Search results for 'truth approximation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gustavo Cevolani (forthcoming). Truth Approximation Via Abductive Belief Change. Logic Journal of the IGPL.score: 180.0
    We investigate the logical and conceptual connections between abductive reasoning construed as a process of belief change, on the one hand, and truth approximation, construed as increasing (estimated) verisimilitude, on the other. We introduce the notion of ‘(verisimilitude-guided) abductive belief change’ and discuss under what conditions abductively changing our theories or beliefs does lead them closer to the truth, and hence tracks truth approximation conceived as the main aim of inquiry. The consequences of our analysis (...)
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  2. Gustavo Cevolani (2014). Truth Approximation, Belief Merging, and Peer Disagreement. Synthese 191 (11):2383-2401.score: 180.0
    In this paper, we investigate the problem of truth approximation via belief merging, i.e., we ask whether, and under what conditions, a group of inquirers merging together their beliefs makes progress toward the truth about the underlying domain. We answer this question by proving some formal results on how belief merging operators perform with respect to the task of truth approximation, construed as increasing verisimilitude or truthlikeness. Our results shed new light on the issue of (...)
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  3. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). The Threefold Evaluation of Theories: A Synopsis of From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism. On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation (2000). Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):23-85.score: 120.0
    Surprisingly enough, modified versions of the confirmation theory of Carnap and Hempel and the truth approximation theory of Popper turn out to be smoothly synthesizable. The glue between confirmation and truth approximation appears to be the instrumentalist methodology, rather than the falsificationist one.By evaluating theories separately and comparatively in terms of their successes and problems (hence even if they are already falsified), the instrumentalist methodology provides – both in theory and in practice – the straight route (...)
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  4. Thomas Mormann (2005). Geometry of Logic and Truth Approximation. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):431-454.score: 120.0
    In this paper it is argued that the theory of truth approximation should be pursued in the framework of some kind of geometry of logic. More specifically it is shown that the theory of interval structures provides a general framework for dealing with matters of truth approximation. The qualitative and the quantitative accounts of truthlikeness turn out to be special cases of the interval account. This suggests that there is no principled gap between the qualitative and (...)
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  5. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1997). The Dual Foundation of Qualitative Truth Approximation. Erkenntnis 47 (2):145-179.score: 120.0
    The main formal notion involved in qualitative truth approximation by the HD-method, viz. ‘more truthlike’, is shown to not only have, by its definition, an intuitively appealing ‘model foundation’, but also, at least partially, a conceptually plausible ‘consequence foundation’. Moreover, combining the relevant parts of both leads to a very appealing ‘dual foundation’, the more so since the relevant methodological notions, viz. ‘more successful’ and its ingredients provided by the HD-method, can be given a similar dual foundation. According (...)
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  6. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2009). Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation by the 'Hypothetico-Probabilistic Method'. Erkenntnis 70 (3):313 - 330.score: 120.0
    Three related intuitions are explicated in this paper. The first is the idea that there must be some kind of probabilistic version of the HD-method, a ‘Hypothetico-Probabilistic (HP-) method’, in terms of something like probabilistic consequences, instead of deductive consequences. According to the second intuition, the comparative application of this method should also be functional for some probabilistic kind of empirical progress, and according to the third intuition this should be functional for something like probabilistic truth approximation. In (...)
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  7. Theo Kuipers (2011). Basic and Refined Nomic Truth Approximation by Evidence-Guided Belief Revision in AGM-Terms. Erkenntnis 75 (2):223-236.score: 120.0
    Straightforward theory revision, taking into account as effectively as possible the established nomic possibilities and, on their basis induced empirical laws, is conducive for (unstratified) nomic truth approximation. The question this paper asks is: is it possible to reconstruct the relevant theory revision steps, on the basis of incoming evidence, in AGM-terms? A positive answer will be given in two rounds, first for the case in which the initial theory is compatible with the established empirical laws, then for (...)
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  8. Theo A. F. Kuipers, Theories Looking for Domains. Fact or Fiction? Reversing Structuralist Truth Approximation.score: 120.0
    The structuralist theory of truth approximation essen-tially deals with truth approximation by theory revision for a fixed domain. However, variable domains can also be taken into account, where the main changes concern domain extensions and restrictions. In this paper I will present a coherent set of definitions of “more truth-likeness”, “empirical progress” and “truth approximation” due to a revision of the domain of intended applications. This set of definitions seems to be the natural (...)
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  9. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). Toward a Geometrical Theory of Truth Approximation: Reply to Thomas Mormann. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):455-457.score: 120.0
    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming at an empirically more successful theory, relative to the available data, but not necessarily compatible with them. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress as well as observational, referential (...)
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  10. Roberto Festa, Atocha Aliseda & Jeanne Peijnenburg (eds.) (2005). Confirmation, Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation: Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers. Rodopi.score: 120.0
    Theo AF Kuipers THE THREEFOLD EVALUATION OF THEORIES A SYNOPSIS OF FROM INSTRUMENTALISM TO CONSTRUCTIVE REALISM. ON SOME RELATIONS BETWEEN CONFIRMATION, EMPIRICAL PROGRESS, AND TRUTH APPROXIMATION (2000) ABSTRACT.
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  11. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2001). Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximation. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:79-88.score: 120.0
    I sketch the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. I order them according to their answers to a number of successive leading questions, where every next question presupposes an affirmative answer to the foregoing one. I include the answer to questions concerning truth, as well as the most plausible answer to questions concerning truth approximation. Restricting my survey to the natural sciences and hence to the natural (...)
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  12. Gustavo Cevolani, Vincenzo Crupi & Roberto Festa (2010). The Whole Truth About Linda: Probability, Verisimilitude and a Paradox of Conjunction. In Marcello D'Agostino, Federico Laudisa, Giulio Giorello, Telmo Pievani & Corrado Sinigaglia (eds.), New Essays in Logic and Philosophy of Science. College Publications. 603--615.score: 102.0
    We provide a 'verisimilitudinarian' analysis of the well-known Linda paradox or conjunction fallacy, i.e., the fact that most people judge the probability of the conjunctive statement "Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement" (B & F) as more probable than the isolated statement "Linda is a bank teller" (B), contrary to an uncontroversial principle of probability theory. The basic idea is that experimental participants may judge B & F a better hypothesis about Linda as compared (...)
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  13. Gustavo Cevolani & Luca Tambolo (2013). Progress as Approximation to the Truth: A Defence of the Verisimilitudinarian Approach. Erkenntnis 78 (4):921-935.score: 96.0
    In this paper we provide a compact presentation of the verisimilitudinarian approach to scientific progress (VS, for short) and defend it against the sustained attack recently mounted by Alexander Bird (2007). Advocated by such authors as Ilkka Niiniluoto and Theo Kuipers, VS is the view that progress can be explained in terms of the increasing verisimilitude (or, equivalently, truthlikeness, or approximation to the truth) of scientific theories. According to Bird, VS overlooks the central issue of the appropriate grounding (...)
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  14. Kuipers, Theo A. F., Cools, Kees & Hamminga, Bert, Truth Approximation by Concretization in Capital Structure Theory.score: 96.0
    This paper supplies a structuralist reconstruction of the Modigliani-Miller theory and shows that the economic literature following their results reports on research with an implicit strategy to come "closer-to-the-truth" in the modern technical sense in philosophy of science.
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  15. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1999). Abduction Aiming at Empirical Progress or Eventruth Approximationleading to a Challenge for Computational Modelling. Foundations of Science 4 (3):307-323.score: 90.0
    This paper primarily deals with theconceptual prospects for generalizing the aim ofabduction from the standard one of explainingsurprising or anomalous observations to that ofempirical progress or even truth approximation. Itturns out that the main abduction task then becomesthe instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming atan empirically more successful theory, relative to theavailable data, but not necessarily compatible withthem. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress aswell as observational, referential and theoreticaltruth approximation, is a matter of evaluation andselection, (...)
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  16. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1992). Naive and Refined Truth Approximation. Synthese 93 (3):299 - 341.score: 90.0
    The naive structuralist definition of truthlikeness is an idealization in the sense that it assumes that all mistaken models of a theory are equally bad. The natural concretization is a refined definition based on an underlying notion of structurelikeness.In Section 1 the naive definition of truthlikeness of theories is presented, using a new conceptual justification, in terms of instantial and explanatory mistakes.
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  17. Igor Douven & Christoph Kelp (2011). Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics. Erkenntnis 75 (2):271-283.score: 90.0
  18. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2001). From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism: On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation. Theo A. F. Kuipers. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (439):774-777.score: 90.0
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  19. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). Truth Approximation by Empirical and Aesthetic Criteria: Reply to David Miller. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):356-360.score: 90.0
    Polish version, see Kuipers (2002) "O dwóch rodzajach idealizcji I konkretyzacki. Przypadek aproksymacji prawdy".
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  20. Thomas Mormann (1997). The Refined Qualitative Theory of Truth Approximation Does Not Deliver: Remark on Kuipers. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 47 (2):181-185.score: 90.0
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  21. J. C. Garcia-Bermejo Ochoa (1997). Realism and Truth Approximation in Economic Theory. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 61:167-204.score: 90.0
     
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  22. Hinne Hettema & Theo A. F. Kuipers (1995). Sommerfeld's Atombau: A Case of Potential Truth Approximation. In Cognitive Patterns in Science and Common Sense: Groningen Studies in Philosophy of Science, Logic and Epistemology.score: 90.0
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  23. Hinne Hettema & Theo A. F. Kuipers (1995). Sommerfeld's Atombau: A Case Study in Potential Truth Approximation. In Cognitive Patterns in Science and Common Sense: Groningen Studies in Philosophy of Science, Logic and Epistemology. Poznan. 273-297.score: 90.0
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  24. T. A. F. Kuipers (2006). Theories Looking for Domains. Fact or Fiction? Structuralist Truth Approximation by Revision of the Domain of Intended Applications, to Appear. In L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Engineering. College Publications.score: 90.0
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  25. Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Rolando Chuaqui (1986). Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201 - 221.score: 78.0
    There are several conceptions of truth, such as the classical correspondence conception, the coherence conception and the pragmatic conception. The classical correspondence conception, or Aristotelian conception, received a mathematical treatment in the hands of Tarski (cf. Tarski [1935] and [1944]), which was the starting point of a great progress in logic and in mathematics. In effect, Tarski's semantic ideas, especially his semantic characterization of truth, have exerted a major influence on various disciplines, besides logic and mathematics; for instance, (...)
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  26. Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. Costdaa & Rolando Chuaqui (1986). Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201-221.score: 72.0
  27. Juan Barba (1998). Construction of Truth Predicates: Approximation Versus Revision. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (4):399-417.score: 72.0
  28. Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Rolando Chuaqui (1986). Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201-221.score: 72.0
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  29. R. H. Naylor (2006). Galileo's Law of Fall: Absolute Truth or Approximation. Annals of Science 39 (4):384-389.score: 72.0
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  30. Duncan Macintosh (1994). Partial Convergence and Approximate Truth. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):153-170.score: 60.0
    Scientific Realists argue that it would be a miracle if scientific theories were getting more predictive without getting closer to the truth; so they must be getting closer to the truth. Van Fraassen, Laudan et al. argue that owing to the underdetermination of theory by data (UDT) for all we know, it is a miracle, a fluke. So we should not believe in even the approximate truth of theories. I argue that there is a test for who (...)
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  31. Peter Smith (1998). Approximate Truth and Dynamical Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (2):253-277.score: 60.0
    Arguably, there is no substantial, general answer to the question of what makes for the approximate truth of theories. But in one class of cases, the issue seems simply resolved. A wide class of applied dynamical theories can be treated as two-component theories—one component specifying a certain kind of abstract geometrical structure, the other giving empirical application to this structure by claiming that it replicates, subject to arbitrary scaling for units etc., the geometric structure to be found in some (...)
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  32. Thomas Weston (1992). Approximate Truth and Scientific Realism. Philosophy of Science 59 (1):53-74.score: 60.0
    This paper describes a theory of accuracy or approximate truth and applies it to problems in the realist interpretation of scientific theories. It argues not only that realism requires approximate truth, but that an adequate theory of approximation also presupposes some elements of a realist interpretation of theories. The paper distinguishes approximate truth from vagueness, probability and verisimilitude, and applies it to problems of confirmation and deduction from inaccurate premises. Basic results are cited, but details appear (...)
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  33. Jean-Pierre Marquis (1991). Approximations and Truth Spaces. Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (4):375 - 401.score: 60.0
    Approximations form an essential part of scientific activity and they come in different forms: conceptual approximations (simplifications in models), mathematical approximations of various types (e.g. linear equations instead of non-linear ones, computational approximations), experimental approximations due to limitations of the instruments and so on and so forth. In this paper, we will consider one type of approximation, namely numerical approximations involved in the comparison of two results, be they experimental or theoretical. Our goal is to lay down the conceptual (...)
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  34. Thomas Weston (1987). Approximate Truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic 16 (2):203 - 227.score: 60.0
    The technical results presented here on continuity and approximate implication are obviously incomplete. In particular, a syntactic characterization of approximate implication is highly desirable. Nevertheless, I believe the results above do show that the theory has considerable promise for application to the areas mentioned at the top of the paper.Formulation and defense of realist interpretations of science, for example, require approximate truth because we hardly ever have evidence that a particular scientific theory corresponds perfectly with a portion of the (...)
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  35. Frank Zenker & Carlo Proietti (2014). Editors' Introduction: Social Dynamics and Collective Rationality. Synthese 191 (11):2353-2358.score: 60.0
    We provide a brief introduction to this special issue on social dynamics and collective rationality, and summarize the gist of the papers collected therein.
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  36. Seungbae Park (2014). Approximate Truth Vs. Empirical Adequacy. Epistemologia 37 (1):106-118.score: 52.0
    Suppose that scientific realists believe that a successful theory is approximately true, and that constructive empiricists believe that it is empirically adequate. Whose belief is more likely to be false? The problem of underdetermination does not yield an answer to this question one way or the other, but the pessimistic induction does. The pessimistic induction, if correct, indicates that successful theories, both past and current, are empirically inadequate. It is arguable, however, that they are approximately true. Therefore, scientific realists overall (...)
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  37. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2002). Beauty, a Road to the Truth. Synthese 131 (3):291-328.score: 48.0
    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of therelation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the onehand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called `mere-exposure effect'' which has been more orless established in experimental psychology regarding exposure-affect relationshipsin general and aesthetic appreciation in particular (Zajonc 1968; Temme 1983; Bornstein 1989;Ye 2000). On the other hand it is based on the formal theory of truthlikeness andtruth approximation as presented in my From Instrumentalism to (...)
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  38. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1982). Approaching Descriptive and Theoretical Truth. Erkenntnis 18 (3):343 - 378.score: 48.0
    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding exposure-affect relationships in general and aesthetic appreciation in particular (Zajonc 1968; Temme 1983; Bornstein 1989; (Ye 2000). On the other hand it is based on the formal theory of truthlikeness and truth approximation (...)
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  39. David Miller (2005). Beauty, a Road to the Truth? Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):341-355.score: 48.0
    Calling into service the theory of truth approximation of his (1997) and (2000), Kuipers defends the view that "beauty can be a road to the truth" and endorses the general conclusions of McAllister (1996) that aesthetic criteria reasonably play a role in theory selection in science. My comments pertain first to the general adequacy of Kuipers's theory of truth approximation; secondly to its methodological aspects; thirdly to the aetiolated role that aesthetic factors turn out to (...)
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  40. Anjan Chakravartty, Truth and Representation in Science: Two Inspirations From Art.score: 42.0
    Realists regarding scientific knowledge – those who think that our best scientific representations truly describe both observable and unobservable aspects of the natural world – have special need of a notion of approximate truth. Since theories and models are rarely considered true simpliciter, the realist requires some means of making sense of the claim that they may be false and yet close to the truth, and increasingly so over time. In this paper, I suggest that traditional approaches to (...)
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  41. Chang Liu (1999). Approximation, Idealization, and Laws of Nature. Synthese 118 (2):229-256.score: 42.0
    Traditional theories construe approximate truth or truthlikeness as a measure of closeness to facts, singular facts, and idealization as an act of either assuming zero of otherwise very small differences from facts or imagining ideal conditions under which scientific laws are either approximately true or will be so when the conditions are relaxed. I first explain the serious but not insurmountable difficulties for the theories of approximation, and then argue that more serious and perhaps insurmountable difficulties for the (...)
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  42. Blake Hestir (2013). Aristotle's Conception of Truth: An Alternative View. Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (2):193-222.score: 42.0
    Aristotle famously proclaims at Metaphysics Г.7, 1011b26–27: To men gar legein to on mê einai ê to mê on einai pseudos, to de to on einai kai to mê on mê einai alêthes, . . . Aristotle is inclined to think of this as a definition of truth and falsehood;1 we are inclined to wonder what he means by it. Perhaps a reasonable approximation in English would amount to something like: Tdf: For to state [of] that which is (...)
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  43. Andrea Cantini (1993). Extending the First-Order Theory of Combinators with Self-Referential Truth. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (2):477-513.score: 42.0
    The aim of this paper is to introduce a formal system STW of self-referential truth, which extends the classical first-order theory of pure combinators with a truth predicate and certain approximation axioms. STW naturally embodies the mechanisms of general predicate application/abstraction on a par with function application/abstraction; in addition, it allows non-trivial constructions, inspired by generalized recursion theory. As a consequence, STW provides a smooth inner model for Myhill's systems with levels of implication.
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  44. Jeffrey Alan Barrett (2008). Approximate Truth and Descriptive Nesting. Erkenntnis 68 (2):213 - 224.score: 40.0
    There is good reason to suppose that our best physical theories, quantum mechanics and special relativity, are false if taken together and literally. If they are in fact false, then how should they count as providing knowledge of the physical world? One might imagine that, while strictly false, our best physical theories are nevertheless in some sense probably approximately true. This paper presents a notion of local probable approximate truth in terms of descriptive nesting relations between current and subsequent (...)
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  45. Władysław Krajewski (1978). Approximative Truth of Fact-Statements, Laws, and Theories. Synthese 38 (2):275 - 279.score: 40.0
    The paper is a sketch of a conception of approximative truth (or verisimilitude). The concepts of relative error, and degree of inadequacy are introduced. By means of them the concept of truth-content of quantitative facts-statements, laws and theories is defined. Laws and theories accepted in science have a high truth-content, i.e. they are approximately true.
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  46. Stefano Predelli (2004). Think Before You Speak: Utterances and the Logic of Indexicals. [REVIEW] Argumentation 18 (4):445-463.score: 36.0
    This essay discusses some aspects of the logical behaviour of sentences in languages containing indexical and demonstrative expressions. After some preliminary remarks in section one, sections two and three focus on instances of logically true sentences that may be uttered falsely, and on cases of logically equivalent sentences whose utterances may have distinct truth-values. The logical and semantic problems taken into consideration include the validity of a Principle of Translation, the so-called ‘puzzle of addressing’, and examples related to measurement (...)
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  47. Shelby D. Hunt (2011). Theory Status, Inductive Realism, and Approximate Truth: No Miracles, No Charades. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (2):159 - 178.score: 32.0
    The concept of approximate truth plays a prominent role in most versions of scientific realism. However, adequately conceptualizing ?approximate truth? has proved challenging. This article argues that the goal of articulating the concept of approximate truth can be advanced by first investigating the processes by which science accords theories the status of accepted or rejected. Accordingly, this article uses a path diagram model as a visual heuristic for the purpose of showing the processes in science that are (...)
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  48. David B. Resnik (1992). Convergent Realism and Approximate Truth. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:421 - 434.score: 32.0
    I examine the role that approximate truth plays in arguments for convergent realism and diagnose some difficulties that face attempts to defend realism by employing this slippery concept. Approximate truth plays two important roles in convergent realism: it functions as a truth surrogate and it helps explain the success of science. I argue that approximate truth cannot perform both of these roles. If it adequately fulfills its role as a truth surrogate, then (...)
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  49. L. A. Zadeh (1975). Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning. Synthese 30 (3-4):407-428.score: 30.0
    The term fuzzy logic is used in this paper to describe an imprecise logical system, FL, in which the truth-values are fuzzy subsets of the unit interval with linguistic labels such as true, false, not true, very true, quite true, not very true and not very false, etc. The truth-value set, , of FL is assumed to be generated by a context-free grammar, with a semantic rule providing a means of computing the meaning of each linguistic truth-value (...)
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  50. Stephen Leeds (2007). Correspondence Truth and Scientific Realism. Synthese 159 (1):1 - 21.score: 30.0
    I argue that one good reason for Scientific Realists to be interested in correspondence theories is the hope they offer us of being able to state and defend realistic theses in the face of well-known difficulties about modern physics: such theses as, that our theories are approximately true, or that they will tend to approach the truth. I go on to claim that this hope is unlikely to be fulfilled. I suggest that Realism can still survive in the face (...)
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