Search results for 'theories of deduction' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paul C. Gilmore (1986). Natural Deduction Based Set Theories: A New Resolution of the Old Paradoxes. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (2):393-411.score: 471.0
    The comprehension principle of set theory asserts that a set can be formed from the objects satisfying any given property. The principle leads to immediate contradictions if it is formalized as an axiom scheme within classical first order logic. A resolution of the set paradoxes results if the principle is formalized instead as two rules of deduction in a natural deduction presentation of logic. This presentation of the comprehension principle for sets as semantic rules, instead of as a (...)
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  2. Wilfrid Hodges (1993). The Logical Content of Theories of Deduction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):353.score: 450.0
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  3. G. Randolph Mayes, Theories of Explanation. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 291.0
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  4. Allard Tamminga (1994). Logics of Rejection: Two Systems of Natural Deduction. Logique Et Analyse 146:169-208.score: 267.0
    This paper presents two systems of natural deduction for the rejection of non-tautologies of classical propositional logic. The first system is sound and complete with respect to the body of all non-tautologies, the second system is sound and complete with respect to the body of all contradictions. The second system is a subsystem of the first. Starting with Jan Łukasiewicz's work, we describe the historical development of theories of rejection for classical propositional logic. Subsequently, we present the two (...)
     
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  5. Javier Legris (2001). Deducción Y Conocimiento En Los Orígenes de la Teoría de la Demostración (Deduction and Knowledge in the Origins of Proof Theory). Theoria 16 (3):521-538.score: 262.7
    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo examinar la idea de deducción metamatemática en el programa de Hilbert, mostrando su dependencia de conceptos gnoseológicos, tales como el de conocimiento intuitivo. También se comparará esta concepcion de la deducción con la fundamentación intuicionista de la logica. Sostendré que esta deducción metamatemática lleva a una caracterización de la logica como una teoría de las deducciones formales en un sentido particular.This paper aims to examine the idea of metamathematical deduction in Hilbert’s program showing its (...)
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  6. Michel Bitbol, Some Steps Towards a Transcendental Deduction of Quantum Mechanics.score: 261.0
    The two major options on which the current debate on the interpretation of quantum mechanics relies, namely realism and empiricism, are far from being exhaustive. There is at least one more position available, which is metaphysically as agnostic as empiricism, but which shares with realism a committment to considering the structure of theories as highly significant. The latter position has been named transcendentalism after Kant. In this paper, a generalized version of Kant's method is used. This yields a reasoning (...)
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  7. J. A. Burgess & I. L. Humberstone (1987). Natural Deduction Rules for a Logic of Vagueness. Erkenntnis 27 (2):197-229.score: 261.0
    Extant semantic theories for languages containing vague expressions violate intuition by delivering the same verdict on two principles of classical propositional logic: the law of noncontradiction and the law of excluded middle. Supervaluational treatments render both valid; many-Valued treatments, Neither. The core of this paper presents a natural deduction system, Sound and complete with respect to a 'mixed' semantics which validates the law of noncontradiction but not the law of excluded middle.
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  8. Bruno G. Bara, Monica Bucciarelli & Vincenzo Lombardo (2001). Model Theory of Deduction: A Unified Computational Approach. Cognitive Science 25 (6):839-901.score: 257.3
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  9. Hugues Leblanc (1961). The Algebra of Logic and the Theory of Deduction. Journal of Philosophy 58 (19):553-558.score: 250.3
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  10. Bolesław Sobociński (1964). A Note on Prior's Systems in ``The Theory of Deduction''. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 5 (2):139-140.score: 250.3
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  11. W. A. Pogorzelski (1962). The Adequacy of the Theories of Deductive Systems with Respect to Sentential Calculi. Studia Logica 13 (1):129-131.score: 250.3
    The sentential calculiR, under discussion, are axiomatizable and implication is among their primitive terms. The modus ponens and the rule of substitution are their primitive rules. ByS r is denoted the set of sentences obtained from the formulae of the calculusR by substituting sentences of a given language for all variables. The variablesx, y, z ... represent the elements of the setS r , the variablesX, Y, Z ... represent the subsets ofS R . The formulacxy designates an implication withx (...)
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  12. William Lauinger (2013). The Missing-Desires Objection to Hybrid Theories of Well-Being. Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):270-295.score: 230.0
    Many philosophers have claimed that we might do well to adopt a hybrid theory of well-being: a theory that incorporates both an objective-value constraint and a pro-attitude constraint. Hybrid theories are attractive for two main reasons. First, unlike desire theories of well-being, hybrid theories need not worry about the problem of defective desires. This is so because, unlike desire theories, hybrid theories place an objective-value constraint on well-being. Second, unlike objectivist theories of well-being, hybrid (...)
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  13. Laurence Ashworth & Clinton Free (2006). Marketing Dataveillance and Digital Privacy: Using Theories of Justice to Understand Consumers' Online Privacy Concerns. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (2):107 - 123.score: 230.0
    Technology used in online marketing has advanced to a state where collection, enhancement and aggregation of information are instantaneous. This proliferation of customer information focused technology brings with it a host of issues surrounding customer privacy. This article makes two key contributions to the debate concerning digital privacy. First, we use theories of justice to help understand the way consumers conceive of, and react to, privacy concerns. Specifically, it is argued that an important component of consumers’ privacy concerns relates (...)
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  14. Günther Eder (2014). Remarks on Compositionality and Weak Axiomatic Theories of Truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):541-547.score: 230.0
    The paper draws attention to an important, but apparently neglected distinction relating to axiomatic theories of truth, viz. the distinction between weakly and strongly truth-compositional theories of truth. The paper argues that the distinction might be helpful in classifying weak axiomatic theories of truth and examines some of them with respect to it.
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  15. Yoav Shoham (2009). Logical Theories of Intention and the Database Perspective. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):633 - 647.score: 230.0
    While logical theories of information attitudes, such as knowledge, certainty and belief, have flourished in the past two decades, formalization of other facets of rational behavior have lagged behind significantly. One intriguing line of research concerns the concept of intention. I will discuss one approach to tackling the notion within a logical framework, based on a database perspective.
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  16. Kwang‐Kuo Hwang (2014). Culture‐Inclusive Theories of Self and Social Interaction: The Approach of Multiple Philosophical Paradigms. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (3).score: 229.3
    In view of the fact that culture-inclusive psychology has been eluded or relatively ignored by mainstream psychology, the movement of indigenous psychology is destined to develop a new model of man that incorporates both causal psychology and intentional psychology as suggested by Vygotsky (1927). Following the principle of cultural psychology: “one mind, many mentalities” (Shweder et al., 1998), the Mandala Model of Self (Hwang, 2011a,b) and Face and Favor Model (Hwang, 1987, 2012) were constructed to represent the universal mechanisms of (...)
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  17. A. Polikarov (1998). A Draft for Unifying Controversies in Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 29 (2):225-244.score: 225.0
    The basic (negative and positive) methodological maxims of three currents of philosophy of science (logical empiricism, falsificationism, and postpositivism) are formulated. Many of these maxims (stratagems) are controversial, e.g., the stance about the nonsense of metaphysics, and that of its indispensability. The restricted validity of these maxims allows for their unification. Within the framework of most of them there may be a relationship of (synchronic, or diachronic) subordination of the contradicting desiderata. In this vein ten stratagems are formulated.
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  18. Angela Mendelovici (2013). Reliable Misrepresentation and Tracking Theories of Mental Representation. Philosophical Studies 165 (2):421-443.score: 224.0
    It is a live possibility that certain of our experiences reliably misrepresent the world around us. I argue that tracking theories of mental representation (e.g. those of Dretske, Fodor, and Millikan) have difficulty allowing for this possibility, and that this is a major consideration against them.
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  19. Todd Buras (2009). An Argument Against Causal Theories of Mental Content. American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (2):117-129.score: 224.0
    Some mental states are about themselves. Nothing is a cause of itself. So some mental states are not about their causes; they are about things distinct from their causes. If this argument is sound, it spells trouble for causal theories of mental content—the precise sort of trouble depending on the precise sort of causal theory. This paper shows that the argument is sound (§§1-3), and then spells out the trouble (§4).
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  20. James Genone (2012). Theories of Reference and Experimental Philosophy. Philosophy Compass 7 (2):152-163.score: 224.0
    In recent years, experimental philosophers have questioned the reliance of philosophical arguments on intuitions elicited by thought experiments. These challenges seek to undermine the use of this methodology for a particular domain of theorizing, and in some cases to raise doubts about the viability of philosophical work in the domain in question. The topic of semantic reference has been an important area for discussion of these issues, one in which critics of the reliance on intuitions have made particularly strong claims (...)
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  21. Philipp Koralus (2013). Descriptions, Ambiguity, and Representationalist Theories of Interpretation. Philosophical Studies 162 (2):275-290.score: 224.0
    Abstract Theories of descriptions tend to involve commitments about the ambiguity of descriptions. For example, sentences containing descriptions are widely taken to be ambiguous between de re , de dicto , and intermediate interpretations and are sometimes thought to be ambiguous between the former and directly referential interpretations. I provide arguments to suggest that none of these interpretations are due to ambiguities (or indexicality). On the other hand, I argue that descriptions are ambiguous between the above family of interpretations (...)
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  22. Mirja Helena Hartimo (2007). Towards Completeness: Husserl on Theories of Manifolds 1890–1901. Synthese 156 (2):281 - 310.score: 224.0
    Husserl’s notion of definiteness, i.e., completeness is crucial to understanding Husserl’s view of logic, and consequently several related philosophical views, such as his argument against psychologism, his notion of ideality, and his view of formal ontology. Initially Husserl developed the notion of definiteness to clarify Hermann Hankel’s ‘principle of permanence’. One of the first attempts at formulating definiteness can be found in the Philosophy of Arithmetic, where definiteness serves the purpose of the modern notion of ‘soundness’ and leads Husserl to (...)
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  23. Maureen Eckert (ed.) (2006). Theories of Mind: An Introductory Reader. Rowman and Littlefield.score: 224.0
    Intended for introductory classes focusing on philosophy of mind, 'Theories of Mind' includes readings from primary sources, edited to suit the needs of the beginner. Selections focus on vivid examples and counterexamples, and give instructors concerned with assigning accessible primary source material a foundation for more advanced studies in philosophy. Selections from David Armstrong, Ned Block, David Chalmers, Patricia Churchland, Paul Churchland, Andy Clark, Daniel C. Dennett, René Descartes, Jerry A. Fodor, Keith Gunderson, Frank Jackson, David Lewis, Barbara Montero, (...)
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  24. Daniel M. Kraemer (2013). Statistical Theories of Functions and the Problem of Epidemic Disease. Biology and Philosophy 28 (3):423-438.score: 224.0
    Several decades ago, Christopher Boorse formulated an influential statistical theory of normative biological functions but it has often been claimed that his theory suffers from insuperable problems such as an inability to handle cases of epidemic and universal diseases. This paper develops a new statistical theory of normative functions that is capable of dealing with the notorious problem of epidemic and universal diseases. The theory is also more detailed than its predecessors and offers other important advantages over them. It is (...)
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  25. Graham Emil Leigh & Michael Rathjen (2010). An Ordinal Analysis for Theories of Self-Referential Truth. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (2):213-247.score: 224.0
    The first attempt at a systematic approach to axiomatic theories of truth was undertaken by Friedman and Sheard (Ann Pure Appl Log 33:1–21, 1987). There twelve principles consisting of axioms, axiom schemata and rules of inference, each embodying a reasonable property of truth were isolated for study. Working with a base theory of truth conservative over PA, Friedman and Sheard raised the following questions. Which subsets of the Optional Axioms are consistent over the base theory? What are the proof-theoretic (...)
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  26. Susanne Bobzien (1996). Stoic Syllogistic. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.score: 222.0
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental rules which (...)
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  27. Utpal Bose (2012). An Ethical Framework in Information Systems Decision Making Using Normative Theories of Business Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):17-26.score: 220.0
    As business environments become more complex and reliant on information systems, the decisions made by managers affect a growing number of stakeholders. This paper proposes a framework based on the application of normative theories in business ethics to facilitate the evaluation of IS related ethical dilemmas and arrive at fair and consistent decisions. The framework is applied in the context of an information privacy dilemma to demonstrate the decision making process. The ethical dilemma is analyzed using each one of (...)
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  28. J. Worrall (2000). The Scope, Limits, and Distinctiveness of the Method of 'Deduction From the Phenomena': Some Lessons From Newton's 'Demonstrations' in Optics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (1):45-80.score: 218.0
    Having been neglected or maligned for most of this century, Newton's method of 'deduction from the phenomena' has recently attracted renewed attention and support. John Norton, for example, has argued that this method has been applied with notable success in a variety of cases in the history of physics and that this explains why the massive underdetermination of theory by evidence, seemingly entailed by hypothetico-deductive methods, is invisible to working physicists. This paper, through a detailed analysis of Newton's (...)
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  29. Nicola Angius & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2011). Scientific Theories of Computational Systems in Model Checking. Minds and Machines 21 (2):323-336.score: 216.0
    Model checking, a prominent formal method used to predict and explain the behaviour of software and hardware systems, is examined on the basis of reflective work in the philosophy of science concerning the ontology of scientific theories and model-based reasoning. The empirical theories of computational systems that model checking techniques enable one to build are identified, in the light of the semantic conception of scientific theories, with families of models that are interconnected by simulation relations. And the (...)
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  30. Östen Dahl (1988). The Role of Deduction Rules in Semantics. Journal of Semantics 6 (1):1-18.score: 215.3
    The distinction between ‘partial’ and ‘total’ interpretations (models) is discussed and related to the distinction between proof-theoretical and model-theoretical treatments of logic. It is claimed that there is a parallel between the construction of a proof based on a set of premises and e.g. the production of a natural-language text which is based on information in some kind of data-base. The main part of the paper is devoted to a discussion of the relations between the deduction rules traditionally associated (...)
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  31. Kosta Dosen (2006). Models of Deduction. Synthese 148 (3):639 - 657.score: 211.0
    In standard model theory, deductions are not the things one models. But in general proof theory, in particular in categorial proof theory, one finds models of deductions, and the purpose here is to motivate a simple example of such models. This will be a model of deductions performed within an abstract context, where we do not have any particular logical constant, but something underlying all logical constants. In this context, deductions are represented by arrows in categories involved in a general (...)
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  32. Kosta Dos̆en (2006). Models of Deduction. Synthese 148 (3):639 - 657.score: 211.0
    In standard model theory, deductions are not the things one models. But in general proof theory, in particular in categorial proof theory, one finds models of deductions, and the purpose here is to motivate a simple example of such models. This will be a model of deductions performed within an abstract context, where we do not have any particular logical constant, but something underlying all logical constants. In this context, deductions are represented by arrows in categories involved in a general (...)
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  33. Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1993). Theories of Truth and Truth-Value Gaps. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (6):551 - 559.score: 209.3
    The fact that a group of axioms use the word 'true' does not guarantee that that group of axioms yields a theory of truth. For Davidson the derivability of certain biconditionals from the axioms is what guarantees this. We argue that the test does not work. In particular, we argue that if the object language has truth-value gaps, the result of applying Davidson''s definition of a theory of truth is that no correct theory of truth for the language is possible.
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  34. Sebastian Sequoiah-Grayson (2008). The Scandal of Deduction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):67 - 94.score: 209.3
    This article provides the first comprehensive reconstruction and analysis of Hintikka’s attempt to obtain a measure of the information yield of deductive inferences. The reconstruction is detailed by necessity due to the originality of Hintikka’s contribution. The analysis will turn out to be destructive. It dismisses Hintikka’s distinction between surface information and depth information as being of any utility towards obtaining a measure of the information yield of deductive inferences. Hintikka is right to identify the failure of canonical information theory (...)
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  35. Timothy Lane (2015). Self, Belonging, and Conscious Experience: A Critique of Subjectivity Theories of Consciousness. In Rocco Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed consciousness: New essays on psychopathology and theories of consciousness. MIT Press.score: 208.0
    Subjectivity theories of consciousness take self-reference, somehow construed, as essential to having conscious experience. These theories differ with respect to how many levels they posit and to whether self-reference is conscious or not. But all treat self-referencing as a process that transpires at the personal level, rather than at the subpersonal level, the level of mechanism. -/- Working with conceptual resources afforded by pre-existing theories of consciousness that take self-reference to be essential, several attempts have been made (...)
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  36. Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.) (1996). Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press.score: 208.0
    Theories of Theories of Mind brings together contributions by a distinguished international team of philosophers, psychologists, and primatologists, who between them address such questions as: what is it to understand the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of other people? How does such an understanding develop in the normal child? Why, unusually, does it fail to develop? And is any such mentalistic understanding shared by members of other species? The volume's four parts together offer a state of the art survey (...)
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  37. Alvaro Val & Yoav Shoham (1994). Deriving Properties of Belief Update From Theories of Action. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (2):81-119.score: 208.0
    We present an approach to database update as a form of non monotonic temporal reasoning, the main idea of which is the (circumscriptive) minimization of changes with respect to a set of facts declared “persistent by default”. The focus of the paper is on the relation between this approach and the update semantics recently proposed by Katsuno and Mendelzon. Our contribution in this regard is twofold:We prove a representation theorem for KM semantics in terms of a restricted subfamily of the (...)
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  38. George Voutsadakis (2005). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Gentzen Π ‐Institutions and the Deduction‐Detachment Property. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (6):570-578.score: 207.0
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  39. Anton Froeyman (2012). The Ontology of Causal Process Theories. Philosophia 40 (3):523-538.score: 204.0
    There is a widespread belief that the so-called process theories of causation developed by Wesley Salmon and Phil Dowe have given us an original account of what causation really is. In this paper, I show that this is a misconception. The notion of “causal process” does not offer us a new ontological account of causation. I make this argument by explicating the implicit ontological commitments in Salmon and Dowe’s theories. From this, it is clear that Salmon’s Mark Transmission (...)
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  40. Robert F. Belli (1986). Mechanist And Organicist Parallels Between Theories Of Memory And Science. Journal of Mind and Behavior 7:63-86.score: 202.0
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  41. Francis W. Irwin & W. A. S. Smith (1956). Further Tests of Theories of Decision in an "Expanded Judgment" Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (6):345.score: 202.0
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  42. Wang Lu (2008). Theories of Meaning. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (1):83-98.score: 200.7
    Research into logical syntax provides us the knowledge of the structure of sentences, while logical semantics provides a window into uncovering the truth of sentences. Therefore, it is natural to make sentences and truth the central concern when one deals with the theory of meaning logically. Although their theories of meaning differ greatly, both Michael Dummett’s theory and Donald Davidson’s theory are concerned with sentences and truth and developed in terms of truth. Logical theories and methods first introduced (...)
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  43. Derek Baker (forthcoming). The Abductive Case for Humeanism Over Quasi-Perceptual Theories of Desire. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.score: 200.7
    A number of philosophers have offered quasi-perceptual theories of desire, according to which to desire something is roughly to “see” it as having value or providing reasons. These are offered as alternatives to the more traditional Humean Theory of Motivation, which denies that desires have a representational aspect. This paper examines the various considerations offered by advocates to motivate quasi-perceptualism. It argues that Humeanism is in fact able to explain the same data that the quasi-perceptualist can explain, and in (...)
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  44. Jennifer Marshall (2006). Life Extension Research: An Analysis of Contemporary Biological Theories and Ethical Issues. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (1):87-96.score: 200.0
    Many opinions and ideas about aging exist. Biological theories have taken hold of the popular and scientific imagination as potential answers to a “cure” for aging. However, it is not clear what exactly is being cured or whether aging could be classified as a disease. Some scientists are convinced that aging will be biologically alterable and that the human lifespan will be vastly extendable. Other investigators believe that aging is an elusive target that may only be “statistically” manipulatable through (...)
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  45. Litska Strikwerda (forthcoming). Present and Future Instances of Virtual Rape in Light of Three Categories of Legal Philosophical Theories on Rape. Philosophy and Technology:1-20.score: 200.0
    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in virtual reality environments involving a haptic device or robotics. As the title indicates, I will study both these present and future instances of virtual rape in light of (...)
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  46. Ian Proops (2003). Kant's Legal Metaphor and the Nature of a Deduction. Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (2):209-229.score: 198.0
    This essay partly builds on and partly criticizes a striking idea of Dieter Henrich. Henrich argues that Kant's distinction in the first Critique between the question of fact (quid facti) and the question of law (quid juris) provides clues to the argumentative structure of a philosophical "Deduction". Henrich suggests that the unity of apperception plays a role analogous to a legal factum. By contrast, I argue, first, that the question of fact in the first Critique is settled by the (...)
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  47. Grzegorz Bugajak (2009). Philosophy of Nature, Realism, and the Postulated Ontology of Scientific Theories. In Adam Świeżyński (ed.), Philosophy of Nature Today, Wydawnictwo UKSW, Warszawa. 59–80.score: 198.0
    The first part of the paper is a metatheoretical consideration of such philosophy of nature which allows for using scientific results in philosophical analyses. An epistemological 'judgment' of those results becomes a preliminary task of this discipline: this involves taking a position in the controversy between realistic and antirealistic accounts of science. It is shown that a philosopher of nature has to be a realist, if his task to build true ontology of reality is to be achieved. At the same (...)
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  48. Lyn D. English (1998). Children's Reasoning in Solving Relational Problems of Deduction. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):249 – 281.score: 196.3
    This article reports on a study of children's deductive reasoning in solving novel relational problems. Detailed protocols were obtained from 264 children (aged 9- 12 years) who verbalised their thinking as they solved the problems. The study included the development of a three-phase theory based on Johnson-Laird and Byrne's mental models perspective, but with some distinct modifications. These include a focus on the relational complexity entailed in model construction and in premise integration, and the advancement of four reasoning principles that (...)
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  49. Manuel Sánchez Rodríguez (2013). The Conclusion of the Deduction of Taste in the Dialectic of Aesthetic Power of Judgment in Kant. Trans/Form/Ação 36 (2):45-62.score: 196.0
    In this paper, it is argued that only in the section on dialectic in the Critique of Judgment does Kant reach a definitive and conclusive version of deduction, after discovering the concept of the supersensible. In the section on the deduction of pure aesthetic judgments, Kant does not satisfactorily explain the critical distinction between the sensible nature of humanity and the supersensible nature of human reason presupposed in the concept of universal communicability. While the concept of the supersensible (...)
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  50. Cassiano Terra Rodrigues (2011). The Method of Scientific Discovery in Peirce's Philosophy: Deduction, Induction, and Abduction. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 5 (1):127-164.score: 196.0
    In this paper we will show Peirce’s distinction between deduction, induction and abduction. The aim of the paper is to show how Peirce changed his views on the subject, from an understanding of deduction, induction and hypotheses as types of reasoning to understanding them as stages of inquiry very tightly connected. In order to get a better understanding of Peirce’s originality on this, we show Peirce’s distinctions between qualitative and quantitative induction and between theorematical and corollarial deduction, (...)
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