Search results for 'the standard meter' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Eric Loomis (1999). Necessity, the a Priori, and the Standard Meter. Synthese 121 (3):291-307.score: 540.0
    This article critically examines Saul Kripke's (1972) argument for the separability of necessary truths from truths known a priori, focusing on his criticism of the standard meter case presented by Wittgenstein (1968). It attempts to show that Kripke's argument is unworkable on any of several readings. Wittgenstein's own broadly conventionalist account of necessary truth is then considered in the light of the standard meter example.
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  2. Heather J. Gert (2002). The Standard Meter by Any Name is Still a Meter Long. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):50-68.score: 450.0
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  3. Norman Malcolm (1981). Kripke and the Standard Meter. Philosophical Investigations 4 (1):19-24.score: 450.0
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  4. Slobodan Perovic (2011). Missing Experimental Challenges to the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (1):32-42.score: 224.0
    The success of particle detection in high energy physics colliders critically depends on the criteria for selecting a small number of interactions from an overwhelming number that occur in the detector. It also depends on the selection of the exact data to be analyzed and the techniques of analysis. The introduction of automation into the detection process has traded the direct involvement of the physicist at each stage of selection and analysis for the efficient handling of vast amounts of data. (...)
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  5. Tomislav Ivezić (2003). The Proof That the Standard Transformations of E and B Are Not the Lorentz Transformations. Foundations of Physics 33 (9):1339-1347.score: 180.0
    In this paper it is exactly proved that the standard transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric and magnetic fields E and B are not relativistically correct transformations. Thence the 3D vectors E and B are not well-defined quantities in the 4D space-time and, contrary to the general belief, the usual Maxwell equations with the 3D E and B are not in agreement with the special relativity. The 4-vectors E a and B a , as well-defined 4D (...)
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  6. Jacqueline Taylor (2002). Hume on the Standard of Virtue. Journal of Ethics 6 (1):43-62.score: 180.0
    Among those sympathetic to Hume''smoral philosophy, a general consensus hasemerged that his first work on the topic,A Treatise of Human Nature, is his best. Hislater work, An Enquiry Concerning thePrinciples of Morals, is regarded as scaleddown in both scope and ambition. In contrastto this standard view, I argue that Hume''slater work offers a more sophisticated theoryof moral evaluation. I begin by reviewing theTreatise theory of moral evaluation tohighlight the reasons why commentators find socompelling Hume''s account of the corrections wemake (...)
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  7. Manuel Bächtold (2008). Five Formulations of the Quantum Measurement Problem in the Frame of the Standard Interpretation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (1):17 - 33.score: 180.0
    The aim of this paper is to give a systematic account of the so-called “measurement problem” in the frame of the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is argued that there is not one but five distinct formulations of this problem. Each of them depends on what is assumed to be a “satisfactory” description of the measurement process in the frame of the standard interpretation. Moreover, the paper points out that each of these formulations refers not to a (...)
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  8. Markus E. Schlosser (2010). Agency, Ownership, and the Standard Theory. In A. Buckareff, J. Aguilar & K. Frankish (eds.), New Waves in the Philosophy of Action. Palgrave Macmillan. 13-31.score: 174.0
    The causal theory of action has been the standard view in the philosophy of action and mind. In this chapter, I will present responses to two challenges to the theory. The first says, basically, that there is no positive argument in favour of the causal theory, as the only reason that supports it consists in the apparent lack of tenable alternatives. The second challenge says that the theory fails to capture the phenomenon of agency, as it reduces activity to (...)
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  9. R. Powell & S. Clarke (2012). Religion as an Evolutionary Byproduct: A Critique of the Standard Model. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):457-486.score: 174.0
    The dominant view in the cognitive science of religion (the ‘Standard Model’) is that religious belief and behaviour are not adaptive traits but rather incidental byproducts of the cognitive architecture of mind. Because evidence for the Standard Model is inconclusive, the case for it depends crucially on its alleged methodological superiority to selectionist alternatives. However, we show that the Standard Model has both methodological and evidential disadvantages when compared with selectionist alternatives. We also consider a pluralistic approach, (...)
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  10. Peter B. M. Vranas (2004). Hempel's Raven Paradox: A Lacuna in the Standard Bayesian Solution. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):545-560.score: 174.0
    According to Hempel's paradox, evidence (E) that an object is a nonblack nonraven confirms the hypothesis (H) that every raven is black. According to the standard Bayesian solution, E does confirm H but only to a minute degree. This solution relies on the almost never explicitly defended assumption that the probability of H should not be affected by evidence that an object is nonblack. I argue that this assumption is implausible, and I propose a way out for Bayesians. Introduction (...)
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  11. Matthew C. Halteman (2013). Knowing the Standard American Diet By Its Fruits: Is Unrestrained Omnivorism Spiritually Beneficial? Interpretation 67 (4):383-395.score: 168.0
    My aim in this article is to challenge the standard North American diet’s (SAD) default status in church and among North American Christians generally. First, I explain what is at stake in my guiding question—“Is unrestrained omnivorism as typified by SAD spiritually beneficial?”—and then I attempt to allay some common skeptical concerns about the suitability of food ethics as a topic for serious Christian discernment. Second, I develop a prima facie case that SAD is not spiritually beneficial, drawing on (...)
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  12. David Buller (1995). On the 'Standard' Argument for Fatalism. Philosophical Papers 24 (2):111-125.score: 168.0
    What has sometimes been called the "standard" argument for fatalism never achieved the critical popularity of Richard Taylor's (1962) infamous argument. But it has enjoyed far greater longevity. In De Fato Cicero (1960) tells us it was known in ancient Greece as the "idle argument", for it purports to show the futility of attempting to control one's fate and, hence, those persuaded by it could be led to a life of inaction and idleness. Even with such antiquated credentials, however, (...)
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  13. Ryan Wasserman (2002). The Standard Objection to the Standard Account. Philosophical Studies 111 (3):197 - 216.score: 168.0
    What is the relation between a clay statue andthe lump of clay from which it is made? According to the defender of the standardaccount, the statue and the lump are distinct,enduring objects that share the same spatiallocation whenever they both exist. Suchobjects also seem to share the samemicrophysical structure whenever they bothexist. This leads to the standard objection tothe standard account: if the statue and thelump of clay have the same microphysicalstructure whenever they both exist, how canthey differ (...)
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  14. Reed Winegar (2011). Good Sense, Art, and Morality in Hume's ''Of the Standard of Taste''. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (1):17-35.score: 168.0
    In his essay ‘‘Of the Standard of Taste,’’ Hume argues that artworks with morally flawed outlooks (including Homer's poems) are, to some extent, aesthetically flawed. While Hume's remarks regarding the relationship between art and morality have influenced contemporary aestheticians, Hume's own position has struck many people as incoherent. For Hume appears to entangle himself in two separate contradictions. First, Hume seems to claim both that true judges should not enter into vicious sentiments and that true judges should adopt the (...)
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  15. Edward MacKinnon (2008). The Standard Model as a Philosophical Challenge. Philosophy of Science 75 (4):447-457.score: 168.0
    There are two opposing traditions in contemporary quantum field theory (QFT). Mainstream Lagrangian QFT led to and supports the standard model of particle interactions. Algebraic QFT seeks to provide a rigorous consistent mathematical foundation for field theory, but cannot accommodate the local gauge interactions of the standard model. Interested philosophers face a choice. They can accept algebraic QFT on the grounds of mathematical consistency and general accord with the semantic conception of theory interpretation. This suggests a rejection of (...)
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  16. John Cramer, Breaking the Standard Model.score: 168.0
    So far this has been a lonely and unrewarding quest. New experiments occasionally come along which point to a breakdown of the Standard Model, but up to now they have invariably been proved wrong by more careful analysis or subsequent experiments with better data. A case in point is the energetic jet data from the CDF experiment at FermiLab which suggested possible substructure of the quark. (See my AV column "Inside the Quark" in the September-1996 issue of Analog.) The (...)
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  17. Lloyd P. Gerson (2006). Platonic Knowledge and the Standard Analysis. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 14 (4):455 – 474.score: 168.0
    In this paper I explore Plato's reasons for his rejection of the so-called standard analysis of knowledge as justified true belief. I argue that Plato held that knowledge is an infallible mental state in which (a) the knowable is present in the knower and (b) the knower is aware of this presence. Accordingly, knowledge (epistm) is non-propositional. Since there are no infallible belief states, the standard analysis, which assumes that knowledge is a type of belief, cannot be correct. (...)
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  18. Robert M. French (2000). Peeking Behind the Screen: The Unsuspected Power of the Standard Turing Test. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (3):331-340.score: 168.0
    No computer that had not experienced the world as we humans had could pass a rigorously administered standard Turing Test. We show that the use of “subcognitive” questions allows the standard Turing Test to indirectly probe the human subcognitive associative concept network built up over a lifetime of experience with the world. Not only can this probing reveal differences in cognitive abilities, but crucially, even differences in _physical aspects_ of the candidates can be detected. Consequently, it (...)
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  19. Doron Avital (2008). The Standard Metre in Paris. Philosophical Investigations 31 (4):318-339.score: 168.0
    In Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argues that we can neither say of the standard One Metre in Paris that it is a single metred length, nor that it is not. Kripke's reply to the puzzle is well known: the sentence expressing the assertion that the standard One Metre is one metre in length (at time t0) is a true, a priori and contingent sentence. In this paper, I would like to show the nature of the intuition that runs behind (...)
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  20. Michelle Mason (2001). Moral Prejudice and Aesthetic Deformity: Rereading Hume's "of the Standard of Taste&Quot;. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (1):59-71.score: 168.0
    Despite appeals to Hume in debates over moralism in art criticism, we lack an adequate account of Hume’s moralist aesthetics, as presented in “Of the Standard of Taste.” I illuminate that aesthetics by pursuing a problem, the moral prejudice dilemma, that arises from a tension between the “freedom from prejudice” Hume requires of aesthetic judges and what he says about the relevance of moral considerations to art evaluation. I disarm the dilemma by investigating the taxonomy of prejudices by which (...)
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  21. Mark Greenberg (2011). The Standard Picture and its Discontents. In Leslie Green & Brian Leiter (eds.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press.score: 168.0
    In this paper, I argue that there is a picture of how law works that most legal theorists are implicitly committed to and take to be common ground. This Standard Picture (SP, for short) is generally unacknowledged and unargued for. SP leads to a characteristic set of concerns and problems and yields a distinctive way of thinking about how law is supposed to operate. I suggest that the issue of whether SP is correct is a fundamental one for the (...)
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  22. Nicholaos Jones (2009). General Relativity and the Standard Model: Why Evidence for One Does Not Disconfirm the Other. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 40 (2):124-132.score: 168.0
    General Relativity and the Standard Model often are touted as the most rigorously and extensively confirmed scientific hypotheses of all time. Nonetheless, these theories appear to have consequences that are inconsistent with evidence about phenomena for which, respectively, quantum effects and gravity matter. This paper suggests an explanation for why the theories are not disconfirmed by such evidence. The key to this explanation is an approach to scientific hypotheses that allows their actual content to differ from their apparent content. (...)
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  23. G. Cattaneo, J. Hamhalter & P. Pták (2000). On the de Morgan Property of the Standard Brouwer–Zadeh Poset. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1801-1805.score: 168.0
    The standard Brouwer–Zadeh poset Σ(H) is the poset of all effect operators on a Hilbert space H, naturally equipped with two types of orthocomplementation. In developing the theory, the question occured if (when) Σ(H) fulfils the de Morgan property with respect to both orthocomplementation operations. In Ref.3 the authors proved that it is the case provided dimH<∞, and they conjectured that if dimH=∞, then the answer is in the negative. In this note, we first give a somewhat simpler proof (...)
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  24. T. J. López (2012). Trichotomizing the Standard Twofold Model of Thomistic Eudaimonism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):23-46.score: 168.0
    Aquinas’s eudaimonism is normally interpreted as twofold in the sense of it dividing into the imperfect, natural happiness of Aristotle and the perfect, supernatural happiness of Augustine. I argue in this work that Aquinas is logically committed to a third type of happiness that, in light of the standard view, rendershis eudaimonism threefold. The paper begins with an overview of the standard twofold model of Aquinas’s eudaimonism; it then turns to the model’s logicalproblem whose solution requires the postulation (...)
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  25. Thomas A. Cavanaugh (2001). The Instability of the Standard Justification for Physician-Assisted Suicide. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (1):103-109.score: 168.0
    Proponents commonly justify the legalization of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) in terms of a patient's wanting to die (autonomy) and the patient's having a medically established good reason for suicide. These are the common elements of the standard justification offered for the legalization of PAS. In what follows, I argue that these two conditions exist in significant tension with one another, operating according to distinct dynamics that render the justification for PAS an unstable basis for public policy. Moreover, no natural (...)
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  26. Pierre Le Morvan (2012). On Ignorance: A Vindication of the Standard View. Philosophia 40 (2):379-393.score: 168.0
    Rik Peels has once again forcefully argued that ignorance is not equivalent to the lack or absence of knowledge. In doing so, he endeavors to refute the Standard View of Ignorance according to which they are equivalent, and to advance what he calls the “New View” according to which ignorance is equivalent (merely) to the lack or absence of true belief. I defend the Standard View against his new attempted refutation.
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  27. Luca Bellotti (2007). Formalization, Syntax and the Standard Model of Arithmetic. Synthese 154 (2):199 - 229.score: 168.0
    I make an attempt at the description of the delicate role of the standard model of arithmetic for the syntax of formal systems. I try to assess whether the possible instability in the notion of finiteness deriving from the nonstandard interpretability of arithmetic affects the very notions of syntactic metatheory and of formal system. I maintain that the crucial point of the whole question lies in the evaluation of the phenomenon of formalization. The ideas of Skolem, Zermelo, Beth and (...)
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  28. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 168.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...) model together with an outline of its virtues and limitations are presented as an illustration of the mutual inspiration that has always taken place between foundational and experimental research in quantum physics. (shrink)
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  29. Pierre Le Morvan (2013). Why the Standard View of Ignorance Prevails. Philosophia 41 (1):239-256.score: 168.0
    Rik Peels has forcefully argued that, contrary to what is widely held, ignorance is not equivalent to the lack or absence of knowledge. In doing so, he has argued against the Standard View of Ignorance according to which they are equivalent, and argued for what he calls “the New View” according to which ignorance is equivalent (merely) to the lack or absence of true belief. In this paper, I defend the Standard View against Peels’s latest case for the (...)
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  30. Alessandra Stradella (2013). The Fiction of the Standard of Taste: David Hume on the Social Constitution of Beauty. Journal of Aesthetic Education 46 (4):32-47.score: 168.0
    Originally published as one of the Four Dissertations and then included in the 1758 edition of the Essays, the 1757 paper “Of the Standard of Taste” qualifies as David Hume’s official contribution to criticism.1 A few exceptions aside, no real or thorough effort has been taken by its critics to place the essay in the overall context of Hume’s science of human nature.2 Hume has certainly his share of responsibility in this: “Most of these essays were wrote with a (...)
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  31. Michael B. Papazian (2001). Chrysippus and the Destruction of Propositions: A Defence of the Standard Interpretation. History and Philosophy of Logic 22 (1):1-12.score: 168.0
    One of the most intriguing claims of Stoic logic is Chrysippus's denial of the modal principle that the impossible does not follow from the possible. Chrysippus's argument against this principle involves the idea that some propositions are ?destroyed? or ?perish?. According to the standard interpretation of Chrysippus's argument, propositions cease to exist when they are destroyed. Ide has presented an alternative interpretation according to which destroyed propositions persist after destruction and are false. I argue that Ide's alternative interpretation as (...)
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  32. Rieke van der Graaf & Johannes J. M. van Delden (2009). What is the Best Standard for the Standard of Care in Clinical Research? American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):35 – 43.score: 168.0
    During the past decennium, one of the main issues discussed in research ethics has been focused on the care that should be provided to the control group in a clinical trial. This discussion is also called the standard of care debate . Current international research ethics guidelines contain a wide variety of standards for the standard of care—including the provision of the highest attainable, the best available, the best current, a proven , and an established effective treatment. In (...)
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  33. Menachem Magidor, Saharon Shelah & Jonathan Stavi (1983). On the Standard Part of Nonstandard Models of Set Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (1):33-38.score: 168.0
    We characterize the ordinals α of uncountable cofinality such that α is the standard part of a nonstandard model of ZFC (or equivalently KP).
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  34. John Cramer, The "Real World" and The Standard Model.score: 168.0
    But the question raised repeatedly in the news media was: What difference does it make? Who cares if the Top mass is 180 GeV or 120 GeV? What possible effect could it have on the "real world" of Medicare and rock stars and ethnic cleansing and Superbowls and insider trading? In this column we will present some ideas from a colloquium given recently at the University of Washington by Dr. Robert N. Cahn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory which address these (...)
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  35. K. M. Norrie (1985). Medical Negligence: Who Sets the Standard? Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (3):135-137.score: 168.0
    'The law imposes the duty of care: but the standard of care is a matter of medical judgment'. So says Lord Scarman, outlining the hitherto accepted 'Bolam' standard, in his recent speech in the House of Lords decision of Sidaway v Bethlem Royal Hospital, reflecting earlier judicial dicta suggesting that it is for the medical profession rather than the courts to determine whether or not a medical practitioner has achieved the required standard of care (1). It is (...)
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  36. Demetris Tillyris (forthcoming). 'Learning How Not to Be Good': Machiavelli and the Standard Dirty Hands Thesis. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-14.score: 168.0
    ‘It is necessary to a Prince to learn how not to be good’. This quotation from Machiavelli’s The Prince has become the mantra of the standard dirty hands (DH) thesis. Despite its infamy, it features proudly in most conventional expositions of the dirty hands (DH) problem, including Michael Walzer’s original analysis. In this paper, I wish to cast a doubt as to whether the standard conception of the problem of DH—the recognition that, in certain inescapable and tragic circumstances (...)
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  37. Rob Clifton & Damian Pope, On the Nonlocality of the Quantum Channel in the Standard Teleportation Protocol.score: 168.0
    By exhibiting a violation of a novel form of the Bell-CHSH inequality, \.{Z}ukowski has recently established that the quantum correlations exploited in the standard perfect teleportation protocol cannot be recovered by any local hidden variables model. Allowing the quantum channel state in the protocol to be given by any density operator of two spin-1/2 particles, we show that a violation of a generalized form of \.{Z}ukowski's teleportation inequality can only occur if the channel state, considered by itself, violates a (...)
     
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  38. Randolph A. Miller (1990). Why the Standard View is Standard: People, Not Machines, Understand Patients' Problems. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (6):581-591.score: 168.0
    The ‘Standard View’ regarding computer-based medical diagnostic decision support programs is that, while such systems may be useful adjuncts to human decision-making, they cannot replace human diagnosticians. Mazoué (1990) disputes this viewpoint. He notes that human diagnosis is prone to a variety of errors, and claims that the processes of data collection for diagnosis and the intellectual task of making a diagnosis are independent. Mazoué believes that recent progress in computer-based diagnosis has been encouraging enough to consider the concept (...)
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  39. Michelle Ciurria (2014). The Standard of the Reasonable Person: An Objective, Intuitive Account That Treats People as Persons. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (1):21-25.score: 168.0
    In my paper on moral responsibility and mental health disabilities, I defended the use of the standard of the reasonable person (SRP), adapted from W.O. Holmes’ famous account of responsibility in The Common Law (1881). This theory is meant to be applicable to all cases of moral responsibility assessment, but it is particularly apt for ascribing moral responsibility in cases of mental illness on a realist basis. This is because it has three distinctive advantages over the alternatives, that is, (...)
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  40. M. R. Mercurio (2007). Parental Refusal of Transfusion on Religious Grounds: An Exception to the Standard Approach. Clinical Ethics 2 (3):146-148.score: 168.0
    The standard approach to parental refusal of transfusion on religious grounds in many newborn intensive care units and paediatric services is to override the refusal and provide the transfusion, usually with court intervention if time allows. This approach is justified by the child's right to effective treatment, seen to outweigh the parents' right to religious freedom and their right to decide for their child. That justification, however, may be limited by the predicted effectiveness of the transfusion (or any proposed (...)
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  41. Harvey Teff (1998). The Standard of Care in Medical Negligence—Moving on From Bolam? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 18 (3):473-484.score: 168.0
    Historically, the standard of care in medical negligence provided considerable scope for external evaluation of clinical judgment. Under the Bolam test, however, determining the standard was seen by the courts as essentially a matter for the medical profession, to be resolved by expert testimony with minimal court scrutiny. In recent years, courts have become more willing to probe such testimony and challenge the credibility of medical experts, although they would very rarely override clinical judgment. The House of Lords' (...)
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  42. Elizabeth Cashdan & Matthew Steele (2013). Pathogen Prevalence, Group Bias, and Collectivism in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Human Nature 24 (1):59-75.score: 168.0
    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found (...)
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  43. Sapfo Lignou (2011). The 'Standard of Care' Debate and Global Justice in Research. Research Ethics 7 (1):5-12.score: 168.0
    In this essay the ethical issues related to the ‘standard of care’ are discussed together with the implications for the treatment of the control group in transnational clinical trials. It is argued that the human right to health and the duty of justice formulate the moral basis on which this case should be debated.
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  44. Christian Witting (2001). National Health Service Rationing: Implications for the Standard of Care in Negligence. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 21 (3):443-471.score: 168.0
    In this paper it is argued that courts must, where appropriate, take into account the fact that National Health Service hospitals are under‐funded when they determine the standard of care owed by such hospitals and their professional staff to patients. Although this suggestion is inconsistent with the traditional view of the courts, its adoption would bring negligence cases into harmony with judicial review decisions. It would also cohere with a new understanding of accident causation within complex organisations, which suggests (...)
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  45. Daan Evers (2011). The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (1):131-147.score: 165.3
    The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to X, and 'A ought to X all things considered' entails that the balance of reasons favours X-ing. If the standards implicitly referred to are not those of the agent, then (...)
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  46. Neil Levy (2004). Evolutionary Psychology, Human Universals, and the Standard Social Science Model. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):459-72.score: 164.0
    Proponents of evolutionary psychology take the existence of humanuniversals to constitute decisive evidence in favor of their view. Ifthe same social norms are found in culture after culture, we have goodreason to believe that they are innate, they argue. In this paper Ipropose an alternative explanation for the existence of humanuniversals, which does not depend on them being the product of inbuiltpsychological adaptations. Following the work of Brian Skyrms, I suggestthat if a particular convention possesses even a very small advantageover (...)
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