Sex-Offender Populations. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.score: 26.0
    Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to (...)
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  33. Peg Tittle (2011/2010). Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason. Routledge.score: 24.0
    This book covers all the material typically addressed in first or second-year college courses in Critical Thinking: Chapter 1: Critical Thinking 1.1 What is critical thinking? 1.2 What is critical thinking not? Chapter 2: The Nature of Argument 2.1 Recognizing an Argument 2.2 Circular Arguments 2.3 Counterarguments 2.4 The Burden of Proof 2.5 Facts and Opinions 2.6 Deductive and Inductive Argument Chapter 3: The Structure of Argument 3.1 Convergent, Single 3.2 Convergent, Multiple 3.3 Divergent Chapter 4: Relevance 4.1 Relevance 4.2 (...)
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  34. Shimon Edelman, Some Tests of an Unsupervised Model of Language Acquisition.score: 24.0
    We outline an unsupervised language acquisition algorithm and offer some psycholinguistic support for a model based on it. Our approach resembles the Construction Grammar in its general philosophy, and the Tree Adjoining Grammar in its computational characteristics. The model is trained on a corpus of transcribed child-directed speech (CHILDES). The model’s ability to process novel inputs makes it capable of taking various standard tests of English that rely on forced-choice judgment and on magnitude estimation of linguistic acceptability. We report (...)
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  35. P. Martin-Löf (1977). Exact Tests, Confidence Regions and Estimates. Synthese 36 (2):195 - 206.score: 24.0
    This paper proposes a uniform method for constructing tests, confidence regions and point estimates which is called exact since it reduces to Fisher's so-called exact test in the case of the hypothesis of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table. All the wellknown standard tests based on exact sampling distributions are instances of the exact test in its general form. The likelihood ratio and x2 tests as well as the maximum likelihood estimate appears as asymptotic approximations (...)
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  36. Nadia Lucas, Arnaud Saj, Sophie Schwartz, Radek Ptak, Christian Thomas, Pierre Conne, Rosario Leroy, Sandra Pavin, Karin Diserens & Patrik Vuilleumier (2013). Effects of Pro-Cholinergic Treatment in Patients Suffering From Spatial Neglect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Spatial neglect is a neurological condition characterized by a breakdown of spatial cognition contralateral to hemispheric damage. Deficits in spatial attention towards the contralesional side are considered to be central to this syndrome. Brain lesions typically involve right fronto-parietal cortices mediating attentional functions and subcortical connections in underlying white matter. Convergent findings from neuroimaging and behavioral studies in both animals and humans suggest that the cholinergic system might also be critically implicated in selective attention by modulating cortical function via widespread (...)
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  37. An Ravelingien & Guido Pennings (2013). On the Right to Know and The Use of Double Standards: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Right to Know Your Genetic Parents: From Open Identity Gamete Donation to Routine Paternity Testing”. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (5):W6 - W8.score: 24.0
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  38. Philip Tromovitch (2012). Statistical Reporting with Philip's Sextuple and Extended Sextuple: A Simple Method for Easy Communication of Findings. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - P2.score: 24.0
    The advance of science and human knowledge is impeded by misunderstandings of various statistics, insufficient reporting of findings, and the use of numerous standardized and non-standardized presentations of essentially identical information. Communication with journalists and the public is hindered by the failure to present statistics that are easy for non-scientists to interpret as well as by use of the word significant, which in scientific English does not carry the meaning of "important" or "large." This article promotes a new (...)
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  39. Giacomo Della Marca Claudio Imperatori, Benedetto Farina, Riccardo Brunetti, Valentina Gnoni, Elisa Testani, Maria I. Quintiliani, Claudia Del Gatto, Allegra Indraccolo, Anna Contardi, Anna M. Speranza (2013). Modifications of EEG Power Spectra in Mesial Temporal Lobe During N-Back Tasks of Increasing Difficulty. A sLORETA Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM) processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs 3-back). Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (7 men and 7 women, mean age 31.21±7.05 years, range: 23-48). EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were (...)
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  40. Kerstin H. Kipp, Bertram Opitz, Martina Becker, Juliane Hofmann, Christoph Krick, Ludwig Gortner & Axel Mecklinger (2012). Neural Correlates of Recognition Memory in Children with Febrile Seizures: Evidence From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:17-17.score: 24.0
    Febrile seizures (FS) are assumed to not have adverse long-term effects on cognitive development. Nevertheless, FS are often associated with hippocampal sclerosis which can imply episodic memory deficits. This interrelation has hardly been studied so far. In the current study 13 children who had suffered from FS during infancy and 14 control children (7–9 years old) were examined for episodic and semantic memory with standardized neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we studied neuronal activation while (...)
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  41. Maël Lemoine (2009). The Meaning of the Opposition Between the Healthy and the Pathological and its Consequences. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):355-362.score: 24.0
    If the healthy and the pathological are not merely judgments qualifiers, but real phenomena, it must be possible to define both of them positively, which, in this context, means as factual contraries. On the other hand, only a privative definition, either of the pathological as 'non-healthy', or of the healthy as 'non-pathological', can rationally circumscribe all possible states of an organism. This fluctuation between two meanings of the 'healthy'-'pathological' opposition, factual vs. rational, characterizes the ordinary usage of these concepts and (...)
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  42. Dk Ingram, Jm Hengemihle, J. Long & P. Garofalo (1991). Standardizing a Psychomotor Test Battery for Assessing Aging in Mice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):498-498.score: 24.0
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  43. Axel Mecklinger Kerstin H. Kipp, Bertram Opitz, Martina Becker, Juliane Hofmann, Christoph Krick, Ludwig Gortner (2012). Neural Correlates of Recognition Memory in Children with Febrile Seizures: Evidence From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Febrile seizures (FS) are assumed to not have adverse long-term effects on cognitive development. Nevertheless, FS are often associated with hippocampal sclerosis which can imply episodic memory deficits. This interrelation has hardly been studied so far. In the current study 13 children who had suffered from FS during infancy and 14 control children (7–9 years old) were examined for episodic and semantic memory with standardized neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we studied neuronal activation while (...)
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  44. L. Fasotti M. E. Van Kessel, A. C. H. Geurts, W. H. Brouwer (2013). Visual Scanning Training for Neglect After Stroke with and Without a Computerized Lane Tracking Dual Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990). Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14) (...)
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  45. Anne Wendt, Ada Woo & Lorraine Kenny (2009). Setting a Passing Standard for English Proficiency on the Internet-Based Test of English as a Foreign Language. Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 11 (3):85-90.score: 24.0
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  46. Sergey V. Polyakov, Fabrizio Piacentini, Paolo Traina, Ivo P. Degiovanni, Alan Migdall, Giorgio Brida & Marco Genovese (2013). Practical Implementation of a Test of Event-Based Corpuscular Model as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 43 (8):913-922.score: 22.0
    We describe in detail the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source, agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics.
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  47. Paul Schweizer (2012). The Externalist Foundations of a Truly Total Turing Test. Minds and Machines 22 (3):191-212.score: 22.0
    The paper begins by examining the original Turing Test (2T) and Searle’s antithetical Chinese Room Argument, which is intended to refute the 2T in particular, as well as any formal or abstract procedural theory of the mind in general. In the ensuing dispute between Searle and his own critics, I argue that Searle’s ‘internalist’ strategy is unable to deflect Dennett’s combined robotic-systems reply and the allied Total Turing Test (3T). Many would hold that the 3T marks the culmination of the (...)
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  48. M. L. G. Redhead (1981). Experimental Tests of the Sum Rule. Philosophy of Science 48 (1):50-64.score: 22.0
    Recent discussions of experimental tests of the Sum Rule have been carried out in the context of the special circumstances attending the Cross-Ramsey experiment. A more general analysis of possible tests is presented. A technical mistake of Fine and Glymour concerned with a misunderstanding of the physics of the Cross-Ramsey experiment is explained and a detailed analysis of a thought experiment based on the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen wave function is given. It is concluded, in agreement with Fine, that scattering experiments (...)
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  49. Jan van Eijck, Haskell Programming With Tests, and Some Alloy.score: 22.0
    How to write a program in Haskell, and how to use the Haskell testing tools . . . QuickCheck is a tool written in the functional programming language Haskell that allows testing of specifications by means of randomly generated tests. QuickCheck is part of the standard Haskell library. Re-implementations of QuickCheck exist for many languages, including Ruby and Scheme. SmallCheck is a similar tool, different from QuickCheck in that it tests properties for all finitely many values of a (...)
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  50. Trevor Hunter & Pratima Bansal (2007). How Standard is Standardized MNC Global Environmental Communication? Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):135 - 147.score: 22.0
    In this paper, we develop an argument to show why we expect that multinational companies will ensure that they communicate credibly about their environmental responsibility, across all their subsidiaries. Credible environmental communication helps to increase the firm’s legitimacy and reduce its liability of foreignness on an issue that is globally relevant. We develop a measure to test if there is a standardized level of environmental communication credibility on the country-specific web sites of MNC subsidiaries around the world and find, (...)
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