Search results for 'tautologies' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1989). Are All Tautologies True? Logique Et Analyse 125 (125-126):3-14.score: 18.0
    The paper asks: are all tautologies true in a language with truth-value gaps? It answers that they are not. No tautology is false, of course, but not all are true. It also contends that not all contradictions are false in a language with truth-value gaps, though none are true.
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  2. Hervé Fournier, Danièle Gardy, Antoine Genitrini & Marek Zaionc (2010). Tautologies Over Implication with Negative Literals. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 56 (4):388-396.score: 15.0
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  3. Toshio Suzuki (2005). Bounded Truth Table Does Not Reduce the One-Query Tautologies to a Random Oracle. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (6):751-762.score: 14.0
    The relativized propositional calculus is a system of Boolean formulas with query symbols. A formula in this system is called a one-query formula if the number of occurrences of query symbols is just one. If a one-query formula is a tautology with respect to a given oracle A then it is called a one-query tautology with respect to A. By extending works of Ambos-Spies (1986) and us (2002), we investigate the measure of the class of all oracles A such that (...)
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  4. Jeremy Avigad, Plausibly Hard Combinatorial Tautologies.score: 12.0
    We present a simple propositional proof system which consists of a single axiom schema and a single rule, and use this system to construct a sequence of combinatorial tautologies that, when added to any Frege system, p-simulates extended-Frege systems.
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  5. Jan Krajicek (2001). Tautologies From Pseudo-Random Generators. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):197-212.score: 12.0
    We consider tautologies formed form a pseudo-random number generator, defined in Krajicek [11] and in Alekhnovich et al. [2]. We explain a strategy of proving their hardness for Extended Frege systems via a conjecture about bounded arithmetic formulated in Krajicek [11]. Further we give a purely finitary statement, in the form of a hardness condition imposed on a function, equivalent to the conjecture. This is accompanied by a brief explanation, aimed at non-specialists, of the relation between prepositional proof complexity (...)
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  6. Masahiro Kumabe, Toshio Suzuki & Takeshi Yamazaki (2008). Does Truth-Table of Linear Norm Reduce the One-Query Tautologies to a Random Oracle? Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (2):159-180.score: 12.0
    In our former works, for a given concept of reduction, we study the following hypothesis: “For a random oracle A, with probability one, the degree of the one-query tautologies with respect to A is strictly higher than the degree of A.” In our former works (Suzuki in Kobe J. Math. 15, 91–102, 1998; in Inf. Comput. 176, 66–87, 2002; in Arch. Math. Logic 44, 751–762), the following three results are shown: The hypothesis for p-T (polynomial-time Turing) reduction is equivalent (...)
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  7. Johannes Bulhof & Steven Gimbel (2001). Deep Tautologies. Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):279-292.score: 12.0
    The standard understanding of tautologies is that they are semantically vacuous. Yet tautological utterances occur frequently in conversational discourse. One approach contends that apparent tautological statements are either genuinely tautologous and thereby semantically vacuous or are what we term ¿pseudo-tautologies¿, i.e., sentences that only bear a formal syntactic resemblance to tautologies but are not in fact tautologous. Another approach follows Grice and asserts that the meaning of a tautological utterance derives from an inference made by the listener (...)
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  8. Toshio Suzuki (2000). Complexity of the -Query Tautologies in the Presence of a Generic Oracle. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (2):142-151.score: 12.0
    Extending techniques of Dowd and those of Poizat, we study computational complexity of in the case when is a generic oracle, where is a positive integer, and denotes the collection of all -query tautologies with respect to an oracle . We introduce the notion of ceiling-generic oracles, as a generalization of Dowd's notion of -generic oracles to arbitrary finitely testable arithmetical predicates. We study how existence of ceiling-generic oracles affects behavior of a generic oracle, by which we show that (...)
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  9. Petr Hájek (2010). Some (Non)Tautologies of Łukasiewicz and Product Logic. Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):273-278.score: 10.0
    The paper presents a particular example of a formula which is a standard tautology of Łukasiewicz but not its general tautology; an example of a model in which the formula is not true is explicitly constructed. Analogous example of a formula and its model is given for product logic.
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  10. Wim J. Steen (1983). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology I. Testability and Tautologies. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (3).score: 10.0
    The impact of philosophy of science on biology is slight. Evolutionary biology, however, is nowadays an exception. The status of the neo-Darwinian (synthetic) theory of evolution is seriously challenged from a methodological perspective. However, the methodology used in the relevant discussions is plainly defective. A correct application of methodology to evolutionary theory leads to the following conclusions. (a) The theory of natural selection (the core of neo-Darwinism) is unfalsifiable in a strict sense of the term. This, however, does not militate (...)
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  11. Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Louis Lefebvre & Julie Morand-Ferron (2007). Can a Restrictive Definition Lead to Biases and Tautologies? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):411-412.score: 10.0
    We argue that the operational definition proposed by Ramsey et al. does not represent a significant improvement for students of innovation, because it is so restrictive that it might actually prevent the testing of hypotheses on the relationships between innovation, ecology, evolution, culture, and intelligence. To avoid tautological thinking, we need to use an operational definition that is taxonomically unbiased and neutral with respect to the hypotheses to be tested.
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  12. Jan Krajíček (2005). Structured Pigeonhole Principle, Search Problems and Hard Tautologies. Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):619 - 630.score: 10.0
    We consider exponentially large finite relational structures (with the universe {0.1}ⁿ) whose basic relations are computed by polynomial size (nO(1)) circuits. We study behaviour of such structures when pulled back by P/poly maps to a bigger or to a smaller universe. In particular, we prove that: 1. If there exists a P/poly map g: {0.1} → {0.1}m, n < m, iterable for a proof system then a tautology (independent of g) expressing that a particular size n set is dominating in (...)
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  13. Matthias Kiesselbach (2009). Warring Tautologies: Moral Dissent From a Cognitivist Perspective. Ethic@ 8 (1):125-145.score: 9.0
    It is commonly thought that the prevalence of moral dissent poses a problem for the moral cognitivist, forcing her to diagnose either a lot of misunderstanding, or a lot of unexplained observational error. Since mere misunderstanding can be ruled out in most cases of moral dissent, and since the diagnosis of widespread unexplained error is interpretively unstable, prevalent dissent has pushed many philosophers towards non-cognitivism. In this essay, I argue that once a diachronic, pragmatist theory of language along the lines (...)
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  14. Emmanuel Tannenbaum (2009). Speculations on the Emergence of Self-Awareness in Big-Brained Organisms: The Roles of Associative Memory and Learning, Existential and Religious Questions, and the Emergence of Tautologies. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):414-427.score: 9.0
  15. R. Harré (1958). Tautologies and the Paradigm-Case Argument. Analysis 18 (4):94 - 96.score: 9.0
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  16. Leo Simons (1974). Logic Without Tautologies. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15 (3):411-431.score: 9.0
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  17. Arnon Avron (2014). The Classical Constraint on Relevance. Logica Universalis 8 (1):1-15.score: 9.0
    We show that as long as the propositional constants t and f are not included in the language, any language-preserving extension of any important fragment of the relevance logics R and RMI can have only classical tautologies as theorems (this includes intuitionistic logic and its extensions). This property is not preserved, though, if either t or f is added to the language, or if the contraction axiom is deleted.
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  18. Jan Kalicki (1950). A Test for the Existence of Tautologies According to Many-Valued Truth-Tables. Journal of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):182-184.score: 9.0
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  19. Leo Simons (1978). More Logics Without Tautologies. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (4):543-557.score: 9.0
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  20. J. C. C. McKinsey (1951). Review: Jan Kalicki, A Test for the Existence of Tautologies According to Many-Valued Truth-Tables. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 16 (1):65-65.score: 9.0
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  21. Aileen Michaels (1974). A Uniform Proof Procedure for SCI Tautologies. Studia Logica 33 (3):299 - 310.score: 9.0
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  22. Gennady Davydov & Inna Davydova (1992). Tautologies and Positive Solvability of Linear Homogeneous Systems. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 57 (1):27-43.score: 9.0
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  23. Morris Lazerowitz (1937). Tautologies and the Matrix Method. Mind 46 (182):191-205.score: 9.0
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  24. Daniele Mundici (1984). Tautologies with a Unique Craig Interpolant, Uniform Vs. Nonuniform Complexity. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 27 (3):265-273.score: 9.0
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  25. Gerald Standley (1966). Testing Singly Quantified Tautologies. Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (3):478-480.score: 9.0
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  26. Paulo A. S. Veloso, Luiz Carlos Pereira & Edward H. Haeusler (2009). Validades Existenciais e Enigmas Relacionados. Doispontos 6 (2).score: 9.0
    Logic does not have purely existential theorems: the only existential sentences that are valid are those with valid universal analogues. Here, we show indeed this is so, when properly interpreted: every existential validity has a simple universal analogue, which is also valid. We also characterize existential and universal validities in terms of tautologies.
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  27. Matthias Baaz, Petr Hájek, Franco Montagna & Helmut Veith (2001). Complexity of T-Tautologies. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (1-3):3-11.score: 9.0
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  28. C. W. Berenda (1973). Are Natural Laws Simplifed Empirically Useful Tautologies? Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):93-100.score: 9.0
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  29. L. Boasson, P. Cegielski, I. Guessarian, Y. Matiyasevich, E. Dantsin, M. Gavrilovich, E. A. Hirsch & B. Konev (2002). Baaz, M., HaHjek, P., Montagna, F. And Veith, H., Complexity of T-Tautologies (1} 3) 3} 11 Beauquier, D. And Slissenko, A., A" Rst Order Logic for Speci" Cation of Timed Algorithms: Basic Properties and a Decidable Class (1} 3) 13} 52. [REVIEW] Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (399):400.score: 9.0
     
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  30. Antoine Genitrini & Jakub Kozik (2012). In the Full Propositional Logic, 5/8 of Classical Tautologies Are Intuitionistically Valid. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (7):875-887.score: 9.0
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  31. Justus Hartnack (1963). Moral Rules and Tautologies. In Gunnar Aspelin (ed.), Philosophical Essays. Lund, Cwk Gleerup. 28.score: 9.0
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  32. Paul Henle (1937). Review: Morris Lazerowitz, Tautologies and the Matrix Method. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):141-142.score: 9.0
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  33. Stefan Hetzl (2009). Describing Proofs by Short Tautologies. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 159 (1):129-145.score: 9.0
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  34. Michele Malatesta (2000). An Algorithm for Deriving Tautologies of Logic of Classes and Relations From Those of Sentential Calculus. Metalogicon 13 (2):89-123.score: 9.0
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  35. Craig T. Nagoshi (1987). The Epistemology of Intelligence: Contextual Variables, Tautologies, and External Referents. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):675.score: 9.0
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  36. Helge Nordahl (1976). Aspects rhétoriques des tautologies binaires dans La vie de Saint Eustace. Revue Belge de Philologie Et D'Histoire 54 (3):773-779.score: 9.0
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  37. Daniel N. Osherson & Ellen Markman (1974). Language and the Ability to Evaluate Contradictions and Tautologies. Cognition 3 (3):213-226.score: 9.0
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  38. Alan Rose (1975). A Note on the Existence of Tautologies Without Constants. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 21 (1):141-144.score: 9.0
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  39. Alan Rose (1976). A Note on the Existence of Tautologies in Certain Propositional Calculi Without Propositional Variables. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 22 (1):117-118.score: 9.0
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  40. Lawrence B. Slobodkin (1993). Predictions, Tautologies, Prejudices, Convictions. Bioscience 43 (1):63-64.score: 9.0
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  41. John S. Wilkins, Darwin’s Unkindly Variable: Fitness and the Tautology Problem.score: 6.0
    Few problems in the philosophy of evolutionary biology are more widely disseminated and discussed than the charge of Darwinian evolution being a tautology. The history is long and complex, and the issues are many, and despite the problem routinely being dismissed as an introductory-level issue, based on misunderstandings of evolution, it seems that few agree on what exactly these misunderstandings consist of. In this paper, I will try to comprehensively review the history and the issues. Then, I will try to (...)
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  42. Stuart A. Eisenstadt & Herbert A. Simon (1997). Logic and Thought. Minds and Machines 7 (3):365-385.score: 6.0
    Rips, in The Psychology of Proof, argues that, through the processes of evolution, logic (e.g., modus ponens) has become established in the human mind as the basis for thinking, and that production systems rest on this foundation. In this paper we defend the converse argument that, through evolution, a production system architecture has become the basis for human thinking, and that formal logics rest on this production system and the accompanying mechanisms for recognition and search. It is through the “automaticity” (...)
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  43. P. Æ Hutchings (1964). Necessary Being And Some Types Of Tautology. Philosophy 39 (147):1-.score: 6.0
    Critics of the notion of Necessary Being, and critics of arguments for the existence of God, have often claimed to find flaws in the notion or the arguments, and to find flaws that are due to the presence of concealed tautologies. No theist who recalls the unfortunate of St Anselm and its rejection by St Thomas would dare to claim, his hand on his heart, that tautology has never lurked like a serpent in the garden of natural theology. But (...)
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  44. Richmond Campbell & Jason Scott Robert (2005). The Structure of Evolution by Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):673-696.score: 5.0
    We attempt a conclusive resolution of the debate over whether the principle of natural selection (PNS), especially conceived as the `principle' of the `survival of the fittest', is a tautology. This debate has been largely ignored for the past 15 years but not, we think, because it has actually been settled. We begin by describing the tautology objection, and situating the problem in the philosophical and biology literature. We then demonstrate the inadequacy of six prima facie plausible reasons for believing (...)
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  45. Charles Bingham (2009). Under the Name of Method: On Jacques Rancière's Presumptive Tautology. Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (3):405-420.score: 4.0
    This paper investigates the philosophical method of Jacques Rancière, with special attention to use of the 'presumptive tautology'. It distinguishes between the Enlightenment conception of method as universally applicable technique, and the philosophical conception of method as a certain style that has been invented by a certain person. Ultimately, the paper puts the methodology of Rancière's The Ignorant Schoolmaster under scrutiny.
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  46. Edward N. Zalta (2013). The Tarski T-Schema is a Tautology (Literally). Analysis (1):ant099.score: 4.0
    The Tarski T-Schema has a propositional version. If we use ϕ as a metavariable for formulas and use terms of the form that-ϕ to denote propositions, then the propositional version of the T-Schema is: that-ϕ is true if and only if ϕ. For example, that Cameron is Prime Minister is true if and only if Cameron is Prime Minister. If that-ϕ is represented formally as [λ ϕ], then the T-Schema can be represented as the 0-place case of λ-Conversion. If we (...)
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  47. Jeffrey Bub (1996). Schütte's Tautology and the Kochen-Specker Theorem. Foundations of Physics 26 (6):787-806.score: 4.0
    I present a new 33-ray proof of the Kochen and Specker “no-go” hidden variable theorem in ℋ3, based on a classical tautology that corresponds to a contingent quantum proposition in ℋ3 proposed by Kurt Schütte in an unpublished letter to Specker in 1965. 1 discuss the relation of this proof to a 31-ray proof by Conway and Kochen, and to a 33-ray proof by Peres.
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  48. Sidney H. Irvine (1998). Innate Talents: A Psychological Tautology? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):419-419.score: 4.0
    The tautological implications of “innate talents” are outlined. Analogies are drawn between the present review and the nature–nurture controversies of 40 years ago. Ferguson's (1954; 1956) theoretical positions are proposed as a context in which to consider present and future attempts to resolve this long-standing issue.
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  49. Lloyd Humberstone, The Consequence Relation of Tautological Entailment is Maximally Relevant: Answering a Question of Graham Priest.score: 4.0
    Graham Priest has asked whether the consequence relation associated with the Anderson–Belnap system of Tautological Entailment,1 in the language with connectives ¬, ∧, ∨, and countably many propositional variables as tomic formulas, maximal amongst the substitution-invariant relevant consequence relations on this language. Here a consequence relation is said to be relevant just in case whenever for a set of formulas Γ and formula B, we have Γ B only if some propositional variable occurring in B occurs in at least one (...)
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