Search results for 'trial' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  82
    Ignacio Mastroleo (2015). Post‐Trial Obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013: Classification, Reconstruction and Interpretation. Developing World Bioethics 15 (2).
    The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, (...)
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  2.  17
    Jing-Bao Nie (2004). The West's Dismissal of the Khabarovsk Trial as 'Communist Propaganda': Ideology, Evidence and International Bioethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 1 (1):32-42.
    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with (...)
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  3.  17
    Kirsten Hansen & Klemens Kappel (2012). Pre-Trial Beliefs in Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Whose Pre-Trial Belief Should Be Considered? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):15-21.
    Subjective probabilities play a significant role in the assessment of evidence: in other words, our background knowledge, or pre-trial beliefs, cannot be set aside when new evidence is being evaluated. Focusing on homeopathy, this paper investigates the nature of pre-trial beliefs in clinical trials. It asks whether pre-trial beliefs of the sort normally held only by those who are sympathetic to homeopathy can legitimately be disregarded in those trials. The paper addresses several surprisingly unsuccessful attempts to provide (...)
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  4. Ulf Schmidt (2004). Justice at Nuremberg: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Justice at Nuremberg traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47, as seen through the eyes of the Austrian bliogemigrbliogé psychiatrist Leo Alexander. His investigations helped the United States to prosecute twenty German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The legacy of Nuremberg was profound. In the Nuremberg code--a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics--the judges laid down, for the first time, international guidelines for permissible experiments on humans. One (...)
     
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  5.  1
    Ignacio Mastroleo (2015). Post‐Trial Obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013: Classification, Reconstruction and Interpretation. Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):n/a-n/a.
    The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, (...)
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  6.  37
    Thom Brooks (2004). The Right to Trial by Jury. Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (2):197–212.
    This article offers a justification for the continued use of jury trials. I shall critically examine the ability of juries to render just verdicts, judicial impartiality, and judicial transparency. My contention is that the judicial system that best satisfies these values is most preferable. Of course, these three values are not the only factors relevant for consideration. Empirical evidence demonstrates that juries foster both democratic participation and public legitimation of legal decisions regarding the most serious cases. Nevertheless, juries are costly (...)
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  7.  18
    Hock Lai Ho (2016). The Criminal Trial, the Rule of Law and the Exclusion of Unlawfully Obtained Evidence. Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (1):109-131.
    If the criminal trial is aimed simply at ascertaining the truth of a criminal charge, it is inherently problematic to prevent the prosecution from adducing relevant evidence on the ground of its unlawful provenance. This article challenges the starting premise by replacing the epistemic focus with a political perspective. It offers a normative justification for the exclusion of unlawfully obtained evidence that is rooted in a theory of the criminal trial as a process of holding the executive to (...)
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  8.  4
    Martin Kaså (2015). A Logic for Trial and Error Classifiers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (3):307-322.
    Trial and error classifiers, corresponding to concepts which change their extensions over time, are introduced and briefly philosophically motivated. A fragment of the language of classical first-order logic is given a new semantics, using \-sequences of classical models, in order to interpret the basic predicates as classifiers of this kind. It turns out that we can use a natural deduction proof system which differs from classical logic only in the conditions for application of existential elimination. Soundness and completeness theorems (...)
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  9.  8
    Richard L. Lippke (2014). Preventive Pre-Trial Detention Without Punishment. Res Publica 20 (2):111-127.
    The pre-trial detention of individuals charged with crimes is viewed by many legal scholars as problematic. Standard arguments against it are that it constitutes legal punishment of individuals not yet convicted of crimes, violates the presumption of innocence, and rests on dubious predictions of future crime. I defend modified and restrained forms of pre-trial detention. I argue that pre-trial detention could be made very different than imprisonment, should be governed by strict criteria, and is warranted, when the (...)
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  10.  2
    Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert (2015). Attitudes Toward Post‐Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines. [REVIEW] Developing World Bioethics 16 (1).
    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes (...)
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  11.  18
    Richard L. Lippke (2008). To Waive or Not to Waive: The Right to Trial and Plea Bargaining. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (2):181-199.
    Criminal defendants in many countries are faced with a dilemma: If they waive their right to trial and plead guilty, they typically receive charge or sentence reductions in exchange for having done so. If they exercise their right to trial and are found guilty, they often receive stiffer sanctions than if they had pled guilty. I characterize the former as ‘waiver rewards’ and the latter as ‘non-waiver penalties.’ After clarifying the two and considering the relation between them, I (...)
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  12.  8
    Cheng-Shi Liu (2011). Trial Equation Method Based on Symmetry and Applications to Nonlinear Equations Arising in Mathematical Physics. Foundations of Physics 41 (5):793-804.
    To find exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations, we propose a method combining symmetry properties with trial polynomial solution to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. By the method, we obtain some exact traveling wave solutions to the Burgers-KdV equations and a kind of reaction-diffusion equations with high order nonlinear terms. As a result, we prove that the Burgers-KdV equation does not have the real solution in the form a 0+a 1tan ξ+a 2tan 2 ξ, which indicates that some (...)
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  13.  1
    Akoh Walter Ebile, Jerome Ateudjieu, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Marceline Ngounoue Djuidje & Pierre Watcho (2015). Assessing the Detection, Reporting and Investigation of Adverse Events in Clinical Trial Protocols Implemented in Cameroon: A Documentary Review of Clinical Trial Protocols. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundInternational guidelines recommend ethical and scientific quality standards for managing and reporting adverse events occurring during clinical trials to competent research ethics committees and regulatory authorities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical trial protocols in Cameroon are developed in line with national requirements and international guidelines as far as detecting, reporting and investigating of adverse events is concerned.MethodsIt was a documentary review of all approved clinical trial protocols that were submitted at the Cameroon National (...)
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  14.  13
    Jakob Holderstein Holtermann (2009). Outlining the Shadow of the Axe—On Restorative Justice and the Use of Trial and Punishment. Criminal Law and Philosophy 3 (2):187-207.
    Most proponents of restorative justice admit to the need to find a well defined place for the use of traditional trial and punishment alongside restorative justice processes. Concrete answers have, however, been wanting more often than not. John Braithwaite is arguably the one who has come the closest, and here I systematically reconstruct and critically discuss the rules or principles suggested by him for referring cases back and forth between restorative justice and traditional trial and punishment. I show (...)
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  15.  4
    Lijana Štarienė (2009). The Limits of the Use of Undercover Agents and the Right to a Fair Trial Under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 117 (3):263-284.
    Various special investigative methods are more often applied nowadays; their use is unavoidably induced by today’s reality in combating organised crime in the spheres such as corruption, prostitution, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, money counterfeit and etc. Therefore, special secret investigative methods are more often used and they are very effective in gathering evidence for the purpose of detecting and investigating very well-organised or latent crimes. Both the Convention on the Protection on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms itself, i.e. its (...)
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  16.  3
    Scott Brian Saxman (2015). Ethical Considerations for Outcome‐Adaptive Trial Designs: A Clinical Researcher's Perspective. Bioethics 29 (2):59-65.
    In a typical comparative clinical trial the randomization scheme is fixed at the beginning of the study, and maintained throughout the course of the trial. A number of researchers have championed a randomized trial design referred to as ‘outcome-adaptive randomization.’ In this type of trial, the likelihood of a patient being enrolled to a particular arm of the study increases or decreases as preliminary information becomes available suggesting that treatment may be superior or inferior. While the (...)
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  17.  1
    Thérèse Murphy & Noel Whitty (2000). What is a Fair Trial? Rape Prosecutions, Disclosure and the Human Rights Act. Feminist Legal Studies 8 (2):143-167.
    This article engages with the vogue for predicting the effects of the Human Rights Act 1998 by focusing on the rape prosecution and trial. The specific interest is feminist scrutiny of the right to a fair trial, particularly the concept of ‘fairness’, in light of the increasing use of disclosure rules (in Canada and England) to gain access to medical and counseling records. Transcending the two contemporary narratives of ‘victims’/women’s rights and defendants’ rights in the criminal justice system, (...)
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  18.  1
    Birutė Pranevičienė & Kristina Mikalauskaitė-Šostakienė (2011). Problems of Pre-Trial Investigation of Legal Disputes in the Territorial Planning. Jurisprudence 18 (3):963-977.
    The process of territorial planning is complicated, because there are different and even opposite interest of persons related with particular territory. Administrative legal regulation of territorial planning in Lithuania underlies emergence of a legal conflict, namely the administrative litigation. Investigation of the administrative dispute applying the pre-litigation procedure allows the parties thereof to save both money and time. This article presents the problematic aspects of the pre-trial investigation of the administrative disputes arising in the area of territorial planning. The (...)
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  19. Marek Frystak (2010). Pre-Trial Proceedings in the Czech Republic. Jurisprudence 121 (3):251-267.
    In the opening of the article, the author briefly assesses the existing legal regulations of criminal procedure in the Czech Republic adopted as far back as in 1961. He points out to specific imperfections, which justify the need for their recodification. The mainstay of the article is devoted to the very pre-trial proceedings, i.e. checking and investigation. The existing legal regulations are analysed, and selected application problems are mentioned in relation to the recodification under preparation.
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  20. Viviana Giannuzzi, Annagrazia Altavilla, Lucia Ruggieri & Adriana Ceci (2016). Clinical Trial Application in Europe: What Will Change with the New Regulation? Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):451-466.
    The European framework surrounding clinical trials on medicinal products for human use is going to change as demonstrated by the large debate at European institutional level. One of the major challenges is to overcome the lack of harmonisation of clinical trial procedures among countries. This aspect is gaining more and more importance, considering the increasing number of multicentre and multinational studies. In this work, the actual European rules governing the Clinical Trial Application have been analysed throughout the different (...)
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  21.  6
    Kerem Shuval, Eldar Berkovits, Doron Netzer, Igal Hekselman, Shai Linn, Mayer Brezis & Shmuel Reis (2007). Evaluating the Impact of an Evidence‐Based Medicine Educational Intervention on Primary Care Doctors' Attitudes, Knowledge and Clinical Behaviour: A Controlled Trial and Before and After Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):581-598.
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  22.  2
    Katie N. Dainty, Neill K. J. Adhikari, Alex Kiss, Sherman Quan & Merrick Zwarenstein (2012). Electronic Prescribing in an Ambulatory Care Setting: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):761-767.
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  23.  6
    K. W. Spence & R. Lippitt (1946). An Experimental Test of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Trial and Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (6):491.
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  24.  10
    Rachel A. Nakash, Jane L. Hutton, Sarah E. Lamb, Simon Gates & Joanne Fisher (2008). Response and Non‐Response to Postal Questionnaire Follow‐Up in a Clinical Trial – a Qualitative Study of the Patient's Perspective. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):226-235.
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  25.  12
    Caroline Mitchell, Jane Walker, Stephen Walters, Anne B. Morgan, Teena Binns & Nigel Mathers (2005). Costs and Effectiveness of Pre‐and Post‐Operative Home Physiotherapy for Total Knee Replacement: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (3):283-292.
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  26.  7
    Adriana A. Carvalho & Luciane R. Costa (2013). Mothers' Perceptions of Their Child's Enrollment in a Randomized Clinical Trial: Poor Understanding, Vulnerability and Contradictory Feelings. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):52.
    Little is known about the views of mothers when their children are invited to participate in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating medicines and/or invasive procedures. Our goal was to understand mothers’ perceptions of the processes of informed consent and randomization in a RCT that divided uncooperative children into three intervention groups (physical restraint, sedation, and general anesthesia) for dental rehabilitation.
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  27. Nathalie Thilly, Serge Briançon, Yves Juillière, Edith Dufay & Faiez Zannad (2003). Improving ACE Inhibitor Use in Patients Hospitalized with Systolic Heart Failure: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Clinical Practice Guideline Development and Use. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (3):373-382.
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  28. Benjamin Djulbegovic & Iztok Hozo (2002). At What Degree of Belief in a Research Hypothesis is a Trial in Humans Justified? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):269-276.
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  29.  3
    Bennet B. Murdock & Ronald Okada (1970). Interresponse Times in Single-Trial Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):263.
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  30.  5
    Christopher M. Roberts, Robert A. Stone, Rhona J. Buckingham, Nancy A. Pursey, Derek Lowe & Jonathan M. Potter (2012). A Randomized Trial of Peer Review: The UK National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Resources and Outcomes Project: Three‐Year Evaluation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):599-605.
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  31.  1
    Arne Ohman, Par A. Bjorkstrand & Per E. Ellstrom (1973). Effect of Explicit Trial-by-Trial Information About Shock Probability in Long Interstimulus Interval GSR Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):145.
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  32.  1
    D. R. Ziff & E. J. Capaldi (1971). Amytal and the Small Trial Partial Reinforcement Effect: Stimulus Properties of Early Trial Nonrewards. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (2):263.
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  33.  6
    Gordon Pipa, Markus Diesmann & Sonja Grün (2003). Significance of Joint‐Spike Events Based on Trial‐Shuffling by Efficient Combinatorial Methods. Complexity 8 (4):79-86.
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  34.  3
    David Karpf & Marvin Levine (1971). Blank-Trial Probes and Introtacts in Human Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):51.
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  35.  2
    Rie Wakimizu, Shoichiro Kamagata, Teruyo Kuwabara & Kiyoko Kamibeppu (2009). A Randomized Controlled Trial of an at‐Home Preparation Programme for Japanese Preschool Children: Effects on Children's and Caregivers' Anxiety Associated with Surgery. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):393-401.
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  36.  3
    Clyde E. Noble (1957). The Length-Difficulty Relationship in Compound Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):246.
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  37.  2
    Clark L. Hull (1947). Reactively Heterogeneous Compound Trial-and-Error Learning with Distributed Trials and Terminal Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (2):118.
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  38. Richard A. Monty, Harvey A. Taub & Kenneth R. Laughery (1965). Keeping Track of Sequential Events: Effects of Rate, Categories, and Trial Length. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):224.
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  39.  4
    Thomas J. Ryan, Christopher Orton & June B. Pimm (1968). Discrete-Trial Instrumental Performance Related to Reward Schedule and Developmental Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):31.
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  40.  4
    J. W. French (1940). Trial and Error Learning in Paramecium. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (6):609.
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  41.  4
    David A. Grant, John P. Hornseth & Harold W. Hake (1950). The Influence of the Inter-Trial Interval on the Humphreys' 'Random Reinforcement' Effect During the Extinction of a Verbal Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (5):609.
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  42.  2
    Mandana Shirazi, Kirsti Lonka, Sagar V. Parikh, Gunilla Ristner, Farshid Alaeddini, Majid Sadeghi & Rolf Wahlstrom (2013). A Tailored Educational Intervention Improves Doctor's Performance in Managing Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):16-24.
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  43.  3
    Ridgely W. Chambers & Clyde E. Noble (1961). Effects of Various Asymptotic Restrictions on Human Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (5):417.
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  44.  2
    Clyde E. Noble (1957). Supplementary Report: Response Availability in Human Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (5):359.
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  45.  3
    Alain Lieury (1973). Facilitation, Inhibition, and Distortions of the Serial Curve in Single-Trial Free Recall as a Function of Prior Within-Word Organization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):91.
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  46.  3
    John J. Porter & James J. Hug (1965). Effects of Number and Percentage of Rewarded Trials on the Acquisition and Extinction of Lever Pressing Using a Discrete-Trial Procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (6):575.
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  47. Moshe J. Levison & Frank Restle (1973). Effects of Blank-Trial Probes on Concept-Identification Problems with Redundant Relevant Cue Solutions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (2):368.
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  48.  1
    Kenneth W. Spence & Eugenia B. Norris (1950). Eyelid Conditioning as a Function of the Inter-Trial Interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (6):716.
  49.  1
    Roberto Abadie, Audrey J. Weymiller, Jon Tilburt, Nilay D. Shah, Cathy Charles, Amiram Gafni & Victor M. Montori (2009). Clinician's Use of the Statin Choice Decision Aid in Patients with Diabetes: A Videographic Study Nested in a Randomized Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):492-497.
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  50.  1
    Sherry Y.‐H. Chiu, Nea Malila, Amy M.‐F. Yen, Ahti Anttila, Matti Hakama & H.‐H. Chen (2011). Analytical Decision Model for Sample Size and Effectiveness Projections for Use in Planning a Population‐Based Randomized Controlled Trial of Colorectal Cancer Screening. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (1):123-129.
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