Search results for 'systematics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Walter J. Bock (1994). Ernst Mayr, Naturalist: His Contributions to Systematics and Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (3):267-327.score: 18.0
    Ernst Mayr''s scientific career continues strongly 70 years after he published his first scientific paper in 1923. He is primarily a naturalist and ornithologist which has influenced his basic approach in science and later in philosophy and history of science. Mayr studied at the Natural History Museum in Berlin with Professor E. Stresemann, a leader in the most progressive school of avian systematics of the time. The contracts gained through Stresemann were central to Mayr''s participation in a three year (...)
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  2. Harold N. Bryant (1995). The Threefold Parallelism of Agassiz and Haeckel, and Polarity Determination in Phylogenetic Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):197-217.score: 18.0
    A parallel exists between the threefold parallelism of Agassiz and Haeckel and the three valid methods of polarity determination in phylogenetic systematics. The structural gradation among taxa within a linear hierarchy, ontogenetic recapitulation, and geological succession of the threefold parallelism resemble outgroup comparison, the ontogenetic method, and the paleontological method, respectively, which are methods of polarity determination in phylogenetic systematics. The parallel involves expected congruence among similar components of the distribution of character states among organisms. The threefold parallelism (...)
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  3. Frederic Tremblay (2013). Nicolai Hartmann and the Metaphysical Foundation of Phylogenetic Systematics. Biological Theory 7 (1):56-68.score: 18.0
    When developing phylogenetic systematics, the entomologist Willi Hennig adopted elements from Nicolai Hartmann’s ontology. In this historical essay I take on the task of documenting this adoption. I argue that in order to build a metaphysical foundation for phylogenetic systematics, Hennig adopted from Hartmann four main metaphysical theses. These are (1) that what is real is what is temporal; (2) that the criterion of individuality is to have duration; (3) that species are supra-individuals; and (4) that there are (...)
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  4. Joshua Blu Buhs (2000). Building on Bedrock: William Steel Creighton and the Reformation of Ant Systematics, 1925-1970. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (1):27 - 70.score: 18.0
    Ideas about the natural world are intertwined with the personalities, practices, and the workplaces of scientists. The relationships between these categories are explored in the life of the taxonomist William Steel Creighton. Creighton studied taxonomy under William Morton Wheeler at Harvard University. He took the rules he learned from Wheeler out of the museum and into the field. In testing the rules against a new situation, Creighton found them wanting. He sought a new set of taxonomic principles, one he eventually (...)
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  5. Beckett Sterner (forthcoming). Well-Structured Biology: Numerical Taxonomy's Epistemic Vision for Systematics. In Andrew Hamilton (ed.), Patterns in Nature. University of California Press.score: 16.0
    What does it look like when a group of scientists set out to re-envision an entire field of biology in symbolic and formal terms? I analyze the founding and articulation of Numerical Taxonomy between 1950 and 1970, the period when it set out a radical new approach to classification and founded a tradition of mathematics in systematic biology. I argue that introducing mathematics in a comprehensive way also requires re-organizing the daily work of scientists in the field. Numerical taxonomists sought (...)
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  6. Leandro Assis & Ingo Brigandt (2009). Homology: Homeostatic Property Cluster Kinds in Systematics and Evolution. Evolutionary Biology 36:248-255.score: 12.0
    Taxa and homologues can in our view be construed both as kinds and as individuals. However, the conceptualization of taxa as natural kinds in the sense of homeostatic property cluster kinds has been criticized by some systematists, as it seems that even such kinds cannot evolve due to their being homeostatic. We reply by arguing that the treatment of transformational and taxic homologies, respectively, as dynamic and static aspects of the same homeostatic property cluster kind represents a good perspective for (...)
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  7. Olivier Rieppel (2009). 'Total Evidence' in Phylogenetic Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):607-622.score: 12.0
    Taking its clues from Popperian philosophy of science, cladistics adopted a number of assumptions of the empiricist tradition. These include the identification of a dichotomy between observation reports and theoretical statements and its subsequent abandonment on the basis of the insight that all observation reports are theory-laden. The neglect of the ‘context of discovery’, which is the step of theory (hypothesis) generation. The emphasis on coherentism in the ‘context of justification’, which is the step of evaluation of the relative merits (...)
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  8. John S. Wilkins (2012). Getting Over Systematics. Metascience 21 (2):383-386.score: 12.0
    Getting over systematics Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9662-5 Authors John S. Wilkins, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2009, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  9. Kirk Fitzhugh (2006). The 'Requirement of Total Evidence' and its Role in Phylogenetic Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):309-351.score: 12.0
    The question of whether or not to partition data for the purposes of inferring phylogenetic hypotheses remains controversial. Opinions have been especially divided since Kluge's (1989, Systematic Zoology 38, 7–25) claim that data partitioning violates the requirement of total evidence (RTE). Unfortunately, advocacy for or against the RTE has not been based on accurate portrayals of the requirement. The RTE is a basic maxim for non-deductive inference, stipulating that evidence must be considered if it has relevance to an inference. Evidence (...)
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  10. Fang Zhao-hui & David R. Schiller (2002). A Critical Reflection on the Systematics of Traditional Chinese Learning. Philosophy East and West 52 (1):36-49.score: 12.0
    Since the beginning of the twentieth century, Chinese scholars have tended to traditional Chinese learning split apart and rearrange it according to the systematics of modern Western academic disciplines. By examining the meaning of Western "philosophy" and "ethics," it is demonstrated that Western and Chinese learning should not be lumped together according to the same systematics. Moreover, classical Chinese learning has always had its own complex systematics and its own long tradition, and it has undergone constant development (...)
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  11. D. M. Williams & M. C. Ebach (forthcoming). What, Exactly, is Cladistics? Re-Writing the History of Systematics and Biogeography. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 12.0
    The development of comparative biology (systematics) has been of interest to philosophers and historians. Particular attention has been placed on the ‘war’ of the 1970s and 1980s, the apparent dispute among those who preferred this or that methodology. In this contribution we examine the history of comparative biology from the perspective of fundamentals rather than methodologies. Our examination is framed within the artificial—natural classification dichotomy, a viewpoint currently lost from view (...)
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  12. Jeffrey H. Schwartz (forthcoming). Reflections on Systematics and Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Acta Biotheoretica.score: 12.0
    I attempt to raise questions regarding elements of systematics—primarily in the realm of phylogenetic reconstruction—in order to provoke discussion on the current state of affairs in this discipline, and also evolutionary biology in general: e.g., conceptions of homology and homoplasy, hypothesis testing, the nature of and objections to Hennigian “phylogenetic systematics”, and the schism between (neo)Darwinian descendants of the “modern evolutionary synthesis” and their supposed antagonists, cladists and punctuationalists.
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  13. J. Cain (2002). Epistemic and Community Transition in American Evolutionary Studies: The 'Committee on Common Problems of Genetics, Paleontology, and Systematics' (1942-1949). [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (2):283-313.score: 12.0
    The Committee on Common Problems of Genetics, Paleontology, and Systematics (United States National Research Council) marks part of a critical transition in American evolutionary studies. Launched in 1942 to facilitate cross-training between genetics and paleontology, the Committee was also designed to amplify paleontologist voices in modern studies of evolutionary processes. During coincidental absences of founders George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky, an opportunistic Ernst Mayr moved into the project's leadership. Mayr used the opportunity for programmatic reforms he had been (...)
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  14. Kim Kleinman (2013). Systematics and the Origin of Species From the Viewpoint of a Botanist: Edgar Anderson Prepares the 1941 Jesup Lectures with Ernst Mayr. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):73-101.score: 12.0
    The correspondence between Edgar Anderson and Ernst Mayr leading into their 1941 Jesup Lectures on “Systematics and the Origin of Species” addressed population thinking, the nature of species, the relationship of microevolution to macroevolution, and the evolutionary dynamics of plants and animals, all central issues in what came to be known as the Evolutionary Synthesis. On some points, they found ready agreement; for others they forged only a short term consensus. They brought two different working styles to this project (...)
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  15. Kevin De Queiroz (1988). Systematics and the Darwinian Revolution. Philosophy of Science 55 (2):238 - 259.score: 12.0
    Taxonomies of living things and the methods used to produce them changed little with the institutionalization of evolutionary thinking in biology. Instead, the relationships expressed in existing taxonomies were merely reinterpreted as the result of evolution, and evolutionary concepts were developed to justify existing methods. I argue that the delay of the Darwinian Revolution in biological taxonomy has resulted partly from a failure to distinguish between two fundamentally different ways of ordering identified by Griffiths (1974): classification and systematization. Classification (...)
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  16. Joel Hagen (2003). The Statistical Frame of Mind in Systematic Biology From "Quantitative Zoology to Biometry". Journal of the History of Biology 36 (2):353 - 384.score: 12.0
    The twentieth century witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of statistics by biologists, including systematists. The modern synthesis and new systematics stimulated this development, particularly after World War II. The rise of "the statistical frame of mind" resulted in a rethinking of the relationship between biological and mathematical points of view, the roles of objectivity and subjectivity in systematic research, the implications of new computing technologies, and the place of systematics among the biological disciplines.
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  17. Robert M. Doran (2007). Constructing a New Catholic Systematics. Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):35-55.score: 12.0
    The paper shares the principal emphases to date in an attempt to begin a contemporary systematic theology and invites the collaboration of others in the development of that theology. Lonergan’s understanding of systematics as the imperfect and analogical understanding of the mysteries of faith is adopted from the outset, but so is his insistence (1) that a contemporary systematic theology must be grounded in interiorly and religiously differentiated consciousnessand (2) that such a theology will be a theology of history. (...)
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  18. Olivier Rieppel (2008). Re-Writing Popper's Philosophy of Science for Systematics. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (3/4):293 - 316.score: 12.0
    This paper explores the use of Popper's philosophy of science by cladists in their battle against evolutionary and numerical taxonomy. Three schools of biological systematics fiercely debated each other from the late 1960s: evolutionary taxonomy, phenetics or numerical taxonomy, and phylogenetic systematics or cladistics. The outcome of that debate was the victory of phylogenetic systematics/cladistics over the competing schools of thought. To bring about this "cladistic turn" in systematics, the cladists drew heavily on the philosopher K.R. (...)
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  19. Robert M. Doran (2003). Implementation in Systematics: The Structure. Journal of Macrodynamic Analysis 3.score: 12.0
    Many of the elements of the problem of implementation have been assembled in Philip McShane’s paper and addressed in his life’s work to date. The dimension to which I wish to contribute is the need to lift the chapter on Systematics in Method in Theology out of its tired and minimalist context into the context that Lonergan seems to have had in mind when, at the time of the breakthrough to functional specialization, what eventually was called Systematics was (...)
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  20. Olivier Rieppel (2009). Species Monophyly. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 48 (1):1-8.score: 12.0
    In biological systematics, as well as in the philosophy of biology, species and higher taxa are individuated through their unique evolutionary origin. This is taken by some authors to mean that monophyly is a (relational) property not only of higher taxa, but also of species. A species is said to originate through speciation, and to go extinct when it splits into two daughter species (or through terminal extinction). Its unique evolutionary origin is said to bestow identity on a species (...)
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  21. Peter Simons (1998). Metaphysical Systematics: A Lesson From Whitehead. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):377-393.score: 10.0
    Despite its lack of influence in analytical philosophy, and independently of its content as a process philosophy, Whitehead's system in Process and Reality affords a valuable lesson on how to pursue revisionary systematic metaphysics. This paper argues the case generally for metaphysical revision and system, describes the structure of Whitehead's categorial scheme, endorses his idea of an ultimate which is not an entity, and outlines an alternative, “digital” ultimate or basis composed of several analytical factors. [I]n the absence of a (...)
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  22. P. F. Stevens (1998). Cognitive Universals, Hierarchy, and the History and Practice of Biological Systematics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):590-591.score: 10.0
    The hierarchical reach of Atran's cognitive universals is unclear, and some of the key concepts used to discuss them are notorious for their imprecision. Although ideas of class hierarchy pervade Atran's discussion, other ways of thinking are also allowed. The history and practice of systematic biology suggests that a nonclass hierarchical and continuity-based way of thinking has been common there until recently.
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  23. Ingo Brigandt (2009). Natural Kinds in Evolution and Systematics: Metaphysical and Epistemological Considerations. Acta Biotheoretica 57:77-97.score: 9.0
    Despite the traditional focus on metaphysical issues in discussions of natural kinds in biology, epistemological considerations are at least as important. By revisiting the debate as to whether taxa are kinds or individuals, I argue that both accounts are metaphysically compatible, but that one or the other approach can be pragmatically preferable depending on the epistemic context. Recent objections against construing species as homeostatic property cluster kinds are also addressed. The second part of the paper broadens the perspective by considering (...)
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  24. Marc Ereshefsky (2007). Species, Taxonomy, and Systematics. In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy of Biology. Prometheus Books. 403--428.score: 9.0
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  25. Francisco Vergara-Silva & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2009). Editorial: Systematics, Darwinism, and the Philosophy of Science. Acta Biotheoretica 57:1-3.score: 9.0
  26. L. R. Franklin (2007). Bacteria, Sex, and Systematics. Philosophy of Science 74 (1):69-95.score: 9.0
    Philosophical discussions of species have focused on multicellular, sexual animals and have often neglected to consider unicellular organisms like bacteria. This article begins to fill this gap by considering what species concepts, if any, apply neatly to the bacterial world. First, I argue that the biological species concept cannot be applied to bacteria because of the variable rates of genetic transfer between populations, depending in part on which gene type is prioritized. Second, I present a critique of phylogenetic bacterial species, (...)
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  27. Olivier Rieppel (2007). Parsimony, Likelihood, and Instrumentalism in Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):141-144.score: 9.0
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  28. Samuel Alexander (2013). Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem. Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.score: 9.0
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch a decomposition result (...)
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  29. Kevin de Queiroz (1988). Systematics and the Darwinian Revolution. Philosophy of Science 55 (2):238-259.score: 9.0
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  30. L. D. (2001). The Role of Theories in Biological Systematics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (2):221-238.score: 9.0
    The role of scientific theories in classifying plants and animals is traced from Hennig's phylogenetics and the evolutionary taxonomy of Simpson and Mayr, through numerical phenetics, to present-day cladistics. Hennig limited biological classification to sister groups so that this one relation can be expressed unambiguously in classifications. Simpson and Mayr were willing to sacrifice precision in representation in order to include additional features of evolution in the construction of classifications. In order to make classifications more objective, precise and quantitative, numerical (...)
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  31. Mohan Matthen (2002). Origins Are Not Essences in Evolutionary Systematics. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (2):167 - 181.score: 9.0
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  32. John S. Wilkins, Walter M. Fitch & Francisco J. Ayala (2007). Systematics and the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th Anniversary. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):603-610.score: 9.0
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  33. Graham C. D. Griffiths (1974). On the Foundations of Biological Systematics. Acta Biotheoretica 23 (3-4).score: 9.0
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  34. Wroe Alderson (1951). A Systematics for Problems of Action. Philosophy of Science 18 (1):16-25.score: 9.0
  35. Joel B. Hagen (1999). Naturalists, Molecular Biologists, and the Challenges of Molecular Evolution. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):321 - 341.score: 9.0
    Biologists and historians often present natural history and molecular biology as distinct, perhaps conflicting, fields in biological research. Such accounts, although supported by abundant evidence, overlook important areas of overlap between these areas. Focusing upon examples drawn particularly from systematics and molecular evolution, I argue that naturalists and molecular biologists often share questions, methods, and forms of explanation. Acknowledging these interdisciplinary efforts provides a more balanced account of the development of biology during the post-World War II era.
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  36. John P. Galvin (1979). The Resurrection of Jesus in Contemporary Catholic Systematics. Heythrop Journal 20 (2):123–162.score: 9.0
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  37. M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2011). On Whose Authority? Temminck's Debates on Zoological Classification and Nomenclature: 1820-1850. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):445 - 481.score: 9.0
    By following the arguments between Coenraad J. Temminck and fellow ornithologists Louis J.-P. Vieillot and Nicholas Vigors, this paper sketches, to a degree, the state of zoological classification and nomenclature between 1825 and 1840 in Europe. The discussions revolved around the problems caused by an unstable nomenclature, the different definitions of genera and species and the best method to achieve a natural system of classification. As more and more naturalists concerned with classifying and arranging the groups of birds joined these (...)
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  38. Robert J. O'Hara (1991). Representations of the Natural System in the Nineteenth Century. Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):255-274.score: 9.0
    ‘The Natural System’ is the abstract notion of the order in living diversity. The richness and complexity of this notion is revealed by the diversity of representations of the Natural System drawn by ornithologists in the Nineteenth Century. These representations varied in overall form from stars, to circles, to maps, to evolutionary trees and cross-sections through trees. They differed in their depiction of affinity, analogy, continuity, directionality, symmetry, reticulation and branching, evolution, and morphological convergence and divergence. Some representations were two-dimensional, (...)
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  39. Norman I. Platnick & Gareth Nelson (1980). Book Review:Phylogenetic Systematics Willi Hennig, D. Dwight Davis, Rainer Zangerl. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 47 (3):499-.score: 9.0
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  40. Joel D. Velasco (2012). The Future of Systematics: Tree Thinking Without the Tree. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):624-636.score: 9.0
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  41. David L. Hull (2001). The Role of Theories in Biological Systematics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (2):221-238.score: 9.0
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  42. Zhao-hui Fang & ed Schiller, David R. (2002). A Critical Reflection on the Systematics of Traditional Chinese Learning. Philosophy East and West 52 (1):36-49.score: 9.0
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  43. Vimala Herman (1991). Dramatic Dialogue and the Systematics of Turn-Taking. Semiotica 83 (1-2):97-122.score: 9.0
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  44. Jeffrey H. Schwartz & Bruno Maresca (2006). Do Molecular Clocks Run at All? A Critique of Molecular Systematics. Biological Theory 1 (4):357-371.score: 9.0
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  45. Kristin Johnson (2004). "The Ibis": Transformations in a Twentieth Century British Natural History Journal. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):515 - 555.score: 9.0
    The contents of the British Ornithologists' Union's journal, "The Ibis," during the first half of the 20th century illustrates some of the transformations that have taken place in the naturalist tradition. Although later generations of ornithologists described these changes as logical and progressive, their historical narratives had more to do with legitimizing the infiltration of the priorities of evolutionary theory, ecology, and ethology than analyzing the legacy of the naturalist tradition on its own terms. Despite ornithologists' claim that the journal's (...)
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  46. W. M. Kruseman (1949). Gradation of Language in Biological Systematics. Synthese 8 (1):175 - 181.score: 9.0
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  47. Sebastian Luft (forthcoming). Dialectics of the Absolute: The Systematics of the Phenomenological System in Husserl's Last Period. Philosophy Today.score: 9.0
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  48. R. Zimmermann & M. Cooke (1988). Equality, Political Order and Ethics: Hobbes and the Systematics of Democratic Rationality. Philosophy and Social Criticism 14 (3-4):339-358.score: 9.0
  49. Guy E. Swanson (1974). The Primary Process of Groups, its Systematics and Representation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 4 (1):53–69.score: 9.0
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  50. Mary Pickard Winsor (2000). Species, Demes, and the Omega Taxonomy: Gilmour and the Newsystematics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):349-388.score: 9.0
    The word ``deme'' was coined by the botanists J.S.L. Gilmour and J.W.Gregor in 1939, following the pattern of J.S. Huxley's ``cline''. Its purposewas not only to rationalize the plethora of terms describing chromosomaland genetic variation, but also to reduce hostility between traditionaltaxonomists and researchers on evolution, who sometimes scorned eachother's understanding of species. A multi-layered system of compoundterms based on deme was published by Gilmour and J. Heslop-Harrison in1954 but not widely used. Deme was adopted with a modified meaning byzoologists (...)
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