Search results for 'the Brain processingElements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. G. Northoff (2001). Brain-Paradox” and “Embeddment” – Do We Need a “Philosophy of the Brain”? Brain and Mind 2 (2):195-211.score: 230.0
    Present discussions in philosophy of mind focuson ontological and epistemic characteristics ofmind and on mind-brain relations. In contrast,ontological and epistemic characteristics ofthe brain have rarely been thematized. Rather,philosophy seems to rely upon an implicitdefinition of the brain as "neuronal object''and "object of recognition'': henceontologically and epistemically distinct fromthe mind, characterized as "mental subject'' and"subject of recognition''. This leads to the"brain-paradox''. This ontological and epistemicdissociation between brain and mind can beconsidered central for the problems of mind (...)
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  2. Béatrice Longuenesse (2012). &Quot;i" and the Brain. Psychological Research 2012 (76):220-28.score: 216.0
    Many philosophers as well as many biological psychologists think that recent experiments in neuropsychology have definitively discredited any notion of freedom of the will. I argue that the arguments mounted against the concept of freedom of the will in the name of natural causal determinism are valuable but not new, and that they leave intact a concept of freedom of the will that is compatible with causal determinism. After explaining this concept, I argue that it is interestingly related to our (...)
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  3. Cornelius Borck (2009). Through the Looking Glass: Past Futures of Brain Research. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (4):329-338.score: 196.0
    The neurosciences seem to thrive on the constantly postponed promise to herald a definitive understanding of the human mind. What are the dynamics of this promise and its postponement? The long and fascinating history of the neurosciences offers ample material for looking into the articulation of neuroscientific research and contemporary culture. New tools and research methods, often announced as breakthroughs, brought along new representations of brain activity. In addition, they shaped the way of conceptualizing the brain’s mode of (...)
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  4. [deleted]Ezequiel Di Paolo & Hanne De Jaegher (2012). The Interactive Brain Hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 192.0
    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and (...)
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  5. Georg Northoff (2001). "Brain-Paradox" and "Embeddment": Do We Need a "Philosophy of the Brain"? Brain and Mind 195 (2):195-211.score: 186.0
    Present discussions in philosophy of mind focuson ontological and epistemic characteristics ofmind and on mind-brain relations. In contrast,ontological and epistemic characteristics ofthe brain have rarely been thematized. Rather,philosophy seems to rely upon an implicitdefinition of the brain as "neuronal object''and "object of recognition'': henceontologically and epistemically distinct fromthe mind, characterized as "mental subject'' and"subject of recognition''. This leads to the"brain-paradox''. This ontological and epistemicdissociation between brain and mind can beconsidered central for the problems of mind (...)
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  6. Edmund T. Rolls (2000). Précis of the Brain and Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):177-191.score: 186.0
    The topics treated in The brain and emotion include the definition, nature, and functions of emotion (Ch. 3); the neural bases of emotion (Ch. 4); reward, punishment, and emotion in brain design (Ch. 10); a theory of consciousness and its application to understanding emotion and pleasure (Ch. 9); and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that emotions can be considered as states elicited by reinforcers (rewards and punishers). This approach helps with understanding the functions of (...)
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  7. Michael L. Anderson (2010). Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):245.score: 186.0
    An emerging class of theories concerning the functional structure of the brain takes the reuse of neural circuitry for various cognitive purposes to be a central organizational principle. According to these theories, it is quite common for neural circuits established for one purpose to be exapted (exploited, recycled, redeployed) during evolution or normal development, and be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Neural reuse theories thus differ from the usual understanding of the role of neural (...)
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  8. William P. Bechtel (2002). Decomposing the Brain: A Long Term Pursuit. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (1):229-242.score: 182.0
    This paper defends cognitive neuroscience’s project of developing mechanistic explan- ations of cognitive processes through decomposition and localization against objections raised by William Uttal in The New Phrenology. The key issue between Uttal and researchers pursuing cognitive neuroscience is that Uttal bets against the possibility of decomposing mental operations into component elementary operations which are localized in distinct brain regions. The paper argues that it is through advancing and revising what are likely to be overly simplistic and incorrect decompositions (...)
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  9. Arran Gare (2012). The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Western World. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 8 (1):412-449.score: 182.0
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  10. Gregory M. Nixon (2012). You Are Not Your Brain: Against 'Teaching to the Brain'. Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning 5 (15):69-83.score: 180.0
    Since educators are always looking for ways to improve their practice, and since empirical science is now accepted in our worldview as the final arbiter of truth, it is no surprise they have been lured toward cognitive neuroscience in hopes that discovering how the brain learns will provide a nutshell explanation for student learning in general. I argue that identifying the person with the brain is scientism (not science), that the brain is not the person, and that (...)
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  11. Lawrence H. Davis (2001). Functionalism, the Brain, and Personal Identity. Philosophical Studies 102 (3):259-79.score: 180.0
    One might expect functionalism to imply that personal identity is preserved through various operations on the brain, including transplantation. I argue that this is not clearly so even where the whole brain is transplanted. It is definitely not so in cases where only the cerebrum is transplanted, a conceivable kind of hemispherectomy, and even certain cases in which the brain is "gradually" replaced by an inorganic substitute. These results distinguish functionalism from other accounts taking what Eric T. (...)
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  12. Carl F. Craver (2007). Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ;.score: 180.0
    Carl Craver investigates what we are doing when we sue neuroscience to explain what's going on in the brain.
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  13. Jeffrey E. Foss (1992). Introduction to the Epistemology of the Brain: Indeterminacy, Micro-Specificity, Chaos, and Openness. Topoi 11 (1):45-57.score: 180.0
    Given that the mind is the brain, as materialists insist, those who would understand the mind must understand the brain. Assuming that arrays of neural firing frequencies are highly salient aspects of brain information processing (the vector functional account), four hurdles to an understanding of the brain are identified and inspected: indeterminacy, micro-specificity, chaos, and openness.
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  14. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves (2009). Phenomenological Architecture of a Mind and Operational Architectonics of the Brain: The Unified Metastable Continuum. In Robert Kozma & John Caulfield (eds.), Journal of New Mathematics and Natural Computing. Special Issue on Neurodynamic Correlates of Higher Cognition and Consciousness: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches - in Honor of Walter J Freeman's 80th Birthday. World Scientific. 221-244.score: 180.0
    In our contribution we will observe phenomenal architecture of a mind and operational architectonics of the brain and will show their intimate connectedness within a single integrated metastable continuum. The notion of operation of different complexity is the fundamental and central one in bridging the gap between brain and mind: it is precisely by means of this notion that it is possible to identify what at the same time belongs to the phenomenal conscious level and to the neurophysiological (...)
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  15. Rick Grush (2003). In Defense of Some "Cartesian" Assumption Concerning the Brain and its Operation. Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):53-92.score: 180.0
    I argue against a growing radical trend in current theoretical cognitive science that moves from the premises of embedded cognition, embodied cognition, dynamical systems theory and/or situated robotics to conclusions either to the effect that the mind is not in the brain or that cognition does not require representation, or both. I unearth the considerations at the foundation of this view: Haugeland's bandwidth-component argument to the effect that the brain is not a component in cognitive activity, and arguments (...)
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  16. Mario Beauregard (ed.) (2004). Consciousness, Emotional Self-Regulation and the Brain. John Benjamins.score: 180.0
  17. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2012). Mind as a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain. Physics of Life Reviews 9 (1):49-50.score: 180.0
    The target paper of Dr. Feinberg is a testimony to an admirable scholarship and deep thoughtfulness. This paper develops a general theoretical framework of nested hierarchy in the brain that allows production of mind with consciousness. The difference between non-nested and nested hierarchies is the following. In a non-nested hierarchy the entities at higher levels of the hierarchy are physically independent from the entities at lower levels and there is strong constraint of higher upon lower levels. In a nested (...)
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  18. Endel Tulving (2000). Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Pr.score: 180.0
  19. Iain Brassington (2012). What's Wrong with the Brain Drain (?). Developing World Bioethics 12 (3):113-120.score: 180.0
    One of the characteristics of the relationship between the developed and developing worlds is the ‘brain drain’– the phenomenon by which expertise moves towards richer countries, thereby condemning poorer countries to continued comparative and absolute poverty. It is tempting to see the phenomenon as a moral problem in its own right, such that there is a moral imperative to end it, that is separate from (and additional to) any moral imperative to relieve the burden of poverty. However, it is (...)
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  20. Gesa Lindemann (2009). From Experimental Interaction to the Brain as the Epistemic Object of Neurobiology. Human Studies 32 (2):153 - 181.score: 180.0
    This article argues that understanding everyday practices in neurobiological labs requires us to take into account a variety of different action positions: self-conscious social actors, technical artifacts, conscious organisms, and organisms being merely alive. In order to understand the interactions among such diverse entities, highly differentiated conceptual tools are required. Drawing on the theory of the German philosopher and sociologist Helmuth Plessner, the paper analyzes experimenters as self-conscious social persons who recognize monkeys as conscious organisms. Integrating Plessner’s ideas into the (...)
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  21. Frederic Gilbert, Lawrence Burns & Timothy Krahn (2011). The Inheritance, Power and Predicaments of the “Brain-Reading” Metaphor. Medicine Studies 2 (4):229-244.score: 180.0
    Purpose With the increasing sophistication of neuroimaging technologies in medicine, new language is being sought to make sense of the findings. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the brain-reading metaphor used to convey current medical or neurobiological findings imports unintended significations that do not necessarily reflect the genuine findings made by physicians and neuroscientists. Methods First, the paper surveys the ambiguities of the readability metaphor, drawing from the history of science and medicine, paying special attention to (...)
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  22. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2004). Making Complexity Simpler: Multivariability and Metastability in the Brain. International Journal of Neuroscience 114 (7):843 - 862.score: 180.0
    This article provides a retrospective, current and prospective overview on developments in brain research and neuroscience. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered, with emphasis in the concept of multivariability and metastability in the brain. In this new view on the human brain, the potential multivariability of the neuronal networks appears to be far from continuous in time, but confined by the dynamics of short-term local and global metastable brain states. The article closes by suggesting some (...)
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  23. Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp & Mario Beauregard (2004). The Volitional Influence of the Mind on the Brain, with Special Reference to Emotional Self-Regulation. In Mario Beauregard (ed.), Consciousness, Emotional Self-Regulation and the Brain. John Benjamins. 195-238.score: 180.0
  24. [deleted]Eberhard E. Fetz (2012). Artistic Explorations of the Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 180.0
    The symbiotic relationships between art and the brain begin with the obvious fact that brain mechanisms underlie the creation and appreciation of art. Conversely, many spectacular images of neural structures have remarkable aesthetic appeal. But beyond its fascinating forms, the many functions performed by brain mechanisms provide a profound subject for aesthetic exploration. Complex interactions in the tangled neural networks in our brain miraculously generate coherent behavior and cognition. Neuroscientists tackle these phenomena with specialized methodologies that (...)
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  25. Georg Northoff (2012). Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 180.0
    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, ‘Project of a Scientific Psychology’, in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions (...)
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  26. [deleted]D. Papo (2012). Why Should Cognitive Neuroscientists Study the Brain's Resting State? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:45-45.score: 180.0
    Why should cognitive neuroscientists study the brain's resting state?
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  27. Valerie Gray Hardcastle & C. Matthew Stewart (2005). Localization in the Brain and Other Illusions. In Andrew Brook (ed.), Cognition and the Brain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.score: 180.0
     
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  28. Simona Amenta Davide Crepaldi (2013). Cognitive Theory Development as We Know It: Specificity, Explanatory Power, and the Brain. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 180.0
    Cognitive theory development as we know it: specificity, explanatory power, and the brain.
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  29. [deleted]Joseph LeDoux (2011). Music and the Brain, Literally. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 180.0
  30. B. E. Morton (2012). Behavioral Laterality of the Brain: Support for the Binary Construct of Hemisity. Frontiers in Psychology 4:683-683.score: 180.0
    Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: Hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one’s first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person’s binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs) exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its (...)
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  31. Asim Roy (2012). A Theory of the Brain: Localist Representation is Used Widely in the Brain. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 180.0
    A theory of the brain: localist representation is used widely in the brain.
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  32. J. Z. Young (1987/1988). Philosophy And The Brain. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    Exploring the relevance of biological discovery to philosophical topics such as perception, freedom, determinism, and ethical values, J.Z. Young's provocative book illuminates the significant links between these philosophical concepts and recent developments in biology and the neurosciences. In clear-cut language, Young describes the brain and its functions, examining questions concerning physical makeup versus "real" self, the awareness of our moral sense, and how human consciousness differs from that of other animals. He approaches perception not as a passive process but (...)
     
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  33. J. Allan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Schott & Robert Stickgold (2003). Dreaming and the Brain: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Conscious States. In Edward F. Pace-Schott, Mark Solms, Mark Blagrove & Stevan Harnad (eds.), Sleep and Dreaming: Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Cambridge University Press. 793-842.score: 176.0
    Sleep researchers in different disciplines disagree about how fully dreaming can be explained in terms of brain physiology. Debate has focused on whether REM sleep dreaming is qualitatively different from nonREM (NREM) sleep and waking. A review of psychophysiological studies shows clear quantitative differences between REM and NREM mentation and between REM and waking mentation. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies also differentiate REM, NREM, and waking in features with phenomenological implications. Both evidence and theory suggest that there are isomorphisms (...)
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  34. Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Andrew A. Fingelkurts (2009). Is Our Brain Hardwired to Produce God, or is Our Brain Hardwired to Perceive God? A Systematic Review on the Role of the Brain in Mediating Religious Experience. Cognitive Processing 10 (4):293-326.score: 176.0
    To figure out whether the main empirical question “Is our brain hardwired to believe in and produce God, or is our brain hardwired to perceive and experience God?” is answered, this paper presents systematic critical review of the positions, arguments and controversies of each side of the neuroscientific-theological debate and puts forward an integral view where the human is seen as a psycho-somatic entity consisting of the multiple levels and dimensions of human existence (physical, biological, psychological, and spiritual (...)
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  35. Andrew Brook & Kathleen Akins (eds.) (2005). Cognition and the Brain: The Philosophy and Neuroscience Movement. Cambridge University Press.score: 176.0
    This volume provides an up to date and comprehensive overview of the philosophy and neuroscience movement, which applies the methods of neuroscience to traditional philosophical problems and uses philosophical methods to illuminate issues in neuroscience. At the heart of the movement is the conviction that basic questions about human cognition, many of which have been studied for millennia, can be answered only by a philosophically sophisticated grasp of neuroscience's insights into the processing of information by the human brain. Essays (...)
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  36. John C. Eccles (1990). Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the Self. New York: Routledge.score: 176.0
    Sir John Eccles, a distinguished scientist and Nobel Prize winner who has devoted his scientific life to the study of the mammalian brain, tells the story of...
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  37. Georg Northoff (2004). Philosophy of the Brain: The Brain Problem. John Benjamins.score: 176.0
    This novel approach plunges the reader into the depths of our own brain.
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  38. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2013). Dissipative Many-Body Model and a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain. Physics of Life Reviews 10:103-105.score: 176.0
    This paper briefly review a current trend in neuroscience aiming to combine neurophysiological and physical concepts in order to understand the emergence of spatio-temporal patterns within brain activity by which brain constructs knowledge from multiple streams of information. The authors further suggest that the meanings, which subjectively are experienced as thoughts or perceptions can best be described objectively as created and carried by large fields of neural activity within the operational architectonics of brain functioning.
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  39. Abninder Litt, Chris Eliasmith, Fred Kroon, Steven Weinstein & Paul Thagard (2006). Is the Brain a Quantum Computer? Cognitive Science 30 (3):593-603.score: 176.0
    We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic instantiation of quantum computation. Third, there is no psychological evidence that such mental phenomena as consciousness and mathematical thinking require explanation via quantum theory. We conclude that understanding brain function is unlikely to (...)
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  40. S. Quartz (2003). Innateness and the Brain. Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):13-40.score: 176.0
    The philosophical innateness debate has long relied onpsychological evidence. For a century, however, a parallel debate hastaken place within neuroscience. In this paper, I consider theimplications of this neuroscience debate for the philosophicalinnateness debate. By combining the tools of theoretical neurobiologyand learning theory, I introduce the ``problem of development'' that alladaptive systems must solve, and suggest how responses to this problemcan demarcate a number of innateness proposals. From this perspective, Isuggest that the majority of natural systems are in fact innate. (...)
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  41. John von Neumann (1958). The Computer And The Brain. New Haven: Yale University Press.score: 176.0
    This book represents the views of one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century on the analogies between computing machines and the living human brain.
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  42. [deleted]David J. Heeger Zoran Josipovic, Ilan Dinstein, Jochen Weber (2011). Influence of Meditation on Anti-Correlated Networks in the Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 176.0
    Human experience can be broadly divided into those that are external and related to interaction with the environment, and experiences that are internal and self-related. The cerebral cortex appears to be divided into two corresponding systems: an “extrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond more to external stimuli and tasks and an “intrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond less to external stimuli and tasks. These two broad brain systems seem to compete with each other, (...)
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  43. Karen Chan Barrett, Richard Ashley, Dana L. Strait & Nina Kraus (2013). Art and Science: How Musical Training Shapes the Brain. Frontiers in Psychology 4:713-713.score: 176.0
    What makes a musician? In this review, we discuss innate and experience-dependent factors that mold the musician brain in addition to presenting new data in children that indicate that some neural enhancements in musicians unfold with continued training over development. We begin by addressing effects of training on musical expertise, presenting neural, perceptual and cognitive evidence to support the claim that musicians are shaped by their musical training regimes. For example, many musician-advantages in the neural encoding of sound, auditory (...)
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  44. Bernard Korzeniewski (2010). From Neurons to Self-Consciousness: How the Brain Generates the Mind. Humanity Books.score: 176.0
    The main idea -- The functioning of a neuron -- Brain structure and function -- The general structure of the neural network -- Instincts, emotions, free will -- The nature of mental objects -- The rise and essence of (self-)consciousness -- Artificial intelligence -- Cognitive limitations of man.
     
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  45. Rosalind Cartwright (2000). How and Why the Brain Makes Dreams: A Report Card on Current Research on Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):914-916.score: 174.0
    The target articles in this volume address the three major questions about dreaming that have been most responsible for the delay in progress in this field over the past 25 years. These are: (1) Where in the brain is dreaming produced, given that dream reports can be elicited from sleep stages other than REM? (2) Do dream plots have any intrinsic meaning? (3) Does dreaming serve some specialized function? The answers offered here when added together support a new model (...)
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  46. Jean E. Burns (2010). What Does the Mind Do That the Brain Does Not? In R. L. Amoroso (ed.), The Complementarity of Mind and Body: Fulfilling the Dream of Descartes, Einstein and Eccles. Nova Science.score: 174.0
    Two forms of independent action by consciousness have been proposed by various researchers – free will and holistic processing. (Holistic processing contributes to the formation of behavior through the holistic use of brain programs and encoding.) The well-known experiment of Libet et al. (1983) implies that if free will exists, its action must consist of making a selection among alternatives presented by the brain. As discussed herein, this result implies that any physical changes mind can produce in the (...)
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  47. Emily Cross & Luca Ticini (2012). Neuroaesthetics and Beyond: New Horizons in Applying the Science of the Brain to the Art of Dance. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):5-16.score: 174.0
    Throughout history, dance has maintained a critical presence across all human cultures, defying barriers of class, race, and status. How dance has synergistically co-evolved with humans has fueled a rich debate on the function of art and the essence of aesthetic experience, engaging numerous artists, historians, philosophers, and scientists. While dance shares many features with other art forms, one attribute unique to dance is that it is most commonly expressed with the human body. Because of this, social scientists and neuroscientists (...)
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  48. George Lakoff (2008). The Role of the Brain in the Metaphorical Mathematical Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):658-659.score: 174.0
    Rips et al. appear to discuss, and then dismiss with counterexamples, the brain-based theory of mathematical cognition given in Lakoff and Nez (2000). Instead, they present another theory of their own that they correctly dismiss. Our theory is based on neural learning. Rips et al. misrepresent our theory as being directly about real-world experience and mappings directly from that experience.
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  49. Mirko Farina (forthcoming). Beyond the Brain - How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.score: 174.0
    Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds is an eye-opening and thought- provoking book that sets out a much-needed contribution to the study of the relationship between animals, cognition and the environment. The volume provides remarkable new insights into how to understand animal (including human) behavior, raises interesting questions about the role of environmental affordances in the emergence of complex cognitive processes and provides the reader with a refreshing break from the wearisome excess of (...)
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  50. Rick Grush & Patricia S. Churchland (1998). Computation and the Brain. In Robert A. Wilson & Frank F. Keil (eds.), Mit Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (Mitecs). Mit Press.score: 174.0
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a (...)
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