Search results for 'taxonomy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. on A. Verb TaxOnomy & Ricardo A. Gacitúa (2001). Identificacion de Requisitos: Un Enfoque Basado En Taxonomia Verbal. Theoria 10:67-78.
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  2.  3
    A. Taxonomy & Licia Carlson (2010). The Expert or Gatekeeper In His History of the Modern Prison, Michel Foucault Writes:"The Penitentiary Technique and the Delinquent Are in a Sense Twin Brothers.... They Appeared Together, the One Extending From the Other, as a Technological Ensemble That Forms and Fragments the Object to Which It". [REVIEW] In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell 315.
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  3.  16
    P. D. Magnus (2015). John Stuart Mill on Taxonomy and Natural Kinds. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (2):269-280.
    The accepted narrative treats John Stuart Mill’s Kinds as the historical prototype for our natural kinds, but Mill actually employs two separate notions: Kinds and natural groups. Considering these, along with the accounts of Mill’s nineteenth-century interlocutors, forces us to recognize two distinct questions. First, what marks a natural kind as worthy of inclusion in taxonomy? Second, what exists in the world that makes a category meet that criterion? Mill’s two notions offer separate answers to the two questions: natural (...)
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  4.  41
    David N. Stamos (2005). Pre-Darwinian Taxonomy and Essentialism – a Reply to Mary Winsor. Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):79-96.
    Mary Winsor (2003) argues against the received view that pre-Darwinian taxonomy was characterized mainly by essentialism. She argues, instead, that the methods of pre-Darwinian taxonomists, in spite of whatever their beliefs, were that of clusterists, so that the received view, propagated mainly by certain modern biologists and philosophers of biology, should at last be put to rest as a myth. I argue that shes right when it comes to higher taxa, but wrong when it comes the most important category (...)
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  5.  22
    Sally Bean (2011). Navigating the Murky Intersection Between Clinical and Organizational Ethics: A Hybrid Case Taxonomy. Bioethics 25 (6):320-325.
    Ethical challenges that arise within healthcare delivery institutions are currently categorized as either clinical or organizational, based on the type of issue. Despite this common binary issue-based methodology, empirical study and increasing academic dialogue indicate that a clear line cannot easily be drawn between organizational and clinical ethics. Disagreement around end-of-life treatments, for example, often spawn value differences amongst parties at both organizational and clinical levels and requires a resolution to address both the case at hand and large-scale underlying system-level (...)
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  6. Xinli Wang (2002). Taxonomy, Truth-Value Gaps and Incommensurability: A Reconstruction of Kuhn's Taxonomic Interpretation of Incommensurability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (3):465-485.
    Kuhn's alleged taxonomic interpretation of incommensurability is grounded on an ill defined notion of untranslatability and is hence radically incomplete. To supplement it, I reconstruct Kuhn's taxonomic interpretation on the basis of a logical-semantic theory of taxonomy, a semantic theory of truth-value, and a truth-value conditional theory of cross-language communication. According to the reconstruction, two scientific languages are incommensurable when core sentences of one language, which have truth values when considered within its own context, lack truth values when considered (...)
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  7.  96
    Beckett Sterner (2014). Well-Structured Biology: Numerical Taxonomy's Epistemic Vision for Systematics. In Andrew Hamilton (ed.), The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics. University of California Press 213-244.
    What does it look like when a group of scientists set out to re-envision an entire field of biology in symbolic and formal terms? I analyze the founding and articulation of Numerical Taxonomy between 1950 and 1970, the period when it set out a radical new approach to classification and founded a tradition of mathematics in systematic biology. I argue that introducing mathematics in a comprehensive way also requires re-organizing the daily work of scientists in the field. Numerical taxonomists (...)
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  8.  21
    P. D. Magnus (forthcoming). Taxonomy, Ontology, and Natural Kinds. Synthese:1-13.
    When we ask what natural kinds are, there are two different things we might have in mind. The first, which I’ll call the taxonomy question, is what distinguishes a category which is a natural kind from an arbitrary class. The second, which I’ll call the ontology question, is what manner of stuff there is that realizes the category. Many philosophers have systematically conflated the two questions. The confusion is exhibited both by essentialists and by philosophers who pose their accounts (...)
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    Mary Pickard Winsor (2000). Species, Demes, and the Omega Taxonomy: Gilmour and the Newsystematics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):349-388.
    The word ``deme'' was coined by the botanists J.S.L. Gilmour and J.W.Gregor in 1939, following the pattern of J.S. Huxley's ``cline''. Its purposewas not only to rationalize the plethora of terms describing chromosomaland genetic variation, but also to reduce hostility between traditionaltaxonomists and researchers on evolution, who sometimes scorned eachother's understanding of species. A multi-layered system of compoundterms based on deme was published by Gilmour and J. Heslop-Harrison in1954 but not widely used. Deme was adopted with a modified meaning byzoologists (...)
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  10.  10
    Patrick Clipsham (2015). Developing a Post-Prior Taxonomy of Ethical Sentences. Philosophia 43 (3):801-820.
    The main guiding assumption of this paper is that there is need for a taxonomy of ethical sentences that does not overgenerate, yet can make useful contributions to debates about certain controversial sentences . After surveying the recent literature and concluding that no extant taxonomy that satisfies both of these conditions is available to us, I propose and explain a novel taxonomy which does satisfy them. I then defend my proposal from five potential objections.
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  11.  30
    J. Jonkisz (2012). Consciousness: A Four-Fold Taxonomy. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (11-12):55-82.
    This paper argues that the many and various conceptions of consciousness propounded by cognitive scientists and philosophers can all be understood as constituted with reference to four fundamental sorts of criterion: epistemic (concerned with kinds of consciousness), semantic (dealing with orders of consciousness), physiological (reflecting states of consciousness), and pragmatic (seeking to capture types of consciousness). The resulting four-fold taxonomy, intended to be exhaustive, suggests that all of the distinct varieties of consciousness currently encountered in cognitive neuroscience, the philosophy (...)
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  12.  47
    Xiang Chen (2001). Perceptual Symbols and Taxonomy Comparison. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S200-S212.
    Many recent cognitive studies reveal that human cognition is inherently perceptual, sharing systems with perception at both the conceptual and the neural levels. This paper introduces Barsalou's theory of perceptual symbols and explores its implications for philosophy of science. If perceptual symbols lie in the heart of conceptual processing, the process of attribute selection during concept representation, which is critical for defining similarity and thus for comparing taxonomies, can no longer be determined solely by background beliefs. The analogous nature of (...)
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  13.  25
    Mikael Härlin & Per Sundberg (1998). Taxonomy and Philosophy of Names. Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):233-244.
    Although naming biological clades is a major activity in taxonomy, little attention has been paid to what these names actually refer to. In philosophy, definite descriptions have long been considered equivalent to the meaning of names and biological taxonomy is a scientific application of these ideas. One problem with definite descriptions as the meanings of names is that the name will refer to whatever fits the description rather than the intended individual (clade). Recent proposals for explicit phylogenetic definitions (...)
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  14.  6
    James R. Jackson & William C. Kimler (1999). Taxonomy and the Personal Equation: The Historical Fates of Charles Girard and Louis Agassiz. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):509 - 555.
    The reputations of scientists among their contemporaries depend not only on accomplishment, but also on interactions affected by influence and personality. The historical lore of most fields of scientific endeavor preserve these reputations, often through the identification of founders, innovators, and prolific workers whose contributions are considered fundamental to progress in the field. Historians frequently rely on the historical lore of scientists to guide their studies of the development of ideas, exhibiting justifiable caution in reassessing reputations in the light of (...)
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  15. Stephen R. L. Clark (2012). The Ethics of Taxonomy: A Neo-Aristotelian Synthesis. In Evangelos D. Protopapadakis (ed.), Animal Ethics: Past and Present Perspectives. Logos Verlag
    How the 'Aristotelian' biological synthesis has been affected by modern accounts of biological evolution, and the relation of taxonomy to ethics.
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  16.  94
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy 30 (4):569-586.
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its central (...)
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  17. P. S. Kitcher (1985). Narrow Taxonomy and Wide Functionalism. Philosophy of Science 52 (March):78-97.
    Three recent, influential critiques (Stich 1978; Fodor 1981c; Block 1980) have argued that various tasks on the agenda for computational psychology put conflicting pressures on its theoretical constructs. Unless something is done, the inevitable result will be confusion or outright incoherence. Stich, Fodor, and Block present different versions of this worry and each proposes a different remedy. Stich wants the central notion of belief to be jettisoned if it cannot be shown to be sound. Fodor tries to reduce confusion in (...)
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  18.  19
    Paul Joyce, Ruth Boaden & Aneez Esmail (2005). Managing Risk: A Taxonomy of Error in Health Policy. Health Care Analysis 13 (4):337-346.
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    Bernard Walliser (1988). A Simplified Taxonomy of 2 X 2 Games. Theory and Decision 25 (2):163.
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    Paul M. Churchland (1993). Theory, Taxonomy, and Methodology: A Reply to Haldane's Understanding Folk. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67:313-19.
  21.  4
    Tsuen‐ho Hsu & Kuei‐Feng Chang (2007). The Taxonomy, Model and Message Strategies of Social Behavior. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):279-294.
    In an era of rising social awareness, both academics and practitioners have been concerned about the effectiveness of pro-social consumer influence strategies. The main assumption here is that for social marketing to succeed one must first understand the factors underlying pro-social consumer behavior. Firstly, drawing on two dimensions the authors first identify four types of social behavior. Next, the model describes social behavior as a result of preceding social behavior motivation and actual social behavior intention. Norms and economic evaluation have (...)
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  22. Jean-Pierre Changeux, Stanislas Dehaene, Lionel Naccache, Jérôme Sackura & Claire Sergenta (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.
    Amidst the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which are specifically associated with conscious perception, and which merely reflect non-conscious processing? Several recent neuroimaging studies have contrasted conscious and non-conscious visual processing, but their results appear inconsistent. Some support a correlation of conscious perception with early occipital events, others with late parieto-frontal activity. Here we attempt to make sense of those dissenting results. On the basis of a minimal neuro-computational model, the global neuronal workspace hypothesis, we propose a (...)
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  23.  22
    Kristie Miller (forthcoming). A Taxonomy of Views About Time in Buddhist and Western Philosophy. Philosophy East and West.
    We find the claim that time is not real in both western and eastern philosophical traditions. In what follows I will call the view that time does not exist temporal error theory. Temporal error theory was made famous in western analytic philosophy in the early 1900s by John McTaggart (1908) and, in much the same tradition, temporal error theory was subsequently defended by Gödel (1949). The idea that time is not real, however, stretches back much further than that. It is (...)
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  24. Richard Heersmink (2013). A Taxonomy of Cognitive Artifacts: Function, Information, and Categories. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):465-481.
    The goal of this paper is to develop a systematic taxonomy of cognitive artifacts, i.e., human-made, physical objects that functionally contribute to performing a cognitive task. First, I identify the target domain by conceptualizing the category of cognitive artifacts as a functional kind: a kind of artifact that is defined purely by its function. Next, on the basis of their informational properties, I develop a set of related subcategories in which cognitive artifacts with similar properties can be grouped. In (...)
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  25. Kristin Mickelson, The Explanation-Based Taxonomy of Free-Will Views [Temporarily Unavailable].
    The standard definitions of terms such as ‘incompatibilism’ and ‘compatibilism’ are problematic because these definitions do not capture the robust metaphysical and explanatory commitments of the historical views associated with these terms. As a result of equivocation on such terms is commonplace and the dialectic of the free-will debate has been obscured. In this essay, I defend a new and more exhaustive taxonomy of free-will views, the “Explanation-based Taxonomy.” This new taxonomy avoids the problems of its predecessors, (...)
     
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  26. Nick Haslam (2002). Kinds of Kinds: A Conceptual Taxonomy of Psychiatric Categories. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):203-217.
    A pluralistic view of psychiatric classification is defended, according to which psychiatric categories take a variety of structural forms. An ordered taxonomy of these forms—non-kinds, practical kinds, fuzzy kinds, discrete kinds, and natural kinds—is presented and exemplified. It is argued that psychiatric categories cannot all be understood as pragmatically grounded, and at least some reflect naturally occurring discontinuities without thereby representing natural kinds. Even if essentialist accounts of mental disorders are generally mistaken, they are not implied whenever a psychiatric (...)
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  27.  32
    Marc Ereshefsky (2000). The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Cambridge University Press.
    The question of whether biologists should continue to use the Linnaean hierarchy is a hotly debated issue. Invented before the introduction of evolutionary theory, Linnaeus's system of classifying organisms is based on outdated theoretical assumptions, and is thought to be unable to provide accurate biological classifications. Marc Ereshefsky argues that biologists should abandon the Linnaean system and adopt an alternative that is more in line with evolutionary theory. He traces the evolution of the Linnaean hierarchy from its introduction to the (...)
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  28.  17
    Michael L. Anderson (2015). Mining the Brain for a New Taxonomy of the Mind. Philosophy Compass 10 (1):68-77.
    In this paper, I summarize an emerging debate in the cognitive sciences over the right taxonomy for understanding cognition – the right theory of and vocabulary for describing the structure of the mind – and the proper role of neuroscientific evidence in specifying this taxonomy. In part because the discussion clearly entails a deep reconsideration of the supposed autonomy of psychology from neuroscience, this is a debate in which philosophers should be interested, with which they should be familiar, (...)
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  29. Cheryl P. Andam, David Williams & J. Peter Gogarten (2010). Natural Taxonomy in Light of Horizontal Gene Transfer. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):589-602.
    We discuss the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) on phylogenetic reconstruction and taxonomy. We review the power of HGT as a creative force in assembling new metabolic pathways, and we discuss the impact that HGT has on phylogenetic reconstruction. On one hand, shared derived characters are created through transferred genes that persist in the recipient lineage, either because they were adaptive in the recipient lineage or because they resulted in a functional replacement. On the other hand, taxonomic patterns (...)
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  30.  95
    Giuseppe Primiero (2014). A Taxonomy of Errors for Information Systems. Minds and Machines 24 (3):249-273.
    We provide a full characterization of computational error states for information systems. The class of errors considered is general enough to include human rational processes, logical reasoning, scientific progress and data processing in some functional programming languages. The aim is to reach a full taxonomy of error states by analysing the recovery and processing of data. We conclude by presenting machine-readable checking and resolve algorithms.
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  31. Daniel Groll (2011). What Health Care Providers Know: A Taxonomy of Clinical Disagreements. Hastings Center Report 41 (5):27-36.
    When, if ever, can healthcare provider's lay claim to knowing what is best for their patients? In this paper, I offer a taxonomy of clinical disagreements. The taxonomy, I argue, reveals that healthcare providers often can lay claim to knowing what is best for their patients, but that oftentimes, they cannot do so *as* healthcare providers.
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  32.  27
    Claudio Calosi & Vincenzo Fano (2015). A New Taxonomy of Persisting Objects. Topoi 34 (1):283-294.
    The paper presents a thorough exploration of the problem of persistence in a relativistic context. Using formal methods such as mereology, formal theories of location and the so called intrinsic formulation of special relativity we provide a new, more rigorous and more comprehensive taxonomy of persisting entities. This new taxonomy differs significantly from the ones that are present in the recent literature.
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  33. Stanislas Dehaene, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Lionel Naccache, Jérôme Sackur & Claire Sergent (2006). Conscious, Preconscious, and Subliminal Processing: A Testable Taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (5):204-211.
  34.  61
    C. M. Ashton, N. P. Wray, A. F. Jarman, J. M. Kolman, D. M. Wenner & B. A. Brody (2011). A Taxonomy of Multinational Ethical and Methodological Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):368-373.
    Background If trials of therapeutic interventions are to serve society's interests, they must be of high methodological quality and must satisfy moral commitments to human subjects. The authors set out to develop a clinical - trials compendium in which standards for the ethical treatment of human subjects are integrated with standards for research methods. Methods The authors rank-ordered the world's nations and chose the 31 with >700 active trials as of 24 July 2008. Governmental and other authoritative entities of the (...)
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  35.  59
    Mary Pickard Winsor (1995). The English Debate on Taxonomy and Phylogeny, 1937-1940. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (2):227 - 252.
    Between 1937 and 1940 the Taxonomic Principles Committee of the newly-founded Association for the Study of Systematics in Relation to General Biology (later the Systematics Association) attempted to define the relationship between evolution and taxonomy. The people who took part in the discussion were W.T. Calman, C.R.P. Diver, J.S.L. Gilmour, J.S. Huxley, W.D. Lang, J.R. Norman, R. Melville, O.W. Richards, M.A. Smith, T.A. Sprague, H. Hamshaw Thomas, W.B. Turrill, B.P. Uvarov, A.F. Watkins, E.I. White, and A.J. Wilmott. Most of (...)
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  36.  1
    Judith Tonhauser, David Beaver, Craige Roberts & Mandy Simons (2013). Toward a Taxonomy of Projective Content. Language 89 (1):66-109.
    Projective contents, which include presuppositional inferences and Potts's conventional implicatures, are contents that may project when a construction is embedded, as standardly identified by the FAMILY-OF-SENTENCES diagnostic. This article establishes distinctions among projective contents on the basis of a series of diagnostics, including a variant of the family-of-sentences diagnostic, that can be applied with linguistically untrained consultants in the field and the laboratory. These diagnostics are intended to serve as part of a toolkit for exploring projective contents across languages, thus (...)
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  37. C. Maria Keet & Alessandro Artale (2008). Representing and Reasoning Over a Taxonomy of Part-Whole Relations. Applied Ontology 3 (1-2):91-110.
    Many types of part-whole relations have been proposed in the literature to aid the conceptual modeller to choose the most appropriate type, but many of those relations lack a formal specification to give clear and unambiguous semantics to them. To remedy this, a formal taxonomy of types of mereological and meronymic part-whole relations is presented that distinguishes between transitive and intransitive relations and the kind of entity types that are related. The demand to use it effectively brings afore new (...)
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  38.  3
    Timothy Tambassi (forthcoming). A Geographical Taxonomy for Geo-Ontologies. Axiomathes:1-20.
    This article intends to provide an overview on the philosophical and geographical background of geo-ontologies and to propose a geographical classification of these ontologies, in response to their increasing diffusion within the contemporary debate. Accordingly, the first two paragraphs are devoted to offer a short introduction to the ontological turn in philosophy and to the development of the ontology of geography, that is that part of the ontology mainly focused on geographic entities and their boundaries, spatial representation, meretopological relations and (...)
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  39.  32
    Kasper Raus, Farah Focquaert, Maartje Schermer, Jona Specker & Sigrid Sterckx (2014). On Defining Moral Enhancement: A Clarificatory Taxonomy. Neuroethics 7 (3):263-273.
    Recently there has been some discussion concerning a particular type of enhancement, namely ‘ moral enhancement ’. However, there is no consensus on what precisely constitutes moral enhancement, and as a result the concept is used and defined in a wide variety of ways. In this article, we develop a clarificatory taxonomy of these definitions and we identify the criteria that are used to delineate the concept. We think that the current definitions can be distinguished from each other by (...)
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  40.  5
    Tessy A. Thomas & Laurence B. McCullough (2015). A Philosophical Taxonomy of Ethically Significant Moral Distress: Figure 1. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):102-120.
    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one’s moral knowledge about what (...)
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  41.  51
    Emanuele Serrelli & Francesca Micol Rossi, A Conceptual Taxonomy of Adaptation in Evolutionary Biology.
    The concept of adaptation is employed in many fields such as biology, psychology, cognitive sciences, robotics, social sciences, even literacy and art,1 and its meaning varies quite evidently according to the particular research context in which it is applied. We expect to find a particularly rich catalogue of meanings within evolutionary biology, where adaptation has held a particularly central role since Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859) throughout important epistemological shifts and scientific findings that enriched and diversified the concept. Accordingly, (...)
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  42.  8
    Patrick J. Connolly (forthcoming). The Idea of Power and Locke's Taxonomy of Ideas. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    Locke’s account of the idea of power is thought to be seriously problematic. Commentators allege (1) that the idea of power causes problems for Locke’s taxonomy of ideas, (2) that it is defined circularly, and (3) that contrary to Locke’s claims, it cannot be acquired in experience. This paper defends Locke’s account. Previous commentators have assumed that there is only one idea of power. But close attention to Locke’s text, combined with background features of Locke’s theory of ideas, supports (...)
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  43.  6
    Joel B. Hagen (1984). Experimentalists and Naturalists in Twentieth-Century Botany: Experimental Taxonomy, 1920-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):249 - 270.
    Experimental taxonomy was a diverse area of research, and botanists who helped develop it were motivated by a variety of concerns. While experimental taxonomy was never totally a taxonomic enterprise, improvement in classification was certainly one major motivation behind the research. Hall's and Clements' belief that experimental methods added more objectivity to classification was almost universally accepted by experimental taxonomists. Such methods did add a new dimension to taxonomy — a dimension that field and herbarium studies, however (...)
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  44.  6
    Carsten Herrmann-Pillath (2013). Performativity of Economic Systems: Approach and Implications for Taxonomy. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (2):139-163.
    The paper proposes to ground the taxonomy of economic systems on the identification of strongly performative institutions as distinctive features. I analyse performativity on the basis of the Aoki model of institutions, enriched by current approaches to performativity, which I combine with Searle's notion of a status function. Performativity is conceived as resulting from the conjunction of public representations (sign systems) and behavioural dispositions which channel strategic interactions among actors such that certain sets of institutions are reproduced recurrently. I (...)
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  45.  35
    Kelly D. Sorensen (2002). Kant's Taxonomy of the Emotions. Kantian Review 6 (1):109-128.
    If there is to be any progress in the debate about what sort of positive moral status Kant can give the emotions, we need a taxonomy of the terms Kant uses for these concepts. It used to be thought that Kant had little room for emotions in his ethics. In the past three decades, Marcia Baron, Paul Guyer, Barbara Herman, Nancy Sherman, Allen Wood and others have argued otherwise. Contrary to what a cursory reading of the Groundwork may indicate, (...)
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  46.  3
    Adam G. Pfleegor & Danny Roesenberg (2014). Deception in Sport: A New Taxonomy of Intra-Lusory Guiles. Philosophical Explorations 41 (2):209-231.
    Almost four decades ago, Kathleen Pearson examined deceptive practices in sport using a distinction between strategic and definitional deception. However, the complexity and dynamic nature of sport is not limited to this dual-categorization of deceptive acts and there are other features of deception in sport unaccounted for in Pearson's constructs. By employing Torres’s elucidation of the structure of skills and Suits's concept of the lusory-attitude, a more thorough taxonomy of in-contest sport deception will be presented. Despite the ubiquitous presence (...)
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  47.  3
    Jerome R. Wernow & Chris Gastmans (2010). A Review and Taxonomy of Argument-Based Ethics Literature Regarding Conscientious Objections to End-of-Life Procedures. Christian Bioethics 16 (3):274-295.
    Our study provides a review of argument-based scientific literature to address conscientious objections to end-of-life procedures. We also proposed a taxonomy based on this study that might facilitate clarification of this discussion at a basic level. The three clusters of our taxonomy include (1) nonconventional compatibilists that claim that conscientious objection against morally repugnant social conventions is compatible with professional obligation, (2) conventional compatibilists that suggest that conscientious objection against social convention is permissible under certain terms of compromise, (...)
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  48.  41
    William Goodwin (2011). Structure, Function, and Protein Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):533-545.
    This paper considers two recent arguments that structure should not be regarded as the fundamental individuating property of proteins. By clarifying both what it might mean for certain properties to play a fundamental role in a classification scheme and the extent to which structure plays such a role in protein classification, I argue that both arguments are unsound. Because of its robustness, its importance in laboratory practice, and its explanatory centrality, primary structure should be regarded as the fundamental distinguishing characteristic (...)
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  49.  12
    C. Dutilh Novaes (2008). A Comparative Taxonomy of Medieval and Modern Approaches to Liar Sentences. History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (3):227-261.
    Two periods in the history of logic and philosophy are characterized notably by vivid interest in self-referential paradoxical sentences in general, and Liar sentences in particular: the later medieval period (roughly from the 12th to the 15th century) and the last 100 years. In this paper, I undertake a comparative taxonomy of these two traditions. I outline and discuss eight main approaches to Liar sentences in the medieval tradition, and compare them to the most influential modern approaches to such (...)
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    M. Francis Reeves (1990). An Application of Bloom's Taxonomy to the Teaching of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (7):609 - 616.
    Benjamin S. Bloom and a large committee of educators did extensive research to develop a taxonomy of global educational goals and of ways to measure their achievement in the classroom. The result was a taxonomy of three domains: Cognitive, Affective, and Motor Skills. This paper examines the cognitive and affective domains and applies them to teaching business ethics. Each of the six levels of the cognitive domain is explained. A six-step case method model is used to illustrate how (...)
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