Search results for 'trial' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Thom Brooks (2004). The Right to Trial by Jury. Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (2):197–212.score: 24.0
    This article offers a justification for the continued use of jury trials. I shall critically examine the ability of juries to render just verdicts, judicial impartiality, and judicial transparency. My contention is that the judicial system that best satisfies these values is most preferable. Of course, these three values are not the only factors relevant for consideration. Empirical evidence demonstrates that juries foster both democratic participation and public legitimation of legal decisions regarding the most serious cases. Nevertheless, juries are costly (...)
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  2. Kirsten Hansen & Klemens Kappel (2012). Pre-Trial Beliefs in Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Whose Pre-Trial Belief Should Be Considered? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):15-21.score: 24.0
    Subjective probabilities play a significant role in the assessment of evidence: in other words, our background knowledge, or pre-trial beliefs, cannot be set aside when new evidence is being evaluated. Focusing on homeopathy, this paper investigates the nature of pre-trial beliefs in clinical trials. It asks whether pre-trial beliefs of the sort normally held only by those who are sympathetic to homeopathy can legitimately be disregarded in those trials. The paper addresses several surprisingly unsuccessful attempts to provide (...)
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  3. Jing-Bao Nie (2004). The West's Dismissal of the Khabarovsk Trial as 'Communist Propaganda': Ideology, Evidence and International Bioethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 1 (1):32-42.score: 24.0
    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with (...)
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  4. Richard L. Lippke (2008). To Waive or Not to Waive: The Right to Trial and Plea Bargaining. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (2):181-199.score: 24.0
    Criminal defendants in many countries are faced with a dilemma: If they waive their right to trial and plead guilty, they typically receive charge or sentence reductions in exchange for having done so. If they exercise their right to trial and are found guilty, they often receive stiffer sanctions than if they had pled guilty. I characterize the former as ‘waiver rewards’ and the latter as ‘non-waiver penalties.’ After clarifying the two and considering the relation between them, I (...)
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  5. Jakob Holderstein Holtermann (2009). Outlining the Shadow of the Axe—On Restorative Justice and the Use of Trial and Punishment. Criminal Law and Philosophy 3 (2):187-207.score: 24.0
    Most proponents of restorative justice admit to the need to find a well defined place for the use of traditional trial and punishment alongside restorative justice processes. Concrete answers have, however, been wanting more often than not. John Braithwaite is arguably the one who has come the closest, and here I systematically reconstruct and critically discuss the rules or principles suggested by him for referring cases back and forth between restorative justice and traditional trial and punishment. I show (...)
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  6. Hock Lai Ho (forthcoming). The Criminal Trial, the Rule of Law and the Exclusion of Unlawfully Obtained Evidence. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-23.score: 24.0
    If the criminal trial is aimed simply at ascertaining the truth of a criminal charge, it is inherently problematic to prevent the prosecution from adducing relevant evidence on the ground of its unlawful provenance. This article challenges the starting premise by replacing the epistemic focus with a political perspective. It offers a normative justification for the exclusion of unlawfully obtained evidence that is rooted in a theory of the criminal trial as a process of holding the executive to (...)
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  7. Cheng-Shi Liu (2011). Trial Equation Method Based on Symmetry and Applications to Nonlinear Equations Arising in Mathematical Physics. Foundations of Physics 41 (5):793-804.score: 24.0
    To find exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations, we propose a method combining symmetry properties with trial polynomial solution to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. By the method, we obtain some exact traveling wave solutions to the Burgers-KdV equations and a kind of reaction-diffusion equations with high order nonlinear terms. As a result, we prove that the Burgers-KdV equation does not have the real solution in the form a 0+a 1tan ξ+a 2tan 2 ξ, which indicates that some (...)
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  8. Cyril R. Pernet Guillaume A. Rousselet, Carl M. Gaspar, Kacper P. Wieczorek (2011). Modeling Single-Trial ERP Reveals Modulation of Bottom-Up Face Visual Processing by Top-Down Task Constraints (in Some Subjects). Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial ERPs and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colours. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10% to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioural accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in (...)
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  9. Jörg Behrendt Matthias Ihrke (2011). Automatic Generation of Randomized Trial Sequences for Priming Experiments. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    In most psychological experiments, a randomized presentation of successive displays is crucial for the validity of the results. For some paradigms, this is not a trivial issue because trials are interdependent, e.g., priming paradigms. We present a software that automatically generates optimized trial-sequences for (negative-) priming experiments. Our implementation is based on an optimization heuristic known as genetic algorithms that allows for an intuitive interpretation due to its similarity to natural evolution. The program features a graphical user interface that (...)
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  10. Richard L. Lippke (2014). Preventive Pre-Trial Detention Without Punishment. Res Publica 20 (2):111-127.score: 24.0
    The pre-trial detention of individuals charged with crimes is viewed by many legal scholars as problematic. Standard arguments against it are that it constitutes legal punishment of individuals not yet convicted of crimes, violates the presumption of innocence, and rests on dubious predictions of future crime. I defend modified and restrained forms of pre-trial detention. I argue that pre-trial detention could be made very different than imprisonment, should be governed by strict criteria, and is warranted, when the (...)
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  11. Scott Brian Saxman (2014). Ethical Considerations for Outcome‐Adaptive Trial Designs: A Clinical Researcher's Perspective. Bioethics 29 (1):n/a-n/a.score: 24.0
    In a typical comparative clinical trial the randomization scheme is fixed at the beginning of the study, and maintained throughout the course of the trial. A number of researchers have championed a randomized trial design referred to as ‘outcome-adaptive randomization.’ In this type of trial, the likelihood of a patient being enrolled to a particular arm of the study increases or decreases as preliminary information becomes available suggesting that treatment may be superior or inferior. While the (...)
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  12. Lijana Štarienė (2009). The Limits of the Use of Undercover Agents and the Right to a Fair Trial Under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 117 (3):263-284.score: 24.0
    Various special investigative methods are more often applied nowadays; their use is unavoidably induced by today’s reality in combating organised crime in the spheres such as corruption, prostitution, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, money counterfeit and etc. Therefore, special secret investigative methods are more often used and they are very effective in gathering evidence for the purpose of detecting and investigating very well-organised or latent crimes. Both the Convention on the Protection on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms itself, i.e. its (...)
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  13. [deleted]Barry Giesbrecht Jocelyn L. Sy, James C. Elliott (2013). Post-Perceptual Processing During the Attentional Blink is Modulated by Inter-Trial Task Expectancies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The selective processing of goal-relevant information depends on an attention system that can flexibly adapt to changing task demands and expectations. Evidence from visual search tasks indicates that the perceptual selectivity of attention increases when the bottom-up demands of the task increase and when the expectations about task demands engendered by trial history are violated. Evidence from studies of the attentional blink (AB), which measures the temporal dynamics of attention, also indicates that perceptual selectivity during the AB is increased (...)
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  14. [deleted]A. Kolossa, T. Fingscheidt, K. Wessel & B. Kopp (2011). A Model-Based Approach to Trial-by-Trial P300 Amplitude Fluctuations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:359-359.score: 24.0
    It has long been recognized that the amplitude of the P300 component of event–related brain potentials is sensitive to the degree to which eliciting stimuli are surprising to the observers (Donchin, 1981). While Squires et al. (1976) showed and modeled dependencies of P300 amplitudes from observed stimuli on various time scales, Mars et al. (2008) proposed a computational model keeping track of stimulus probabilities on a long–term time scale. We suggest here a computational model which integrates prior information with short–term, (...)
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  15. James F. Cavanagh Michael X. Cohen (2011). Single-Trial Regression Elucidates the Role of Prefrontal Theta Oscillations in Response Conflict. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    In most cognitive neuroscience experiments there are many behavioral and experimental dynamics, and many indices of brain activity, that vary from trial to trial. For example, in studies of response conflict, conflict is usually treated as a binary variable (i.e., response conflict exists or does not in any given trial), whereas some evidence and intuition suggests that conflict may vary in intensity from trial to trial. Here we demonstrate that single-trial multiple regression of time-frequency (...)
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  16. Ulf Schmidt (2004). Justice at Nuremberg: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 24.0
    Justice at Nuremberg traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47, as seen through the eyes of the Austrian bliogemigrbliogé psychiatrist Leo Alexander. His investigations helped the United States to prosecute twenty German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The legacy of Nuremberg was profound. In the Nuremberg code--a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics--the judges laid down, for the first time, international guidelines for permissible experiments on humans. One (...)
     
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  17. [deleted]Jesse Jon Bengson & Ali Mazaheri (2010). Trial-by-Trial Dynamics: A Window in Time. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:199.score: 24.0
    Trial-by-Trial Dynamics: A Window in Time.
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  18. Megan DeBettencourt, Robin I. Goldman, Truman R. Brown & Paul Sajda (2011). Adaptive Thresholding for Improving Sensitivity in Single-Trial Simultaneous EEG/fMRI. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    A common approach used to fuse simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI is to correlate trial-by-trial variability in the EEG, or variability of components derived therefrom, with the BOLD response. When this correlation is done using the conventional univariate approach, for example with the general linear model (GLM), there is the usual problem of correcting the statistics for multiple comparisons. Cluster thresholding is often used as the correction of choice, though in many cases it is utilized in an ad (...)
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  19. Marek Frystak (2010). Pre-Trial Proceedings in the Czech Republic. Jurisprudence 121 (3):251-267.score: 24.0
    In the opening of the article, the author briefly assesses the existing legal regulations of criminal procedure in the Czech Republic adopted as far back as in 1961. He points out to specific imperfections, which justify the need for their recodification. The mainstay of the article is devoted to the very pre-trial proceedings, i.e. checking and investigation. The existing legal regulations are analysed, and selected application problems are mentioned in relation to the recodification under preparation.
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  20. [deleted]Barbara G. Shinn-Cunningham Inyong Choi, Siddharth Rajaram, Lenny A. Varghese (2013). Quantifying Attentional Modulation of Auditory-Evoked Cortical Responses From Single-Trial Electroencephalography. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Selective auditory attention is essential for human listeners to be able to communicate in multi-source environments. Selective attention is known to modulate the neural representation of the auditory scene, boosting the representation of a target sound relative to the background, but the strength of this modulation, and the mechanisms contributing to it, are not well understood. Here, listeners performed a behavioral experiment demanding sustained, focused spatial auditory attention while we measured cortical responses using electroencephalography (EEG). We presented three concurrent melodic (...)
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  21. Thérèse Murphy & Noel Whitty (2000). What is a Fair Trial? Rape Prosecutions, Disclosure and the Human Rights Act. Feminist Legal Studies 8 (2):143-167.score: 24.0
    This article engages with the vogue for predicting the effects of the Human Rights Act 1998 by focusing on the rape prosecution and trial. The specific interest is feminist scrutiny of the right to a fair trial, particularly the concept of ‘fairness’, in light of the increasing use of disclosure rules (in Canada and England) to gain access to medical and counseling records. Transcending the two contemporary narratives of ‘victims’/women’s rights and defendants’ rights in the criminal justice system, (...)
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  22. Birutė Pranevičienė & Kristina Mikalauskaitė-Šostakienė (2011). Problems of Pre-Trial Investigation of Legal Disputes in the Territorial Planning. Jurisprudence 18 (3):963-977.score: 24.0
    The process of territorial planning is complicated, because there are different and even opposite interest of persons related with particular territory. Administrative legal regulation of territorial planning in Lithuania underlies emergence of a legal conflict, namely the administrative litigation. Investigation of the administrative dispute applying the pre-litigation procedure allows the parties thereof to save both money and time. This article presents the problematic aspects of the pre-trial investigation of the administrative disputes arising in the area of territorial planning. The (...)
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  23. Adriana A. Carvalho & Luciane R. Costa (2013). Mothers' Perceptions of Their Child's Enrollment in a Randomized Clinical Trial: Poor Understanding, Vulnerability and Contradictory Feelings. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):52.score: 22.0
    Little is known about the views of mothers when their children are invited to participate in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating medicines and/or invasive procedures. Our goal was to understand mothers’ perceptions of the processes of informed consent and randomization in a RCT that divided uncooperative children into three intervention groups (physical restraint, sedation, and general anesthesia) for dental rehabilitation.
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  24. David Karpf & Marvin Levine (1971). Blank-Trial Probes and Introtacts in Human Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):51.score: 21.0
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  25. Ridgely W. Chambers & Clyde E. Noble (1961). Effects of Various Asymptotic Restrictions on Human Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (5):417.score: 21.0
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  26. J. W. French (1940). Trial and Error Learning in Paramecium. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (6):609.score: 21.0
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  27. David A. Grant, John P. Hornseth & Harold W. Hake (1950). The Influence of the Inter-Trial Interval on the Humphreys' 'Random Reinforcement' Effect During the Extinction of a Verbal Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (5):609.score: 21.0
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  28. Caroline Mitchell, Jane Walker, Stephen Walters, Anne B. Morgan, Teena Binns & Nigel Mathers (2005). Costs and Effectiveness of Pre‐and Post‐Operative Home Physiotherapy for Total Knee Replacement: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (3):283-292.score: 21.0
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  29. Bennet B. Murdock & Ronald Okada (1970). Interresponse Times in Single-Trial Free Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):263.score: 21.0
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  30. J. Peterson (1926). Limits of Learning by Trial and Error. Journal of Experimental Psychology 9 (1):45.score: 21.0
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  31. Thomas J. Ryan, Christopher Orton & June B. Pimm (1968). Discrete-Trial Instrumental Performance Related to Reward Schedule and Developmental Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):31.score: 21.0
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  32. Steven H. Schwartz (1966). Trial-by-Trial Analysis of Processes in Simple and Disjunctive Concept-Attainment Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):456.score: 21.0
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  33. K. W. Spence & R. Lippitt (1946). An Experimental Test of the Sign-Gestalt Theory of Trial and Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (6):491.score: 21.0
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  34. M. Vogel-Sprott (1970). Resistance to Extinction in Human Subjects: Learning Informative Properties of a Blank Trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):241.score: 21.0
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  35. Gerald W. Barnes (1956). Conditioned Stimulus Intensity and Temporal Factors in Spaced-Trial Classical Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (3):192.score: 21.0
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  36. Arthur L. Brody (1958). Independence in the Learning of Two Consecutive Responses Per Trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):16.score: 21.0
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  37. Gary A. Davis, Alice J. Train & Mary E. Manske (1968). Trial and Error Versus "Insightful" Problem Solving: Effects of Distraction, Additional Response Alternatives, and Longer Response Chains. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):337.score: 21.0
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  38. Arthur I. Gladstone (1948). Reactively Homogeneous Compound Trial-and-Error Learning with Distributed Trials and Serial Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (3):289.score: 21.0
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  39. [deleted]Romain Grandchamp & Arnaud Delorme (2011). Single-Trial Normalization for Event-Related Spectral Decomposition Reduces Sensitivity to Noisy Trials. Frontiers in Psychology 2:236-236.score: 21.0
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  40. Chester James Hill (1939). Goal Gradient, Anticipation, and Perseveration in Compound Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (6):566.score: 21.0
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  41. L. G. Humphreys, J. Miller & D. G. Ellson (1940). The Effect of the Inter-Trial Interval on the Acquisition, Extinction, and Recovery of Verbal Expectations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (2):195-202.score: 21.0
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  42. Vanora Hundley, Helen Cheyne, J. Martin Bland, Maggie Styles & Carol A. Barnett (2010). So You Want to Conduct a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial? Lessons From a National Cluster Trial of Early Labour. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):632-638.score: 21.0
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  43. Roy Lachman & Kenneth R. Laughery (1968). Is a Test Trial a Training Trial in Free Recall Learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):40.score: 21.0
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  44. Hongmin Lai, Yueh‐Hsia Chiu, Ming‐Te Lo, Chun‐Liang Wu, Kai‐Pei Chou, Jiiang‐Huei Jeng & Tony H.‐H. Chen (2008). Community‐Based Randomized Intervention Trial for Periodontal Disease After 18‐Month Follow‐Up [Keelung Community‐Based Integrated Screening (KCIS) No. 4]. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (4):507-512.score: 21.0
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  45. Alain Lieury (1973). Facilitation, Inhibition, and Distortions of the Serial Curve in Single-Trial Free Recall as a Function of Prior Within-Word Organization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):91.score: 21.0
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  46. Clyde E. Noble (1955). Compound Trial-and-Error Learning as a Function of Response Availability (NR). [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (2):93.score: 21.0
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  47. Clyde E. Noble (1957). The Length-Difficulty Relationship in Compound Trial-and-Error Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):246.score: 21.0
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  48. Margaret J. Peterson & Joanne Koltnow (1968). Retention of the Acquisition Pairs in a Mediation Paradigm Before and After the Test Trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p2):1.score: 21.0
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  49. Gregory P. Samsa PhD, David B. Matchar Md, G. Rhys Williams ScD & David E. Levy Md (2002). Cost‐Effectiveness of Ancrod Treatment of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: Results From the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod Trial (STAT). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (1):61-70.score: 21.0
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  50. Gordon Pipa, Markus Diesmann & Sonja Grün (2003). Significance of Joint‐Spike Events Based on Trial‐Shuffling by Efficient Combinatorial Methods. Complexity 8 (4):79-86.score: 21.0
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