Search results for 'token-reflexivity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  60
    Ori Simchen (2013). Token-Reflexivity. Journal of Philosophy 110 (4):173-193.
    Token-reflexivity is commonly understood as reference of a token to a token of which it is a part, proper or not. It may be compared with its familiar formal kin – Gödelian reflexivity. In this paper the possibility of the latter type of construction in a formal setting provides a stark point of contrast with token-reflexivity understood as token self-reference, a purported species of natural phenomena, with the token-reflexives themselves understood as the bearers of self-reference. I argue that (...)
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  2.  40
    Stefano Predelli (2006). The Problem with Token-Reflexivity. Synthese 148 (1):5 - 29.
    This essay presents an argument against the token-reflexive approach to the semantics for indexical languages. After some preliminary remarks in section one, sections two and three explain why some traditional arguments against token-reflexivity are ultimately ineffective. Section four puts forth a more persuasive argument, to the effect that token-reflexive views overgenerate with respect to results of analyticity. However, as section five explains, defenders of the alternative, type-oriented view have all too often wasted the advantage offered by their approach: the (...)
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  3.  15
    Manuel García-Carpintero (2000). Token-Reflexivity and Indirect Discourse. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2000:37-56.
    According to a Reichenbachian treatment, indexicals are token-reflexive. That is, a truth-conditional contribution is assigned to tokens relative to relational properties which they instantiate. By thinking of the relevant expressions occurring in “ordinary contexts” along these lines, I argue that we can give a more accurate account of their semantic behavior when they occur in indirect contexts. The argument involves the following: (1) A defense of theories of indirect discourse which allows that a reference to modes of presentation associated with (...)
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  4. Peter Mott (1973). Dates, Tenseless Verbs and Token-Reflexivity. Mind 82 (325):73-85.
  5. Stefano Predelli (2006). The Problem with Token-Reflexivity. Synthese 148 (1):5-29.
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  6.  56
    Alexandre Billon & Marie Guillot (2014). Can Fregeans Have 'I'-Thoughts? Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica (136):97-105.
    We examine how Frege’s contrast between identity judgments of the forms “a=a” vs. “a=b” would fare in the special case where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are complex mental representations, and ‘a’ stands for an introspected ‘I’-thought. We first argue that the Fregean treatment of I-thoughts entails that they are what we call “one-shot thoughts”: they can only be thought once. This has the surprising consequence that no instance of the “a=a” form of judgment in this specific case comes out true, let (...)
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  7.  44
    Uriah Kriegel (2009). Temporally Token-Reflexive Experiences. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):585-617.
    John Searle has argued that all perceptual experiences are token-reflexive, in the sense that they are constituents of their own veridicality conditions. Many philosophers have found the kind of token-reflexivity he attributes to experiences, which I will call _causal_ token-reflexivity, unfaithful to perceptual phenomenology. In this paper, I develop an argument for a different sort of token-reflexivity in perceptual (as well as some non- perceptual) experiences, which I will call _temporal_ token-reflexivity, and which ought to be (...)
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  8.  25
    Gilbert Plumer (1987). Expressions of Passage. Philosophical Quarterly 37 (149):341-354.
    It seems a contradiction to hold of something both that it took a while and that no time elapsed or passed between its start and finish; there is a connection between the ideas of temporal extendedness and passage. The article develops this connection into a defense of the passage view of time and shows how without this sort of defense, conclusions of arguments putatively in support of the passage view may be reinterpreted as not in fact being expressions of that (...)
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  9.  18
    Gilbert Plumer (1987). Detecting Temporalities. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 47 (3):451-460.
    This paper argues that A-determinations (past, present, and future) and B-relations (simultaneity and succession) have the same empirical status in that they are all neither historically discoverable nor sensible, but are detectable and are detectable in the same way. This constitutes a reason for thinking they are in the same class with respect to objectivity, contrary to the Russellian view that “in a world in which there was no experience there would be no past, present, or future, but there might (...)
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  10.  15
    Gilbert Plumer (1984). Why Time is Extensive. Mind 93 (370):265-270.
    I attempt to show, via considering Schlesinger’s device of putting the word ‘now’ in capitals, that the transient view of time can explicate temporal extensivity without presupposing it, and the static view can’t. The argument hinges on the point that duration is generated by continuance of the present—such that ‘the present’ here is used in a nontechnical, nonindexical, and nonreflexive sense, which Schlesinger and others unknowingly give to the word ‘now’ (by “NOW” or “Now” or “’now’”).
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  11.  69
    Erich Rast (2006). Reference and Indexicality. Dissertation, Roskilde University
    Reference and indexicality are two central topics in the Philosophy of Language that are closely tied together. In the first part of this book, a description theory of reference is developed and contrasted with the prevailing direct reference view with the goal of laying out their advantages and disadvantages. The author defends his version of indirect reference against well-known objections raised by Kripke in Naming and Necessity and his successors, and also addresses linguistic aspects like compositionality. In the second part, (...)
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  12.  1
    On Sense & John Reflexivity (2001). On Putnam and His Models, Timothy Bays. Journal of Philosophy 98 (7).
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  13. Erich Rast (2007). Reference and Indexicality. Logos.
    Reference and indexicality are two central topics in the Philosophy of Language that are closely tied together. In the first part of this book, a description theory of reference is developed and contrasted with the prevailing direct reference view with the goal of laying out their advantages and disadvantages. The author defends his version of indirect reference against well-known objections raised by Kripke in Naming and Necessity and his successors, and also addresses linguistic aspects like compositionality. In the second part, (...)
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  14. Human Reflexivity (2007). Margaret S. Archer is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Warwick, a Past-President of the International Sociological Association and a Council Member of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. Her Last Book Was Structure, Agency and the Internal Conversation (CUP 2003). Under an ESRC Award She has Completed a Book Entitled Making Our Way Through the World. [REVIEW] In Clive Lawson, John Latsis & Nuno Martins (eds.), Contributions to Social Ontology. Routledge 15.
     
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  15.  86
    John Corcoran (2005). Meanings of Word: Type-Occurrence-Token. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (1):117.
    Corcoran, John. 2005. Meanings of word: type-occurrence-token. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11(2005) 117. -/- Once we are aware of the various senses of ‘word’, we realize that self-referential statements use ambiguous sentences. If a statement is made using the sentence ‘this is a pronoun’, is the speaker referring to an interpreted string, a string-type, a string-occurrence, a string-token, or what? The listeners can wonder “this what?”. -/- John Corcoran, Meanings of word: type-occurrence-token Philosophy, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-4150 E-mail: (...)
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  16.  52
    Stuart J. Murray & Dave Holmes (2013). Toward a Critical Ethical Reflexivity: Phenomenology and Language in Maurice Merleau‐Ponty. Bioethics 27 (6):341-347.
    Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the ‘commonsense’ view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908–1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a (...)
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  17. Terence Rajivan Edward, Defining Mind-Brain Token Identity.
    This paper disputes a common definition of token identity theory. It also observes that within the philosophical literature there are two significantly different definitions of token identity theory that are commonly used.
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  18.  9
    Josée Johnston & Michelle Szabo (2011). Reflexivity and the Whole Foods Market Consumer: The Lived Experience of Shopping for Change. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):303-319.
    There has been widespread academic and popular debate about the transformative potential of consumption choices, particularly food shopping. While popular food media is optimistic about “shopping for change,” food scholars are more critical, drawing attention to fetishist approaches to “local” or “organic,” and suggesting the need for reflexive engagement with food politics. We argue that reflexivity is central to understanding the potential and limitations of consumer-focused food politics, but argue that this concept is often relatively unspecified. The first objective of (...)
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  19.  7
    Claus Emmeche (2015). Semiotic Scaffolding of the Social Self in Reflexivity and Friendship. Biosemiotics 8 (2):275-289.
    The individual and social formation of a human self, from its emergence in early childhood through adolescence to adult life, has been described within philosophy, psychology and sociology as a product of developmental and social processes mediating a linguistic and social world. Semiotic scaffolding is a multi-level phenomenon. Focusing upon levels of semiosis specific to humans, the formation of the personal self and the role of friendship and similar interpersonal relations in this process is explored through Aristotle’s classical idea of (...)
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  20.  14
    Garry Young (forthcoming). Knowledge How, Ability, and the Type-Token Distinction. Synthese:1-15.
    This paper examines the relationship between knowing how to G and the ability to G, which is typically presented in one of the following ways: knowing how to G entails the ability to G; knowing how to G does not entail the ability to G. In an attempt to reconcile these two putatively opposing positions, I distinguish between type and token actions. It is my contention that S can know how to G in the absence of an ability to \, (...)
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  21.  6
    Diana Stuart & Michelle R. Worosz (2012). Risk, Anti-Reflexivity, and Ethical Neutralization in Industrial Food Processing. Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):287-301.
    While innovations have fostered the mass production of food at low costs, there are externalities or side effects associated with high-volume food processing. We focus on foodborne illness linked to two commodities: ground beef and bagged salad greens. In our analysis, we draw from the concepts of risk, reflexive modernization, and techniques of ethical neutralization. For each commodity, we find that systems organized for industrial goals overlook how production models foster cross-contamination and widespread outbreaks. Responses to outbreaks tend to rely (...)
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  22. Noa Latham (2003). What is Token Physicalism? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 84 (3):270-290.
    The distinction between token and type physicalism is a familiar feature of discussion of psychophysical relations. Token physicalism, or ontological physicalism, is the view that every token, or particular, in the spatiotemporal world is a physical particular. It is contrasted with type physicalism, or property physicalism -- the view that every first-order type, or property, instantiated in the spatiotemporal world is a physical property. Token physicalism is commonly viewed as a clear thesis, strictly weaker than property physicalism, strictly stronger than (...)
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  23.  10
    M. García-Carpintero (1998). Indexicals as Token-Reflexives. Mind 107 (427):529-564.
    Reichenbachian approaches to indexicality contend that indexicals are "token-reflexives": semantic rules associated with any given indexical-type determine the truth-conditional import of properly produced tokens of that type relative to certain relational properties of those tokens. Such a view may be understood as sharing the main tenets of Kaplan's well-known theory regarding content, or truth-conditions, but differs from it regarding the nature of the linguistic meaning of indexicals and also regarding the bearers of truth-conditional import and truth-conditions. Kaplan has criticized these (...)
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  24.  44
    Kieran M. Bonner (2001). Reflexivity and Interpretive Sociology: The Case of Analysis and the Problem of Nihilism. [REVIEW] Human Studies 24 (4):267-292.
    This paper addresses the problem of reflexivity in modern social inquiry in general and in sociology in particular. This problem is inherited from Weber''s very conception of sociology, is transformed by phenomenology and ethnomethodology, deepened by the linguistic turn of hermeneutics and Wittgenstein''s later philosophy, and has been the central concern of the work of Alan Blum and Peter McHugh. The issues and spectres raised by reflexivity are methodological arbitrariness, the need to take responsibility for one''s own talk (and the (...)
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  25.  7
    Esther van Loon & Teun Zuiderent-Jerak (2012). Framing Reflexivity in Quality Improvement Devices in the Care for Older People. Health Care Analysis 20 (2):119-138.
    Health care organizations are constantly seeking ways to improve quality of care and one of the often-posed solutions to deliver ‘good care’ is reflexivity. Several authors stress that enhancing the organizations’ and caregivers’ reflexivity allows for more situated, and therefore better care. Within quality improvement initiatives, devices that guarantee quality are also seen as key to the delivery of good care. These devices do not solely aim at standardizing work practices, but are also of importance in facilitating reflexivity. In this (...)
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  26.  57
    Linda Finlay (2008). A Dance Between the Reduction and Reflexivity: Explicating the "Phenomenological Psychological Attitude". Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 39 (1):1-32.
    This article explores the nature of "the phenomenological attitude," which is understood as the process of retaining a wonder and openness to the world while reflexively restraining pre-understandings, as it applies to psychological research. A brief history identifies key philosphical ideas outlining Husserl's formulation of the reductions and subsequent existential-hermeneutic elaborations, and how these have been applied in empirical psychological research. Then three concrete descriptions of engaging the phenomenological attitude are offered, highlighting the way the epoché of the natural sciences, (...)
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  27.  5
    Charles R. Twardy, Kevin B. Korb, Graham Oppy & Toby Handfield, Token Causation by Probabilistic Active Paths.
    We present a probabilistic extension to active path analyses of token causation. The extension uses the generalized notion of intervention presented in : we allow an intervention to set any probability distribution over the intervention variables, not just a single value. The resulting account can handle a wide range of examples. We do not claim the account is complete --- only that it fills an obvious gap in previous active-path approaches. It still succumbs to recent counterexamples by Hiddleston, because it (...)
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  28.  12
    Malcolm Ashmore (1994). Social Epistemology and Reflexivity: Two Versions of How to Be Really Useful. [REVIEW] Argumentation 8 (2):157-161.
    This essay argues that the really useful character of reflexivity is that it enables a radical critique of representation and its conventional material and rhetorical practices. It is uniquely able to produce paradox and thus disrupt discourses by undermining authorial privilege. Because Fuller's social epistemology is insensitive to its own reflexive implications, and limits itself to normative questions about knowledge policy, it is too limited — and limiting — to provide a context that can nurture reflexivity.
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  29.  40
    Eric Schliesser (2011). Four Species of Reflexivity and History of Economics in Economic Policy Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):425-445.
    This paper argues that history of economics has a fruitful, underappreciated role to play in the development of economics, especially when understood as a policy science. This goes against the grain of the last half century during which economics, which has undergone a formal revolution, has distanced itself from its `literary' past and practices precisely with the aim to be a more successful policy science. The paper motivates the thesis by identifying and distinguishing four kinds of reflexivity in economics. The (...)
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  30.  40
    Tomis Kapitan (2001). Indexical Identification: A Perspectival Account. Philosophical Psychology 14 (3):293 – 312.
    It is widely agreed that the references of indexical expressions are fixed partly by their relations to contextual parameters such as the author, time, and place of the utterance. Because of this, indexicals are sometimes described as token-reflexive or utterance-reflexive in their semantics. But when we inquire into how indexicals help us to identify items within experience, we find that while utterance-reflexivity is essential to an interpretation of indexical tokens, it is not a factor in a speaker's identificatory use of (...)
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  31.  8
    Jeremy Morris (2008). Pragmatic Reflexivity in Self-Defeating and Self-Justifying Expressions. Argumentation 22 (2):205-216.
    Self-defeating and self-justifying expressions are reflexive insofar as they pertain to themselves. However, the reflexivity involved is often pragmatic, i.e., does not entirely depend upon the logical properties of what is expressed but also upon the expressive act. In this paper I present a general account of pragmatic reflexivity and apply it to some familiar self-defeating and self-justifying expressions in epistemology. This application indicates some important, if often neglected features of the epistemological issues involved. The account I defend suggests that (...)
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  32. Bertinetto Alessandro (2012). Paganini Does Not Repeat. Musical Improvisation and the Type/Token Ontology. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (3):105-126.
    This paper explores the ontology of musical improvisation (MI). MI, as process in which creative and performing activities are one and the same generative occurrence, is contrasted with the most widespread conceptual resource used in inquiries about music ontology of the Western tradition: the type/token duality (TtD). TtD, which is used for explaining the relationship between musical works (MWs) and performances, does not fit for MI. Nonetheless MI can be ontologically related to MWs. A MW can ensue from MI and (...)
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  33.  11
    Stephen Lyng (2012). Existential Transcendence in Late Modernity: Edgework and Hermeneutic Reflexivity. [REVIEW] Human Studies 35 (3):401-414.
    Increasing attention to existentialist thought by criminologists and other social scientists in recent decades has created an opportunity to envision new possibilities in critical theoretic inquiry that extend well beyond the classical formulations of this tradition. In this essay, I draw on existentialist ideas to outline a critical perspective rooted in recent developments associated with Ulrich Beck's notion of "risk society" and the related theory of reflexive modernization. I argue that, though the detraditionalization consequences of reflexive modernization give greater scope (...)
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  34.  12
    Esther Loon & Teun Zuiderent-Jerak (2012). Framing Reflexivity in Quality Improvement Devices in the Care for Older People. Health Care Analysis 20 (2):119-138.
    Health care organizations are constantly seeking ways to improve quality of care and one of the often-posed solutions to deliver ‘good care’ is reflexivity. Several authors stress that enhancing the organizations’ and caregivers’ reflexivity allows for more situated, and therefore better care. Within quality improvement initiatives, devices that guarantee quality are also seen as key to the delivery of good care. These devices do not solely aim at standardizing work practices, but are also of importance in facilitating reflexivity. In this (...)
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  35.  7
    Marc Steen (2013). Virtues in Participatory Design: Cooperation, Curiosity, Creativity, Empowerment and Reflexivity. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):945-962.
    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative (...)
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  36.  20
    Jonathan Ives & Michael Dunn (2010). Who's Arguing? A Call for Reflexivity in Bioethics. Bioethics 24 (5):256-265.
    In this paper we set forth what we believe to be a relatively controversial argument, claiming that 'bioethics' needs to undergo a fundamental change in the way it is practised. This change, we argue, requires philosophical bioethicists to adopt reflexive practices when applying their analyses in public forums, acknowledging openly that bioethics is an embedded socio-cultural practice, shaped by the ever-changing intuitions of individual philosophers, which cannot be viewed as a detached intellectual endeavour. This said, we argue that in order (...)
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  37.  8
    Kirsti Malterud (2002). Reflexivity and Metapositions: Strategies for Appraisal of Clinical Evidence. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):121-126.
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  38.  92
    Christopher Peacocke (2005). Joint Attention: Its Nature, Reflexivity, and Relation to Common Knowledge. In Naomi M. Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Johannes Roessler (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds. Oxford University Press 298.
    The openness of joint awareness between two or more subjects is a perceptual phenomenon. It involves a certain mutual awareness between the subjects, an awareness that makes reference to that very awareness itself. Properly characterized, such awareness can generate iterated awareness ‘x is aware that y is aware that x is aware...’ to whatever level the subjects can sustain. The openness should not be characterized in terms of Lewis–Schiffer common knowledge, the conditions for which are not met in many basic (...)
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  39. Terence E. Horgan (1984). Functionalism and Token Physicalism. Synthese 59 (June):321-38.
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  40. Steven James Bartlett & Peter Suber (eds.) (1987). Self-Reference: Reflections on Reflexivity. Distributors for the United States and Canada, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    From the Editor’s Introduction: -/- THE INTERNAL LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING -/- We carry, unavoidably, the limits of our understanding with us. We are perpetually confined within the horizons of our conceptual structure. When this structure grows or expands, the breadth of our comprehensions enlarges, but we are forever barred from the wished-for glimpse beyond its boundaries, no matter how hard we try, no matter how much credence we invest in the substance of our learning and mist of speculation. -/- (...)
     
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  41.  6
    Manda Broekhuis & Carla Veldkamp (2007). The Usefulness and Feasibility of a Reflexivity Method to Improve Clinical Handover. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1):109-115.
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  42.  56
    Nancy D. Cartwright (1979). Do Token-Token Identity Theories Show Why We Don't Need Reductionism? Philosophical Studies 36 (July):85-90.
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  43.  66
    Steven J. Bartlett (ed.) (1992). Reflexivity: A Source-Book in Self-Reference. Distributors for the U.S. And Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co..
    From the Editor’s Introduction: -/- -/- The Internal Limitations of Human Understanding -/- -/- We carry, unavoidably, the limits of our understanding with us. We are perpetually confined within the horizons of our conceptual structure. When this structure grows or expands, the breadth of our comprehensions enlarges, but we are forever barred from the wished-for glimpse beyond its boundaries, no matter how hard we try, no matter how much credence we invest in the substance of our learning and mist of (...)
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  44.  50
    Hector-Neri Castaneda (1989). The Reflexivity of Self-Consciousness: Sameness/Identity, Data for Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Topics 17 (1):27-58.
  45.  48
    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (2005). Frankfurt, Responsibility, and Reflexivity. Philosophia 32 (1-4):369-382.
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  46.  18
    Stuart Nairn, Derek Chambers, Susan Thompson, Julie McGarry & Kristian Chambers (2012). Reflexivity and Habitus: Opportunities and Constraints on Transformative Learning. Nursing Philosophy 13 (3):189-201.
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  47.  11
    Simon van Rysewyk, Why Are Pain Patients All Unique? A Type-Token Identity Theory Answer.
  48.  8
    Vincent Colapietro (2013). The «Inner» Life of the Social Self: Agency, Sociality, and Reflexivity. Nóema 4 (4-1):2-12.
    Questo saggio offre un ritratto pragmatista del sé e dunque una descrizione che parte dalla premessa per cui il sé è anzitutto un attore sociale incarnato, situato, che possiede la capacità di un’effettiva autocritica. Così, oltre a evidenziare il ruolo dell’azione, l’autore sottolinea anche quello della socialità e della riflessività. A differenza di molti ritratti abbozzati da altri autori pragmatisti, quello presente cerca di rendere una più completa giustizia alla dimensione «interiore» della soggettività umana, soprattutto attraverso la costruzione dell’interiorità come (...)
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  49.  1
    Myra C. Y. Lee (2014). An Insider’s Moments of Confucian Ethical Conflict: Reflexivity as the “Middle Way” Response. Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (4):299-316.
    Cultural ethical dilemmas occur when ethical research practices, as prescribed by the research ethics codes of Western research institutions, conflict with the cultural and social norms of non-Western researchers and their participants. Thus, insider-researchers working with participants from similar cultural backgrounds may experience ethical dilemmas that result in disconcerting cultural estrangement from their communities. Using reflexive narratives, the author identifies moments of cultural ethical dilemmas that necessitate a choice between two competing sets of values. Working out of a Western university, (...)
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  50.  1
    William W. Lambert, Elisabeth C. Lambert & Peter D. Watson (1953). Acquisition and Extinction of an Instrumental Response Sequence in the Token-Reward Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (5):321.
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