Search results for 'symbol maipulation approach' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Elena Semeka-Pankratov (1979). A Semiotic Approach to the Polysemy of the Symbol Nāga in Indian Mythology. Semiotica 27 (1-3).score: 120.0
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  2. Raj Kumar Arora (1988). The Sacred Scripture: Symbol of Spiritual Synthesis: A Comparative, Chronological, and Philosophical Approach to the Guru Grantha. Harman Pub. House.score: 120.0
     
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  3. Dafne Vidanec (2007). Critical-Analytical Approach to Gadamer's Notion of Art. Art as Game, Symbol and Festival. Filozofska Istrazivanja 27 (1):143-161.score: 120.0
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  4. Stephane Savanah, Mirror Self-Recognition and Symbol-Mindedness. Biology and Philosophy.score: 66.0
    Abstract The view that mirror self-recognition (MSR) is a definitive demonstration of self-awareness is far from universally accepted, and those who do support the view need a more robust argument than the mere assumption that self-recognition implies a self-concept (e.g. Gallup in Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, Hague, 1975 ; Gallup and Suarez in Psychological Perspectives on the Self, vol 3, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1986 ). In this paper I offer a new argument in favour of the view that MSR (...)
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  5. Andrew Wells (1996). Situated Action, Symbol Systems and Universal Computation. Minds and Machines 6 (1):33-46.score: 58.0
    Vera & Simon (1993a) have argued that the theories and methods known as situated action or situativity theory are compatible with the assumptions and methodology of the physical symbol systems hypothesis and do not require a new approach to the study of cognition. When the central criterion of computational universality is added to the loose definition of a symbol system which Vera and Simon provide, it becomes apparent that there are important incompatibilities between the two approaches such (...)
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  6. Evan Thompson (1997). Symbol Grounding: A Bridge From Artificial Life to Artificial Intelligence. Brain and Cognition 34 (1):48-71.score: 54.0
    This paper develops a bridge from AL issues about the symbol–matter relation to AI issues about symbol-grounding by focusing on the concepts of formality and syntactic interpretability. Using the DNA triplet-amino acid specification relation as a paradigm, it is argued that syntactic properties can be grounded as high-level features of the non-syntactic interactions in a physical dynamical system. This argu- ment provides the basis for a rebuttal of John Searle’s recent assertion that syntax is observer-relative (1990, 1992). But (...)
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  7. Peter beim Graben (2004). Incompatible Implementations of Physical Symbol Systems. Mind and Matter 2 (2):29-51.score: 54.0
    Classical cognitive science assumes that intelligently behaving systems must be symbol processors that are implemented in physical systems such as brains or digital computers. By contrast, connectionists suppose that symbol manipulating systems could be approximations of neural networks dynamics. Both classicists and connectionists argue that symbolic computation and subsymbolic dynamics are incompatible, though on different grounds. While classicists say that connectionist architectures and symbol processors are either incompatible or the former are mere implementations of the latter, connectionists (...)
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  8. Jacques Janssen & Theo Verheggen (1997). The Double Center of Gravity in Durkheim's Symbol Theory: Bringing the Symbolism of the Body Back In. Sociological Theory 15 (3):294-306.score: 54.0
    By studying Durkheim through a Schopenhauerian lens, the one-sidedly cognitivist and functionalist reception of his social theory can be balanced. Durkheim explicitly rejected such monistic interpretations. His dialectical approach was always aimed at an essentially dualistic perception of man and society, wherein the lower pole, the individual, is central. In Durkheim's symbol theory, this position leads to two kinds of symbols: those that are bound to the human body, here called "this and that" symbols, and those people can (...)
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  9. Paul Vogt (2002). The Physical Symbol Grounding Problem. Philosophical Explorations.score: 54.0
    This paper presents an approach to solve the symbol grounding problem within the framework of embodied cognitive science. It will be argued that symbolic structures can be used within the paradigm of embodied cognitive science by adopting an alternative definition of a symbol. In this alternative definition, the symbol may be viewed as a structural coupling between an agent's sensorimotor activations and its environment. A robotic experiment is presented in which mobile robots develop a symbolic structure (...)
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  10. Christine Magerski (2012). Arnold Gehlen Modern Art as Symbol of Modern Society. Thesis Eleven 111 (1):81-96.score: 54.0
    Arnold Gehlen is one of the most controversial figures of German intellectual history. Gehlen’s commitment to National Socialism (a commitment he never disavowed) is mostly seen in close connection with his theoretical focus on institutions. According to Gehlen, what mankind requires above all is order and thus the protection of institutions. And yet, by reducing Gehlen’s sociology to the necessity of order one misses the analytical scope of his writings. As this article aims to show, the strength of Gehlen’s sociology (...)
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  11. Tanya de Villiers-Botha (2007). Why Peirce Matters: The Symbol in Deacon's Symbolic Species. Language Sciences 29 (1):88-108.score: 54.0
    In "Why brains matter: an integrational perspective on The Symbolic Species" Cowley (2002) [Language Sciences 24, 73-95] suggests that Deacon pictures brains as being able to process words qua tokens, which he identifies as the theory's Achilles' heel. He goes on to argue that Deacon's thesis on the co-evolution of language and mind would benefit from an integrational approach. This paper argues that Cowley's criticism relies on an invalid understanding of Deacon's use the concept of "symbolic reference", which he (...)
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  12. Cornelius Steckner (2004). Symbol Formation. Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):209-226.score: 54.0
    Symbol formation is a term used to unify the view on the interdependencies in the research of the Hamburg University before 1933: the Philosophical Institute (William Stern, Ernst Cassirer), the Psychological Institute (Stern) with its laboratory (Heinz Werner) in cooperation with the later joining Umwelt Institut (Jakob von Uexküll). The term, definitely used by Cassirer and Werner, is associated with the personalistic approach: “Keine Gestalt ohne Gestalter” (Stern), but also covers related terms like “melody of motion” (Uexküll), and (...)
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  13. Vicente Artuso & Fabrizio Zandonadi Catenassi (2012). A ambivalência do simbolismo da serpente em Nm 21,4-9: uma análise na ótica dos conflitos (The ambivalence of the serpent's symbolism in Numbers 21,4-9: an analysis through the conflicts' approach). DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p176. [REVIEW] Horizonte 10 (25):176-200.score: 54.0
    A perícope das serpentes no deserto destaca-se do conjunto de escritos que recorrem ao simbolismo da serpente, ao utilizar esse elemento potencialmente enganoso para a fé de Israel, ambivalente. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender o simbolismo da serpente em Nm 21,4-9, a partir de uma análise do texto e da possível influência por parte dos egípcios e povos do Antigo Oriente Próximo. A análise narrativa destacou o texto como um enredo de conflito-solução no drama vivido pelo povo. (...)
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  14. Eliano Pessa & Graziano Terenzi (2007). Semiosis in Cognitive Systems: A Neural Approach to the Problem of Meaning. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 6 (2):189-209.score: 48.0
    This paper deals with the problem of understanding semiosis and meaning in cognitive systems. To this aim we argue for a unified two-factor account according to which both external and internal information are non-independent aspects of meaning, thus contributing as a whole in determining its nature. To overcome the difficulties stemming from this approach we put forward a theoretical scheme based on the definition of a suitable representation space endowed with a set of transformations, and we show how it (...)
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  15. Maristela Oliveira de Andrade (2010). A dimensão simbólica e espiritual da biodiversidade nas cosmologias indígenas e abordagens filosóficas (The symbolic and spiritual dimension of biological diversity in indigenous cosmologies approaches) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n17p11. [REVIEW] Horizonte 8 (17):11-25.score: 48.0
    Este trabalho propõe uma reflexão em torno da biodiversidade, a partir da crítica à política de conservação da diversidade biológica, estabelecida pela Convenção sobre Biodiversidade, considerando que ela se encontra impregnada de uma lógica utilitária e econômica. Mesmo reconhecendo os efeitos dos saberes e práticas das comunidades tradicionais como forma de manejo sustentável da biodiversidade, ela é omissa em relação à dimensão simbólica e espiritual presente nas cosmologias indígenas e seu papel conservacionista. A abordagem proposta aqui foi norteada por uma (...)
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  16. Edward M. Bruner (1973). The Missing Tins of Chicken: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach to Culture Change. Ethos 1 (2):219-238.score: 46.7
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  17. Ralph Wayne Kraft (1975). Symbols, Systems, Science, and Survival: A Presentation of the Systems Approach From a Teilhardian Perspective. Vantage Press.score: 44.0
     
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  18. Thomas Wiben Jensen & Elena Cuffari (2014). Doubleness in Experience: Toward a Distributed Enactive Approach to Metaphoricity. Metaphor and Symbol 29 (4):278-297.score: 42.0
    A new concept of cognition also implies a novel approach to the study of metaphor. This insight is the starting point of this article presenting two innovations to comprehending and analyzing metaphor, one theoretical and one in terms of methodology. On a theoretical level we argue for a new orientation to metaphor and metaphoricity based on enactive cognition and distributed language and cognition. In recent years enactive and distributed cognition have been developing a new concept of cognition as an (...)
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  19. Monroe C. Beardsley (1970). Book Review:Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols Nelson Goodman. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 37 (3):458-.score: 40.0
  20. B. C. O'Neill & Nelson Goodman (1971). Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Philosophical Quarterly 21 (85):361.score: 40.0
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  21. Norbert Andersch (forthcoming). Symbolic Form and Mental Illness-An Altered Approach to Mental Illness. Philosophy.score: 40.0
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  22. Salem Benferhat & Philippe Besnard (2002). Editorial - Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning Wth Uncertainty. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 12 (2):133-134.score: 40.0
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  23. Raphaël Gimenez (2008). Approaching Psychoanalysis Through Symbolisms in Paul Diel's Works. The European Legacy 2 (3):468-471.score: 40.0
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  24. Richard S. Hallam (1994). One Approach to Meaning is to Study Texts or Discourse in Specific Contexts (See, for Example, Lutz, 1990, Who Links Everyday Discourse on Emotion to Gender and Power). My Approach is More General and Consists of an Attempt to Relate the Anxiety Construct to Authoritative Reflections on the Way the Symbolic Resources of Western Culture Have. In Theodore R. Sarbin & John I. Kitsuse (eds.), Constructing the Social. Sage. 12--139.score: 40.0
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  25. Allen Newell, Richard Young & Thad Polk (1993). The Approach Through Symbols. In Donald E. Broadbent (ed.), The Simulation of Human Intelligence. Blackwell. 62.score: 40.0
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  26. Veit Pittioni (1986). New System of Logic. Symbolic-Symmetrical Reconstruction and Operative Application of the Aristotelian Approach. Philosophy and History 19 (2):104-105.score: 40.0
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  27. J. G. Wallace & K. Bluff (1998). The Borderline Between Subsymbolic and Symbolic Processing: A Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Approach. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1108--1112.score: 40.0
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  28. Johan de Smedt & Helen de Cruz (2011). A Cognitive Approach to the Earliest Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69 (4):379-389.score: 36.0
    This paper takes a cognitive perspective to assess the significance of some Late Palaeolithic artefacts (sculptures and engraved objects) for philosophicalconcepts of art. We examine cognitive capacities that are necessary to produceand recognize objects that are denoted as art. These include the ability toattribute and infer design (design stance), the ability to distinguish between themateriality of an object and its meaning (symbol-mindedness), and an aesthetic sensitivity to some perceptual stimuli. We investigate to what extent thesecognitive processes played a role (...)
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  29. Susan Schneider (2009). LOT, CTM, and the Elephant in the Room. Synthese 170 (2):235 - 250.score: 36.0
    According to the language of thought (LOT) approach and the related computational theory of mind (CTM), thinking is the processing of symbols in an inner mental language that is distinct from any public language. Herein, I explore a deep problem at the heart of the LOT/CTM program—it has yet to provide a plausible conception of a mental symbol.
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  30. J. L. Bell (1986). A New Approach to Quantum Logic. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (1):83-99.score: 36.0
    The idea of a 'logic of quantum mechanics' or quantum logic was originally suggested by Birkhoff and von Neumann in their pioneering paper [1936]. Since that time there has been much argument about whether, or in what sense, quantum 'logic' can be actually considered a true logic (see, e.g. Bell and Hallett [1982], Dummett [1976], Gardner [1971]) and, if so, how it is to be distinguished from classical logic. In this paper I put forward a simple and natural semantical framework (...)
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  31. Kuan-Hung Chen (2011). Cognition, Language, Symbol, and Meaning Making: A Comparative Study of the Epistemic Stances of Whitehead and the Book of Changes. Asian Philosophy 19 (3):285-300.score: 36.0
    The epistemic stances of both Whitehead and the Book of Changes are founded on the assumption that process is reality; there are important resonances with respect to perception, meaning and significance. Such a process-oriented approach is productive for developing non-representational and non-dualistic theories in the fields of epistemology, philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. An exploration of these resonances will further provide an appropriate foundation for dialogue between the philosophy of the Book of Changes and that of contemporary (...)
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  32. Derek Partridge (1995). On the Difficulty of Really Considering a Radical Novelty. Minds and Machines 5 (3):391-410.score: 36.0
    The fundamental assumptions in Dijkstra''s influential article on computing science teaching are challenged. Dijkstra''s paper presents the radical novelties of computing, and the consequent problems that we must tackle through a formal, logic-based approach to program derivation. Dijkstra''s main premise is that the algorithmic programming paradigm is the only one, in fact, the only possible one. It is argued that there is at least one other, the network-programming paradigm, which itself is a radical novelty with respect to the implementation (...)
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  33. Victor Zuckerkandl (1969). Sound and Symbol. [Princeton, N.J.]Princeton University Press.score: 36.0
    An approach to music as an instrument of philosophical inquiry, seeking not so much a philosophy of music as a philosophy through music.
     
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  34. Reiner Keller (2011). The Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse (SKAD). Human Studies 34 (1):43-65.score: 34.0
    The article presents the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse (SKAD). SKAD, which has been in the process of development since the middle of the 1990s, is now a widely used framework among social scientists in discourse research in the German-speaking area. It links arguments from the social constructionist tradition, following Berger and Luckmann, with assumptions based in symbolic interactionism, hermeneutic sociology of knowledge, and the concepts of Michel Foucault. It argues thereby for a consistent theoretical and methodological grounding (...)
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  35. Mark Textor (2008). Samples as Symbols. Ratio 21 (3):344-359.score: 34.0
    Nelson Goodman and, following him, Catherine Z. Elgin and Keith Lehrer have claimed that sometimes a sample is a symbol that stands for the property it is a sample of. The relation between the sample and the property it stands for is called 'exemplification' (Goodman, Elgin) or 'exemplarisation' (Lehrer). Goodman and Lehrer argue that the notion of exemplification sheds light on central problems in aesthetics and the philosophy of mind. However, while there seems to be a phenomenon to be (...)
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  36. William F. Brewer (1999). Perceptual Symbols: The Power and Limitations of a Theory of Dynamic Imagery and Structured Frames. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):611-612.score: 34.0
    The perceptual symbol approach to knowledge representation combines structured frames and dynamic imagery. The perceptual symbol approach provides a good account of the representation of scientific models, of some types of naive theories held by children and adults, and of certain reconstructive memory phenomena. The ontological status of perceptual symbols is unclear and this form of representation does not succeed in accounting for all forms of human knowledge.
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  37. Stevan Harnad, Grounding Symbols in the Analog World with Neural Nets a Hybrid Model.score: 34.0
    1.1 The predominant approach to cognitive modeling is still what has come to be called "computationalism" (Dietrich 1990, Harnad 1990b), the hypothesis that cognition is computation. The more recent rival approach is "connectionism" (Hanson & Burr 1990, McClelland & Rumelhart 1986), the hypothesis that cognition is a dynamic pattern of connections and activations in a "neural net." Are computationalism and connectionism really deeply different from one another, and if so, should they compete for cognitive hegemony, or should they (...)
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  38. Ron Sun (2013). Autonomous Generation of Symbolic Representations Through Subsymbolic Activities. Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):888 - 912.score: 34.0
    This paper explores an approach for autonomous generation of symbolic representations from an agent's subsymbolic activities within the agent-environment interaction. The paper describes a psychologically plausible general framework and its various methods for autonomously creating symbolic representations. The symbol generation is accomplished within, and is intrinsic to, a generic and comprehensive cognitive architecture for capturing a wide variety of psychological processes (namely, CLARION). This work points to ways of obtaining more psychologically/cognitively realistic symbolic and subsymbolic representations within the (...)
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  39. Denis Bouchard (1995). The Semantics of Syntax: A Minimalist Approach to Grammar. University of Chicago Press.score: 30.0
    During the last thirty years, most linguists and philosophers have assumed that meaning can be represented symbolically and that the mental processing of language involves the manipulation of symbols. Scholars have assembled strong evidence that there must be linguistic representations at several abstract levels--phonological, syntactic, and semantic--and that those representations are related by a describable system of rules. Because meaning is so complex, linguists often posit an equally complex relationship between semantic and other levels of grammar. The Semantics of Syntax (...)
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  40. Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi, Solving the Symbol Grounding Problem: A Critical Review of Fifteen Years of Research.score: 30.0
    This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches: representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationalism. The conclusion is that all the strategies are semantically committed (...)
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  41. Angelo Cangelosi, Alberto Greco & Stevan Harnad (2002). Symbol Grounding and the Symbolic Theft Hypothesis. In A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi (eds.), Simulating the Evolution of Language. Springer-Verlag. 191--210.score: 30.0
    Scholars studying the origins and evolution of language are also interested in the general issue of the evolution of cognition. Language is not an isolated capability of the individual, but has intrinsic relationships with many other behavioral, cognitive, and social abilities. By understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution of linguistic abilities, it is possible to understand the evolution of cognitive abilities. Cognitivism, one of the current approaches in psychology and cognitive science, proposes that symbol systems capture mental phenomena, and (...)
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  42. Anna-Maija Lämsä & Teppo Sintonen (2001). A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life. Journal of Business Ethics 34 (3-4):255 - 267.score: 30.0
    In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding women leaders in working life. Our starting point is in statistics and earlier women-in-management literature, which show that women leaders represent a minority of the managerial population. We assume such underlying mechanisms causing discriminatory practices towards women leaders to exist which have become naturalized and invisible. Our concern is that everyone irrespective of gender should have a fair chance in career progression. This is both a moral and also an economic (...)
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  43. Ron Sun (1999). Accounting for the Computational Basis of Consciousness: A Connectionist Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):529-565.score: 30.0
    This paper argues for an explanation of the mechanistic (computational) basis of consciousness that is based on the distinction between localist (symbolic) representation and distributed representation, the ideas of which have been put forth in the connectionist literature. A model is developed to substantiate and test this approach. The paper also explores the issue of the functional roles of consciousness, in relation to the proposed mechanistic explanation of consciousness. The model, embodying the representational difference, is able to account for (...)
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  44. Elizabeth A. Armstrong & Mary Bernstein (2008). Culture, Power, and Institutions: A Multi-Institutional Politics Approach to Social Movements. Sociological Theory 26 (1):74 - 99.score: 30.0
    We argue that critiques of political process theory are beginning to coalesce into new approach to social movements--a "multi-institutional politics" approach. While the political process model assumes that domination is organized by and around one source of power, the alternative perspective views domination as organized around multiple sources of power, each of which is simultaneously material and symbolic. We examine the conceptions of social movements, politics, actors, goals, and strategies supported by each model, demonstrating that the view of (...)
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  45. Mariela Perez Chavarria (2001). An Approach—From the Standpoint of Communication—to the Interpretation of the Organizational Culture of a Mexican Multinational: The Cemex Case. World Futures 57 (5):417-433.score: 30.0
    This work is a qualitative, exploratory study, on how the organizational culture is communicated in a Multinational Mexican company (CEMEX). It specifically analyses the creation of common meanings?culture?through formal communication. Based on an interpretative symbolic approach and using a non?obtrusive method, as is the analysis of documents (nine annual reports, two speeches by the CEO and a corporate video), a culture is discovered and an interpretation of the same is offered. For the analysis, a model was designed whose basic (...)
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  46. James L. McClelland, David C. Plaut, Stephen J. Gotts & Tiago V. Maia (2003). Developing a Domain-General Framework for Cognition: What is the Best Approach? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):611-614.score: 30.0
    We share with Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) (and with Newell before them) the goal of developing a domain-general framework for modeling cognition, and we take seriously the issue of evaluation criteria. We advocate a more focused approach than the one reflected in Newell's criteria, based on analysis of failures as well as successes of models brought into close contact with experimental data. A&L attribute the shortcomings of our parallel-distributed processing framework to a failure to acknowledge a symbolic level of (...)
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  47. Michelle C. van der Merwe, Anské F. Grobler, Arien Strasheim & Lizré Orton (2013). Getting Young Adults Back to Church: A Marketing Approach. Hts Theological Studies 69 (2):00-00.score: 30.0
    Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church's (...)
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  48. Mark DaCosta Alleyne (2004). The Global Promotion of Gender Equality—A Propaganda Approach. Human Rights Review 5 (3):103-116.score: 30.0
    This paper proposes a new way of measuring progress in international politics, an approach that focuses on the symbolic and ideological work of international organizations. Although such a strategy is not entirely new to the study of International Relations, it has not been a common, accessible way of assessing how well international organizations work to effect change. The more famous methods have been legalistic—investigations of how international organizations have created new international law in the issue-areas under investigation1—and bureaucratic—studies of (...)
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  49. Stevan Harnad (1987). Category Induction and Representation. In [Book Chapter].score: 28.0
    A provisional model is presented in which categorical perception (CP) provides our basic or elementary categories. In acquiring a category we learn to label or identify positive and negative instances from a sample of confusable alternatives. Two kinds of internal representation are built up in this learning by "acquaintance": (1) an iconic representation that subserves our similarity judgments and (2) an analog/digital feature-filter that picks out the invariant information allowing us to categorize the instances correctly. This second, categorical representation is (...)
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  50. Michael Ramscar (2010). Computing Machinery and Understanding. Cognitive Science 34 (6):966-971.score: 28.0
    How are natural symbol systems best understood? Traditional “symbolic” approaches seek to understand cognition by analogy to highly structured, prescriptive computer programs. Here, we describe some problems the traditional computational metaphor inevitably leads to, and a very different approach to computation (Ramscar, Yarlett, Dye, Denny, & Thorpe, 2010; Turing, 1950) that allows these problems to be avoided. The way we conceive of natural symbol systems depends to a large degree on the computational metaphors we use to understand (...)
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