Search results for 'taxonomy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. A. Taxonomy & Licia Carlson (2010). The Expert or Gatekeeper In His History of the Modern Prison, Michel Foucault Writes:''The Penitentiary Technique and the Delinquent Are in a Sense Twin Brothers.... They Appeared Together, the One Extending From the Other, as a Technological Ensemble That Forms and Fragments the Object to Which It. [REVIEW] In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. 315.score: 30.0
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  2. on A. Verb TaxOnomy & Ricardo A. Gacitúa (2001). Identificacion de Requisitos: Un Enfoque Basado En Taxonomia Verbal. Theoria 10:67-78.score: 30.0
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  3. Xinli Wang (2002). Taxonomy, Truth-Value Gaps and Incommensurability: A Reconstruction of Kuhn's Taxonomic Interpretation of Incommensurability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (3):465-485.score: 24.0
    Kuhn's alleged taxonomic interpretation of incommensurability is grounded on an ill defined notion of untranslatability and is hence radically incomplete. To supplement it, I reconstruct Kuhn's taxonomic interpretation on the basis of a logical-semantic theory of taxonomy, a semantic theory of truth-value, and a truth-value conditional theory of cross-language communication. According to the reconstruction, two scientific languages are incommensurable when core sentences of one language, which have truth values when considered within its own context, lack truth values when considered (...)
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  4. Xiang Chen (2001). Perceptual Symbols and Taxonomy Comparison. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S200-S212.score: 24.0
    Many recent cognitive studies reveal that human cognition is inherently perceptual, sharing systems with perception at both the conceptual and the neural levels. This paper introduces Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbols and explores its implications for philosophy of science. If perceptual symbols lie in the heart of conceptual processing, the process of attribute selection during concept representation, which is critical for defining similarity and thus for comparing taxonomies, can no longer be determined solely by background beliefs. The analogous nature of (...)
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  5. David N. Stamos (2005). Pre-Darwinian Taxonomy and Essentialism – a Reply to Marywinsor. Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):79-96.score: 24.0
    Mary Winsor (2003) argues against the received view that pre-Darwinian taxonomy was characterized mainly by essentialism. She argues, instead, that the methods of pre-Darwinian taxonomists, in spite of whatever their beliefs, were that of clusterists, so that the received view, propagated mainly by certain modern biologists and philosophers of biology, should at last be put to rest as a myth. I argue that shes right when it comes to higher taxa, but wrong when it comes the most important category (...)
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  6. Sally Bean (2011). Navigating the Murky Intersection Between Clinical and Organizational Ethics: A Hybrid Case Taxonomy. Bioethics 25 (6):320-325.score: 24.0
    Ethical challenges that arise within healthcare delivery institutions are currently categorized as either clinical or organizational, based on the type of issue. Despite this common binary issue-based methodology, empirical study and increasing academic dialogue indicate that a clear line cannot easily be drawn between organizational and clinical ethics. Disagreement around end-of-life treatments, for example, often spawn value differences amongst parties at both organizational and clinical levels and requires a resolution to address both the case at hand and large-scale underlying system-level (...)
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  7. Beckett Sterner (forthcoming). Well-Structured Biology: Numerical Taxonomy's Epistemic Vision for Systematics. In Andrew Hamilton (ed.), Patterns in Nature. University of California Press.score: 24.0
    What does it look like when a group of scientists set out to re-envision an entire field of biology in symbolic and formal terms? I analyze the founding and articulation of Numerical Taxonomy between 1950 and 1970, the period when it set out a radical new approach to classification and founded a tradition of mathematics in systematic biology. I argue that introducing mathematics in a comprehensive way also requires re-organizing the daily work of scientists in the field. Numerical taxonomists (...)
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  8. Mikael Härlin & Per Sundberg (1998). Taxonomy and Philosophy of Names. Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):233-244.score: 24.0
    Although naming biological clades is a major activity in taxonomy, little attention has been paid to what these names actually refer to. In philosophy, definite descriptions have long been considered equivalent to the meaning of names and biological taxonomy is a scientific application of these ideas. One problem with definite descriptions as the meanings of names is that the name will refer to whatever fits the description rather than the intended individual (clade). Recent proposals for explicit phylogenetic definitions (...)
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  9. Mary Pickard Winsor (2000). Species, Demes, and the Omega Taxonomy: Gilmour and the Newsystematics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):349-388.score: 24.0
    The word ``deme'' was coined by the botanists J.S.L. Gilmour and J.W.Gregor in 1939, following the pattern of J.S. Huxley's ``cline''. Its purposewas not only to rationalize the plethora of terms describing chromosomaland genetic variation, but also to reduce hostility between traditionaltaxonomists and researchers on evolution, who sometimes scorned eachother's understanding of species. A multi-layered system of compoundterms based on deme was published by Gilmour and J. Heslop-Harrison in1954 but not widely used. Deme was adopted with a modified meaning byzoologists (...)
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  10. James R. Jackson & William C. Kimler (1999). Taxonomy and the Personal Equation: The Historical Fates of Charles Girard and Louis Agassiz. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):509 - 555.score: 24.0
    The reputations of scientists among their contemporaries depend not only on accomplishment, but also on interactions affected by influence and personality. The historical lore of most fields of scientific endeavor preserve these reputations, often through the identification of founders, innovators, and prolific workers whose contributions are considered fundamental to progress in the field. Historians frequently rely on the historical lore of scientists to guide their studies of the development of ideas, exhibiting justifiable caution in reassessing reputations in the light of (...)
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  11. J. Jonkisz (2012). Consciousness: A Four-Fold Taxonomy. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (11-12):55-82.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that the many and various conceptions of consciousness propounded by cognitive scientists and philosophers can all be understood as constituted with reference to four fundamental sorts of criterion: epistemic (concerned with kinds of consciousness), semantic (dealing with orders of consciousness), physiological (reflecting states of consciousness), and pragmatic (seeking to capture types of consciousness). The resulting four-fold taxonomy, intended to be exhaustive, suggests that all of the distinct varieties of consciousness currently encountered in cognitive neuroscience, the philosophy (...)
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  12. Stephen R. L. Clark (2012). The Ethics of Taxonomy: A Neo-Aristotelian Synthesis. In Evangelos D. Protopapadakis (ed.), Animal Ethics: Past and Present Perspectives. Logos Verlag.score: 24.0
    How the 'Aristotelian' biological synthesis has been affected by modern accounts of biological evolution, and the relation of taxonomy to ethics.
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  13. P. S. Kitcher (1985). Narrow Taxonomy and Wide Functionalism. Philosophy of Science 52 (March):78-97.score: 21.0
    Three recent, influential critiques (Stich 1978; Fodor 1981c; Block 1980) have argued that various tasks on the agenda for computational psychology put conflicting pressures on its theoretical constructs. Unless something is done, the inevitable result will be confusion or outright incoherence. Stich, Fodor, and Block present different versions of this worry and each proposes a different remedy. Stich wants the central notion of belief to be jettisoned if it cannot be shown to be sound. Fodor tries to reduce confusion in (...)
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  14. Paul M. Churchland (1993). Theory, Taxonomy, and Methodology: A Reply to Haldane's Understanding Folk. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67:313-19.score: 21.0
  15. Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.score: 21.0
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its central (...)
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  16. Jonathan D. Nash & Andrew Newberg (2013). Toward a Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  17. Bernard Walliser (1988). A Simplified Taxonomy of 2 � 2 Games. Theory and Decision 25 (2):163-191.score: 21.0
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  18. Tsuen‐ho Hsu & Kuei‐Feng Chang (2007). The Taxonomy, Model and Message Strategies of Social Behavior. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):279-294.score: 21.0
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  19. Paul Joyce, Ruth Boaden & Aneez Esmail (2005). Managing Risk: A Taxonomy of Error in Health Policy. Health Care Analysis 13 (4):337-346.score: 21.0
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  20. Jean-Pierre Changeux, Stanislas Dehaene, Lionel Naccache, Jérôme Sackura & Claire Sergenta (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.score: 18.0
    Amidst the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which are specifically associated with conscious perception, and which merely reflect non-conscious processing? Several recent neuroimaging studies have contrasted conscious and non-conscious visual processing, but their results appear inconsistent. Some support a correlation of conscious perception with early occipital events, others with late parieto-frontal activity. Here we attempt to make sense of those dissenting results. On the basis of a minimal neuro-computational model, the global neuronal workspace hypothesis, we propose a (...)
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  21. Daniel Groll (2011). What Health Care Providers Know: A Taxonomy of Clinical Disagreements. Hastings Center Report 41 (5):27-36.score: 18.0
    When, if ever, can healthcare provider's lay claim to knowing what is best for their patients? In this paper, I offer a taxonomy of clinical disagreements. The taxonomy, I argue, reveals that healthcare providers often can lay claim to knowing what is best for their patients, but that oftentimes, they cannot do so *as* healthcare providers.
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  22. Richard Heersmink (2013). A Taxonomy of Cognitive Artifacts: Function, Information, and Categories. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):1-17.score: 18.0
    The goal of this paper is to develop a systematic taxonomy of cognitive artifacts, i.e., human-made, physical objects that functionally contribute to performing a cognitive task. First, I identify the target domain by conceptualizing the category of cognitive artifacts as a functional kind: a kind of artifact that is defined purely by its function. Next, on the basis of their informational properties, I develop a set of related subcategories in which cognitive artifacts with similar properties can be grouped. In (...)
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  23. Kristin Mickelson, The Explanation-Based Taxonomy of Free-Will Views [Temporarily Unavailable].score: 18.0
    The standard definitions of terms such as ‘incompatibilism’ and ‘compatibilism’ are problematic because these definitions do not capture the robust metaphysical and explanatory commitments of the historical views associated with these terms. As a result of equivocation on such terms is commonplace and the dialectic of the free-will debate has been obscured. In this essay, I defend a new and more exhaustive taxonomy of free-will views, the “Explanation-based Taxonomy.” This new taxonomy avoids the problems of its predecessors, (...)
     
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  24. Nick Haslam (2002). Kinds of Kinds: A Conceptual Taxonomy of Psychiatric Categories. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):203-217.score: 18.0
    A pluralistic view of psychiatric classification is defended, according to which psychiatric categories take a variety of structural forms. An ordered taxonomy of these forms—non-kinds, practical kinds, fuzzy kinds, discrete kinds, and natural kinds—is presented and exemplified. It is argued that psychiatric categories cannot all be understood as pragmatically grounded, and at least some reflect naturally occurring discontinuities without thereby representing natural kinds. Even if essentialist accounts of mental disorders are generally mistaken, they are not implied whenever a psychiatric (...)
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  25. Sean Mcaleer (2007). An Aristotelian Account of Virtue Ethics: An Essay in Moral Taxonomy. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (2):208–225.score: 18.0
    I argue that a virtue ethics takes virtue to be more basic than rightness and at least as basic as goodness. My account is Aristotelian because it avoids the excessive inclusivity of Martha Nussbaum's account and the deficient inclusivity of Gary Watson's account. I defend the account against the objection that Aristotle does not have a virtue ethics by its lights, and conclude with some remarks on moral taxonomy.
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  26. William Goodwin (2011). Structure, Function, and Protein Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):533-545.score: 18.0
    This paper considers two recent arguments that structure should not be regarded as the fundamental individuating property of proteins. By clarifying both what it might mean for certain properties to play a fundamental role in a classification scheme and the extent to which structure plays such a role in protein classification, I argue that both arguments are unsound. Because of its robustness, its importance in laboratory practice, and its explanatory centrality, primary structure should be regarded as the fundamental distinguishing characteristic (...)
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  27. C. Maria Keet & Alessandro Artale (2008). Representing and Reasoning Over a Taxonomy of Part-Whole Relations. Applied Ontology 3 (1-2):91-110.score: 18.0
    Many types of part-whole relations have been proposed in the literature to aid the conceptual modeller to choose the most appropriate type, but many of those relations lack a formal specification to give clear and unambiguous semantics to them. To remedy this, a formal taxonomy of types of mereological and meronymic part-whole relations is presented that distinguishes between transitive and intransitive relations and the kind of entity types that are related. The demand to use it effectively brings afore new (...)
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  28. Mary Pickard Winsor (1995). The English Debate on Taxonomy and Phylogeny, 1937-1940. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (2):227 - 252.score: 18.0
    Between 1937 and 1940 the Taxonomic Principles Committee of the newly-founded Association for the Study of Systematics in Relation to General Biology (later the Systematics Association) attempted to define the relationship between evolution and taxonomy. The people who took part in the discussion were W.T. Calman, C.R.P. Diver, J.S.L. Gilmour, J.S. Huxley, W.D. Lang, J.R. Norman, R. Melville, O.W. Richards, M.A. Smith, T.A. Sprague, H. Hamshaw Thomas, W.B. Turrill, B.P. Uvarov, A.F. Watkins, E.I. White, and A.J. Wilmott. Most of (...)
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  29. Marc Ereshefsky (2001). The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    The question of whether biologists should continue to use the Linnaean hierarchy is a hotly debated issue. Invented before the introduction of evolutionary theory, Linnaeus's system of classifying organisms is based on outdated theoretical assumptions, and is thought to be unable to provide accurate biological classifications. Marc Ereshefsky argues that biologists should abandon the Linnaean system and adopt an alternative that is more in line with evolutionary theory. He traces the evolution of the Linnaean hierarchy from its introduction to the (...)
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  30. Luke Purshouse (2006). Neoptolemus's Soul and the Taxonomy of Ethical Characters in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (2):205 – 223.score: 18.0
    (2006). Neoptolemus's soul and the taxonomy of ethical characters in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics ∗. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 205-223.
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  31. Peter Harrison (2009). Linnaeus as a Second Adam? Taxonomy and the Religious Vocation. Zygon 44 (4):879-893.score: 18.0
    Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné (1707–1778) became known during his lifetime as a "second Adam" because of his taxonomic endeavors. The significance of this epithet was that in Genesis Adam was reported to have named the beasts—an episode that was usually interpreted to mean that Adam possessed a scientific knowledge of nature and a perfect taxonomy. Linnaeus's soubriquet exemplifies the way in which the Genesis narratives of creation were used in the early modern period to give religious legitimacy to (...)
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  32. Giuseppe Primiero (2014). A Taxonomy of Errors for Information Systems. Minds and Machines 24 (3):249-273.score: 18.0
    We provide a full characterization of computational error states for information systems. The class of errors considered is general enough to include human rational processes, logical reasoning, scientific progress and data processing in some functional programming languages. The aim is to reach a full taxonomy of error states by analysing the recovery and processing of data. We conclude by presenting machine-readable checking and resolve algorithms.
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  33. Cameron Shelley (2004). Analogy Counterarguments: A Taxonomy for Critical Thinking. [REVIEW] Argumentation 18 (2):223-238.score: 18.0
    The presentation of analogical arguments in the critical thinking literature fails to reflect cognitive research on analogy. Part of the problem is that these treatments of analogy do not address counterarguments, an important aspect of the analysis of analogical argumentation. In this paper, I present a taxonomy of four counterarguments, false analogy, misanalogy, disanalogy, and counteranalogy, analyzed along two dimensions, orientation and effect. The counterarguments are treated in the framework of the multiconstraint theory of analogy (Holyoak and Thagard, 1995). (...)
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  34. Gregory Cooper (1998). Generalizations in Ecology: A Philosophical Taxonomy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):555-586.score: 18.0
    There has been a significant amount of uncertainty and controversy over the prospects for general knowledge in ecology. Environmental decision makers have begun to despair of ecology's capacity to provide anything more than case by case guidance for the shaping of environmental policy. Ecologists themselves have become suspicious of the pursuit of the kind of genuine nomothetic knowledge that appears to be the hallmark of other scientific domains. Finally, philosophers of biology have contributed to this retreat from generality by suggesting (...)
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  35. Cheryl P. Andam, David Williams & J. Peter Gogarten (2010). Natural Taxonomy in Light of Horizontal Gene Transfer. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):589-602.score: 18.0
    We discuss the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) on phylogenetic reconstruction and taxonomy. We review the power of HGT as a creative force in assembling new metabolic pathways, and we discuss the impact that HGT has on phylogenetic reconstruction. On one hand, shared derived characters are created through transferred genes that persist in the recipient lineage, either because they were adaptive in the recipient lineage or because they resulted in a functional replacement. On the other hand, taxonomic patterns (...)
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  36. Justin E. H. Smith (2009). “The Unity of the Generative Power”: Modern Taxonomy and the Problem of Animal Generation. Perspectives on Science 17 (1):pp. 78-104.score: 18.0
    Much recent scholarly treatment of the theoretical and practical underpinnings of biological taxonomy from the 16 th to the 18 th centuries has failed to adequately consider the importance of the mode of generation of some living entity in the determination of its species membership, as well as in the determination of the ontological profile of the species itself. In this article, I show how a unique set of considerations was brought to bear in the classification of creatures whose (...)
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  37. M. Francis Reeves (1990). An Application of Bloom's Taxonomy to the Teaching of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (7):609 - 616.score: 18.0
    Benjamin S. Bloom and a large committee of educators did extensive research to develop a taxonomy of global educational goals and of ways to measure their achievement in the classroom. The result was a taxonomy of three domains: Cognitive, Affective, and Motor Skills. This paper examines the cognitive and affective domains and applies them to teaching business ethics. Each of the six levels of the cognitive domain is explained. A six-step case method model is used to illustrate how (...)
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  38. C. Dutilh Novaes (2008). A Comparative Taxonomy of Medieval and Modern Approaches to Liar Sentences. History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (3):227-261.score: 18.0
    Two periods in the history of logic and philosophy are characterized notably by vivid interest in self-referential paradoxical sentences in general, and Liar sentences in particular: the later medieval period (roughly from the 12th to the 15th century) and the last 100 years. In this paper, I undertake a comparative taxonomy of these two traditions. I outline and discuss eight main approaches to Liar sentences in the medieval tradition, and compare them to the most influential modern approaches to such (...)
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  39. Kasper Raus, Farah Focquaert, Maartje Schermer, Jona Specker & Sigrid Sterckx (forthcoming). On Defining Moral Enhancement: A Clarificatory Taxonomy. Neuroethics:1-11.score: 18.0
    Recently there has been some discussion concerning a particular type of enhancement, namely ‘moral enhancement’. However, there is no consensus on what precisely constitutes moral enhancement, and as a result the concept is used and defined in a wide variety of ways. In this article, we develop a clarificatory taxonomy of these definitions and we identify the criteria that are used to delineate the concept. We think that the current definitions can be distinguished from each other by the criteria (...)
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  40. Richard Combes (2006). A Taxonomy of Technics. International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):5-24.score: 18.0
    Even as philosophers increasingly apply their analytical acumen to other subjects of intellectual study, technology is one area relegated to the sidelines. To help dispel such prejudice, this exercise in applied ontology explains why technology invites critical examination, enumerates the generic needs and perceived wants that it fulfills, and then supplies a taxonomy of technological devices individuated in terms of the functional roles that their designers or consumers intend for them. In light of the classificatory scheme developed, I conclude (...)
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  41. Michael W. Spratling (2004). Local Versus Distributed: A Poor Taxonomy of Neural Coding Strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):700-702.score: 18.0
    Page is to be congratulated for challenging some misconceptions about neural representation. However, his target article, and the commentaries to it, highlight that the terms “local” and “distributed” are open to misinterpretation. These terms provide a poor description of neural coding strategies and a better taxonomy might resolve some of the issues.
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  42. Michael Fowler (2013). The Taxonomy of a Japanese Stroll Garden: An Ontological Investigation Using Formal Concept Analysis. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 23 (1):43-59.score: 18.0
    This paper introduces current acoustic theories relating to the phenomenology of sound as a framework for interrogating concepts relating to the ecologies of acoustic and landscape phenomena in a Japanese stroll garden. By applying the technique of Formal Concept Analysis, a partially ordered lattice of garden objects and attributes is visualized as a means to investigate the relationship between elements of the taxonomy.
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  43. Mae-Wan Ho & Peter T. Saunders (1993). Rational Taxonomy and the Natural System. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (4).score: 18.0
    Since Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, the idea of descent with modification came to dominate systematics, and so the study of morphology became subgugated to the reconstruction of phylogenies. Reinstating the organism in the theory of evolution (Ho & Saunders, 1979; Webster & Goodwin, 1982) leads to a project inrational taxonomy (Ho, 1986, 1988a), which attempts to classify biological forms on the basis of transformations on a given dynamical structure.Does rational taxonomy correspond to thenatural system that (...)
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  44. C. Maria Keet, A Taxonomy of Types of Granularity.score: 18.0
    Multiple different understandings and uses exist of what granularity is and how to implement it, where the former influences success of the latter with regards to storing granular data and using granularity for reasoning over the data or information. We propose a taxonomy of types of granularity and discuss for each leaf type how the entities or instances relate within its granular level. Such unambiguous distinctions can guide a conceptual modeler to better distinguish between the types of granularity and (...)
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  45. Claudio Calosi & Vincenzo Fano (forthcoming). A New Taxonomy of Persisting (Relativistic) Objects. Topoi:1-12.score: 18.0
    The paper presents a thorough exploration of the problem of persistence in a relativistic context. Using formal methods such as mereology, formal theories of location and the so called intrinsic formulation of special relativity we provide a new, more rigorous and more comprehensive taxonomy of persisting entities. This new taxonomy differs significantly from the ones that are present in the recent literature.
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  46. J. Atlas (1997). Negative Adverbials, Prototypical Negation and the De Morgan Taxonomy. Journal of Semantics 14 (4):349-367.score: 18.0
    Gamut (1991) and Atlas (1991, 1993, 1996b) showed that the Generalized Quantifier 1only Proper Name1 licenses Negative Polarity Items but fails to be downwards monotonic in Barwise & Cooper's (1981) sense. In Atlas (1996a, in press) I examined Zwarts's (1996, 1998) De Morgan taxonomy for negative Noun Phrases. Two of the four De Morgan entailments used by Zwarts to characterize the negation of negative Noun Phrases express downward monotonicity of the Noun Phrase Q, viz. Q(For G) ⊩ QF& QG, (...)
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  47. Maria Cimitile (2008). The Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Feminist Philosophy. Teaching Philosophy 31 (4):297-310.score: 18.0
    Overcoming our disciplinary aversion to assessment mechanisms allows more possibilities for students to achieve fundamental philosophical skills. My essay discusses the use of Bloom’s taxonomy in a Feminist Philosophy course with detailed examples that demonstrate its efficacy as a learning and assessment tool that is particularly suited to philosophy, as well as how critical philosophy in general, and feminist philosophy in particular, is an ideal subject to help students gain critical thinking skills.
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  48. Brigitte Cambon de Lavalette, Charles Tijus, Christine Leproux & Olivier Bauer (2005). Taxonomy Based Models for Reasoning: Making Inferences From Electronic Road Sign Information. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 10 (1):25-45.score: 18.0
    Taxonomy Based modeling was applied to describe drivers’ mental models of variable message signs (VMS’s) displayed on expressways. Progress in road telematics has made it possible to introduce variable message signs (VMS’s). Sensors embedded in the carriageway every 500m record certain variables (speed, flow rate, etc.) that are transformed in real time into “driving times” to a given destination if road conditions do not change. VMS systems are auto-regulative Man-Machine (AMMI) systems which incorporate a model of the user: if (...)
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  49. Joel B. Hagen (1984). Experimentalists and Naturalists in Twentieth-Century Botany: Experimental Taxonomy, 1920-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):249 - 270.score: 18.0
    Experimental taxonomy was a diverse area of research, and botanists who helped develop it were motivated by a variety of concerns. While experimental taxonomy was never totally a taxonomic enterprise, improvement in classification was certainly one major motivation behind the research. Hall's and Clements' belief that experimental methods added more objectivity to classification was almost universally accepted by experimental taxonomists. Such methods did add a new dimension to taxonomy — a dimension that field and herbarium studies, however (...)
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  50. Alan G. Gross (1988). Philosophy Versus Science: The Species Debate and the Practice of Taxonomy. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:223 - 230.score: 18.0
    A reading of a sample of taxonomical papers leads to the conclusion that new species identification is both taxonomically plausible and philosophically incoherent. As a result, taxonomy becomes a science that apparently violates a necessary condition of its rationality. It is this apparent violation that is the focus of the philosophical debate, a debate whose goal for taxonomy is theoretical coherence at a global level. In this paper, I assess the appropriateness of this goal.
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