Search results for 'universal generalization' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Carlo Cellucci (2009). The Universal Generalization Problem. Logique and Analyse 52 (205):3-20.score: 66.0
    Locke, Berkeley, Gentzen gave di erent justi cations of universal generalization. In particular, Gentzen's justi cation is the one currently used in most logic textbooks. In this paper I argue that all such justi cations are problematic, and propose an alternative justi cation which is related to the approach to generality of Greek mathematics.
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  2. Nick Chater, Paul M. B. Vitányi & Neil Stewart (2001). Universal Generalization and Universal Inter-Item Confusability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):659-660.score: 48.0
    We argue that confusability between items should be distinguished from generalization between items. Shepard's data concern confusability, but the theories proposed by Shepard and by Tenenbaum & Griffiths concern generalization, indicating a gap between theory and data. We consider the empirical and theoretical work involved in bridging this gap. [Shepard; Tenenbaum & Griffiths].
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  3. Sinan Dogramaci (2010). Knowledge of Validity. Noûs 44 (3):403-432.score: 45.0
    What accounts for how we know that certain rules of reasoning, such as reasoning by Modus Ponens, are valid? If our knowledge of validity must be based on some reasoning, then we seem to be committed to the legitimacy of rule-circular arguments for validity. This paper raises a new difficulty for the rule-circular account of our knowledge of validity. The source of the problem is that, contrary to traditional wisdom, a universal generalization cannot be inferred just on the (...)
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  4. Roger N. Shepard (2001). Perceptual-Cognitive Universals as Reflections of the World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):581-601.score: 42.0
    The universality, invariance, and elegance of principles governing the universe may be reflected in principles of the minds that have evolved in that universe – provided that the mental principles are formulated with respect to the abstract spaces appropriate for the representation of biologically significant objects and their properties. (1) Positions and motions of objects conserve their shapes in the geometrically fullest and simplest way when represented as points and connecting geodesic paths in the six-dimensional manifold jointly determined by the (...)
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  5. Alice Drewery (2005). The Logical Form of Universal Generalizations. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (3):373 – 393.score: 36.0
    First order logic does not distinguish between different forms of universal generalization; in this paper I argue that lawlike and accidental generalizations (broadly construed) have a different logical form, and that this distinction is syntactically marked in English. I then consider the relevance of this broader conception of lawlikeness to the philosophy of science.
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  6. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1978). On the Generalization of the Continuum of Inductive Methods to Universal Hypotheses. Synthese 37 (3):255 - 284.score: 36.0
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  7. Ruurik Holm (2013). Non-Zero Probabilities for Universal Generalizations. Synthese 190 (18):4001-4007.score: 34.0
    This article discusses the classical problem of zero probability of universal generalizations in Rudolf Carnap’s inductive logic. A correction rule for updating the inductive method on the basis of evidence will be presented. It will be shown that this rule has the effect that infinite streams of uniform evidence assume a non-zero limit probability. Since Carnap’s inductive logic is based on finite domains of individuals, the probability of the corresponding universal quantification changes accordingly. This implies that universal (...)
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  8. Nick Chater & Gordon D. A. Brown (2008). From Universal Laws of Cognition to Specific Cognitive Models. Cognitive Science 32 (1):36-67.score: 33.0
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  9. C. Kenneth Waters (1998). Causal Regularities in the Biological World of Contingent Distributions. Biology and Philosophy 13 (1):5-36.score: 30.0
    Former discussions of biological generalizations have focused on the question of whether there are universal laws of biology. These discussions typically analyzed generalizations out of their investigative and explanatory contexts and concluded that whatever biological generalizations are, they are not universal laws. The aim of this paper is to explain what biological generalizations are by shifting attention towards the contexts in which they are drawn. I argue that within the context of any particular biological explanation or investigation, biologists (...)
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  10. Stephen H. Phillips (2002). Does Classicism Explain Universality? Minds and Machines 12 (3):423-434.score: 30.0
    One of the hallmarks of human cognition is the capacity to generalize over arbitrary constituents. Recently, Marcus (1998, 1998a, b; Cognition 66, p. 153; Cognitive Psychology 37, p. 243) argued that this capacity, called universal generalization (universality), is not supported by Connectionist models. Instead, universality is best explained by Classical symbol systems, with Connectionism as its implementation. Here it is argued that universality is also a problem for Classicism in that the syntax-sensitive rules that are supposed to provide (...)
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  11. Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.score: 30.0
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a (...)
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  12. S. L. Zabell (1996). Confirming Universal Generalizations. Erkenntnis 45 (2-3):267 - 283.score: 28.0
    The purpose of this paper is to make a simple observation regarding the Johnson-Carnap continuum of inductive methods (see Johnson 1932, carnap 1952). From the outset, a common criticism of this continuum was its failure to permit the confirmation of universal generalizations: that is, if an event has unfailingly occurred in the past, the failure of the continuum to give some weight to the possibility that the event will continue to occur without fail in the future. The (...)
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  13. Brian R. Gaines (2010). Human Rationality Challenges Universal Logic. Logica Universalis 4 (2):163-205.score: 27.0
    Tarski’s conceptual analysis of the notion of logical consequence is one of the pinnacles of the process of defining the metamathematical foundations of mathematics in the tradition of his predecessors Euclid, Frege, Russell and Hilbert, and his contemporaries Carnap, Gödel, Gentzen and Turing. However, he also notes that in defining the concept of consequence “efforts were made to adhere to the common usage of the language of every day life.” This paper addresses the issue of what relationship Tarski’s analysis, and (...)
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  14. Gerhard Schurz, Local, General and Universal Prediction Strategies: A Game-Theoretical Approach to the Problem of Induction.score: 24.0
    In this paper I present a game-theoretical approach to the problem of induction. I investigate the comparative success of prediction methods by mathematical analysis and computer programming. Hume's problem lies in the fact that although the success of object-inductive prediction strategies is quite robust, they cannot be universally optimal. My proposal towards a solution of the problem of induction is meta-induction. I show that there exist meta-inductive prediction strategies whose success is universally optimal, modulo short-run losses which are upper-bounded. I (...)
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  15. Douglas Walton (1999). Rethinking the Fallacy of Hasty Generalization. Argumentation 13 (2):161-182.score: 24.0
    This paper makes a case for a refined look at the so- called ‘fallacy of hasty generalization’ by arguing that this expression is an umbrella term for two fallacies already distinguished by Aristotle. One is the fallacy of generalizing in an inappropriate way from a particular instance to a universal generalization containing a ‘for all x’ quantification. The other is the secundum quid (‘in a certain respect’) fallacy of moving to a conclusion that is supposed to be a (...)
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  16. Nathan Rosen (1991). Can One Have a Universal Time in General Relativity? Foundations of Physics 21 (4):459-472.score: 24.0
    The rest-frame of the universe determines a universal, or absolute time, that given by a clock at rest in it. The question is raised whether one can have a satisfactory universal time in general relativity if a gravitational field is present, i.e., whether there are coordinates such that the coordinate time is the time given everywhere by a clock at rest and they provide the correct description of our everyday experience. Several attempts are made to find such coordinates, (...)
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  17. Hans-Jürgen Treder (1976). Gravitation and Universal Fermi Coupling in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 6 (5):527-538.score: 24.0
    The generally covariant Lagrangian densityG = ℛ + 2K ℒmatter of the Hamiltonian principle in general relativity, formulated by Einstein and Hilbert, can be interpreted as a functional of the potentialsg ikand φ of the gravitational and matter fields. In this general relativistic interpretation, the Riemann-Christoffel form Γ kl i = kl i for the coefficients г kl i of the affine connections is postulated a priori. Alternatively, we can interpret the LagrangianG as a functional of φ, gik, and the (...)
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  18. Yury P. Shimansky (2004). The Concept of a Universal Learning System as a Basis for Creating a General Mathematical Theory of Learning. Minds and Machines 14 (4):453-484.score: 24.0
    The number of studies related to natural and artificial mechanisms of learning rapidly increases. However, there is no general theory of learning that could provide a unifying basis for exploring different directions in this growing field. For a long time the development of such a theory has been hindered by nativists' belief that the development of a biological organism during ontogeny should be viewed as parameterization of an innate, encoded in the genome structure by an innate algorithm, and nothing essentially (...)
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  19. Hugues Leblanc (1979). Generalization in First-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (4):835-857.score: 24.0
    DEALING INITIALLY WITH QC, THE STANDARD QUANTIFICATIONAL CALCULUS OF ORDER ONE, THE AUTHOR COMMENTS ON A SHORTCOMING, REPORTED IN 1956 BY MONTAGUE AND HENKIN, IN CHURCH'S ACCOUNT OF A PROOF FROM HYPOTHESES, AND SKETCHES THREE WAYS OF RIGHTING THINGS. THE THIRD, WHICH EXPLOITS A TRICK OF FITCH'S, IS THE SIMPLEST OF THE THREE. THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATES IT SOME, SUPPLYING FRESH PROOF OF UGT, THE UNIVERSAL GENERALIZATION THEOREM. THE PROOF HOLDS GOOD AS ONE PASSES FROM QC TO QC asterisk (...)
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  20. Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski (2001). Nature, Nurture, and Universal Grammar. Linguistics And Philosophy 24 (2):139-186.score: 21.0
    In just a few years, children achieve a stable state of linguistic competence, making them effectively adults with respect to: understanding novel sentences, discerning relations of paraphrase and entailment, acceptability judgments, etc. One familiar account of the language acquisition process treats it as an induction problem of the sort that arises in any domain where the knowledge achieved is logically underdetermined by experience. This view highlights the cues that are available in the input to children, as well as childrens skills (...)
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  21. Lara Denis (2007). Abortion and Kant's Formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):547-580.score: 21.0
    The formula of universal law (FUL) is a natural starting point for philosophers interested in a Kantian perspective on the morality of abortion. I argue, however, that FUL does not yield much in the way of promising or substantive conclusions regarding the morality of abortion. I first reveal how two philosophers' (Hare's and Gensler's) attempts to use Kantian considerations of universality and prescriptivity fail to provide analyses of abortion that are either compelling or true to Kant=s understanding of FUL. (...)
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  22. Christine Swanton (2010). A Challenge to Intellectual Virtue From Moral Virtue: The Case of Universal Love. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):152-171.score: 21.0
    Abstract: On the Aristotelian picture of virtue, moral virtue has at its core intellectual virtue. An interesting challenge for this orthodoxy is provided by the case of universal love and its associated virtues, such as the dispositions to exhibit grace, or to forgive, where appropriate. It is difficult to find a property in the object of such love, in virtue of which grace, for example, ought to be bestowed. Perhaps, then, love in general, including universal (...)
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  23. Ken Gemes (1997). Inductive Skepticism and the Probability Calculus I: Popper and Jeffreys on Induction and the Probability of Law-Like Universal Generalizations. Philosophy of Science 64 (1):113-130.score: 21.0
  24. Christopher Gauker (1997). Universal Instantiation: A Study of the Role of Context in Logic. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 46 (2):185-214.score: 21.0
    The rule of universal instantiation appears to be subject to counterexamples, although the rule of existential generalization is not subject to the same doubts. This paper is a survey of ways of responding to this problem, both conservative and revisionist. The conclusion drawn is that logical validity should be defined in terms of assertibility in a context rather than in terms of truth on an interpretation. Contexts are here defined, not in terms of the attitudes of the interlocutors, (...)
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  25. Ian F. Carlstrom (1990). A Truth-Functional Logic for Near-Universal Generalizations. Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):379 - 405.score: 21.0
  26. Shimon Edelman, Generalization to Novel Images in Upright and Inverted Faces.score: 21.0
    An image of a face depends not only on its shape, but also on the viewpoint, illumination conditions, and facial expression. A face recognition system must overcome the changes in face appearance induced by these factors. This paper investigate two related questions: the capacity of the human visual system to generalize the recognition of faces to novel images, and the level at which this generalization occurs. We approach this problems by comparing the identi cation and generalization capacity for (...)
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  27. James Bradley (2002). The Speculative Generalization of the Function: A Key to Whitehead. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (2):253 - 271.score: 21.0
    In Process and Reality (1929) and subsequent writings, A.N. Whitehead builds on the success of the Frege-Russell generalization of the mathematical function and develops his philosophy on that basis. He holds that the proper generalization of the meaning of the function shows that it is primarily to be defined in terms of many-to-one mapping activity, which he terms 'creativity'. This allows him to generalize the range of the function, so that it constitutes a universal ontology of construction (...)
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  28. Mirna Džamonja & Saharon Shelah (2004). On the Existence of Universal Models. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (7):901-936.score: 21.0
    Suppose that λ=λ <λ ≥ℵ0, and we are considering a theory T. We give a criterion on T which is sufficient for the consistent existence of λ++ universal models of T of size λ+ for models of T of size ≤λ+, and is meaningful when 2λ +>λ++. In fact, we work more generally with abstract elementary classes. The criterion for the consistent existence of universals applies to various well known theories, such as triangle-free graphs and simple theories. Having in (...)
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  29. Marcel Jackson (2008). Flat Algebras and the Translation of Universal Horn Logic to Equational Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (1):90-128.score: 21.0
    We describe which subdirectly irreducible flat algebras arise in the variety generated by an arbitrary class of flat algebras with absorbing bottom element. This is used to give an elementary translation of the universal Horn logic of algebras, and more generally still, partial structures into the equational logic of conventional algebras. A number of examples and corollaries follow. For example, the problem of deciding which finite algebras of some fixed type have a finite basis for their quasi-identities is shown (...)
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  30. Sven Nyholm (2012). On the Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. Dissertation, University of Michiganscore: 21.0
    The former says to choose one’s basic guiding principles (or “maxims”) on the basis of their fitness to serve as universal laws, the latter to always treat the humanity in each person as an end, and never as a means only. Commentators and critics have been puzzled by Kant’s claims that these are two alternative statements of the same basic law, and have raised various objections to Kant’s suggestion that these are the most basic formulas of a fully justified (...)
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  31. Steffen Ducheyne (2009). Understanding (in) Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):227 - 258.score: 19.0
    In this essay, I attempt to assess Henk de Regt and Dennis Dieks recent pragmatic and contextual account of scientific understanding on the basis of an important historical case-study: understanding in Newton’s theory of universal gravitation and Huygens’ reception of universal gravitation. It will be shown that de Regt and Dieks’ Criterion for the Intelligibility of a Theory (CIT), which stipulates that the appropriate combination of scientists’ skills and intelligibility-enhancing theoretical virtues is a condition for scientific understanding, is (...)
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  32. Mark S. Schwartz (2005). Universal Moral Values for Corporate Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):27 - 44.score: 18.0
    How can one establish if a corporate code of ethics is ethical in terms of its content? One important first step might be the establishment of core universal moral values by which corporate codes of ethics can be ethically constructed and evaluated. Following a review of normative research on corporate codes of ethics, a set of universal moral values is generated by considering three sources: (1) corporate codes of ethics; (2) global codes of ethics; and (3) the business (...)
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  33. R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu (2007). A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.score: 18.0
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures (...)
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  34. Glenn Hughes (2011). The Concept of Dignity in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (1):1-24.score: 18.0
    This essay examines the function of the concept of human dignity (both as an inherent feature of human existence and as an ideal achievement) in the United Nations's 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It explains why the key framers of the document affirmed an inherent human dignity in order to provide an explanatory basis for the validity of universal human rights while eschewing any religious or metaphysical justification for this affirmation. It argues that the key framers, while (...)
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  35. Arthur Ripstein (1994). Universal and General Wills: Hegel and Rousseau. Political Theory 22 (3):444-467.score: 18.0
  36. Ari Maunu (2008). Leibniz's Theory of Universal Expression Explicated. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):247-267.score: 18.0
    According Leibniz's thesis of universal expression, each substance expresses the whole world, i.e. all other substances, or, as Leibniz frequently states, from any given complete individual notion (which includes, in internal terms, everything truly attributable to a substance) one can "deduce" or "infer" all truths about the whole world. On the other hand, in Leibniz's view each (created) substance is internally individuated, self-sufficient and independent of other (created) substances. What may be called Leibniz's expression problem is, how to reconcile (...)
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  37. Jurgen Schroder (2002). The Supervenience Argument and the Generalization Problem. Erkenntnis 56 (3):319-28.score: 18.0
    This paper tries to show that Kims strategy of preventing the problem of generalization of mental causation is not successful and that his original supervenience argument can be applied to cases of nonmental macrolevel causation, with the effect that nonmental macroproperties which only supervene on, but are not identical with, configurations of microproperties turn out to be epiphenomenal after all.
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  38. Paolo Rossi (2000). Logic and the Art of Memory: The Quest for a Universal Language. University of Chicago Press.score: 18.0
    The mnemonic arts and the idea of a universal language that would capture the essence of all things were originally associated with cryptology, mysticism, and other occult practices. And it is commonly held that these enigmatic efforts were abandoned with the development of formal logic in the seventeenth century and the beginning of the modern era. In his distinguished book, Logic and the Art of Memory Italian philosopher and historian Paolo Rossi argues that this view is belied by an (...)
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  39. Humphrey P. Polanen Van Petel (2006). Universal Grammar as a Theory of Notation. Axiomathes 16 (4):460-485.score: 18.0
    What is common to all languages is notation, so Universal Grammar can be understood as a system of notational types. Given that infants acquire language, it can be assumed to arise from some a priori mental structure. Viewing language as having the two layers of calculus and protocol, we can set aside the communicative habits of speakers. Accordingly, an analysis of notation results in the three types of Identifier, Modifier and Connective. Modifiers are further interpreted as Quantifiers and Qualifiers. (...)
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  40. Erwin Tegtmeier (2013). Exemplification and Universal Realism. Axiomathes 23 (2):261-267.score: 18.0
    The relation between universal and particular is considered to be the Achilles’ heel of universal realism. However, modern universal realism with facts does not have the difficulties which traditional Platonic universal realism had. Its exemplification relation connecting particulars and universals in atomic facts is very different from Platonic participation. Bradley’s regress argument against the exemplification relation can be refuted in two different ways. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to avoid the assumption of an exemplification relation and (...)
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  41. Jianliang Xu (2009). The Universal Sentiment of Daoist Morality. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):524-536.score: 18.0
    Daoism has often been misunderstood as moral nihilism or anti-moralism, but the true Daoism indeed adopts a positive attitude towards morality. At the foundation of its universal sentiment is an affirmation of morality. Daoism takes all things as the starting point of its values in moral philosophy, and ziran 自然 (sponstaneously so) as the foundation of its philosophy with the universal commitment. Daoism hopes to use “ Dao to create the best environment for survival, and to fulfill individual (...)
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  42. Arundhati Das, Surajit Chattopadhyay & Ujjal Debnath (2012). Validity of the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Logamediate and Intermediate Scenarios of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):266-283.score: 18.0
    In this work, we have investigated the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in logamediate and intermediate scenarios of the universe bounded by the Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons using and without using first law of thermodynamics. We have observed that the GSL is valid for Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons of the universe in the logamediate scenario of the universe using first law and without using first law. Similarly the GSL is valid for all horizons (...)
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  43. Scott Forschler (2012). From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Become Heteronomous. In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter.score: 18.0
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite (...)
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  44. Scott Forschler (2010). Willing Universal Law Vs. Universally Lawful Willing. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):141-152.score: 18.0
    Kant's formula of universal law appears to fail in some cases, producing false negatives and false positives. Adding further qualifications to one's maxims can fix the first problem, but not all of the latter. In particular, there are maxims which generate no contradiction in will when practiced universally, but which are irrational to will that some agent follow in contexts where it is known that other agents are not following it. This reveals that Kant's conception of "universalization" is too (...)
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  45. Zenon Kulpa (2009). Main Problems of Diagrammatic Reasoning. Part I: The Generalization Problem. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):75-96.score: 18.0
    The paper attempts to analyze in some detail the main problems encountered in reasoning using diagrams, which may cause errors in reasoning, produce doubts concerning the reliability of diagrams, and impressions that diagrammatic reasoning lacks the rigour necessary for mathematical reasoning. The paper first argues that such impressions come from long neglect which led to a lack of well-developed, properly tested and reliable reasoning methods, as contrasted with the amount of work generations of mathematicians expended on refining the methods of (...)
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  46. Steffen Ducheyne (2006). The Argument(s) for Universal Gravitation. Foundations of Science 11 (4):419-447.score: 18.0
    In this paper an analysis of Newton’s argument for universal gravitation is provided. In the past, the complexity of the argument has not been fully appreciated. Recent authors like George E. Smith and William L. Harper have done a far better job. Nevertheless, a thorough account of the argument is still lacking. Both authors seem to stress the importance of only one methodological component. Smith stresses the procedure of approximative deductions backed-up by the laws of motion. Harper stresses “systematic (...)
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  47. Eric Hauser (2011). Generalization: A Practice of Situated Categorization in Talk. [REVIEW] Human Studies 34 (2):183-198.score: 18.0
    This paper analyzes four instances in talk of generalization about people, that is, of using statements about one or more people as the basis of stating something about a category. Generalization can be seen as a categorization practice which involves a reflexive relationship between the generalized-from person or people and the generalized-to category. One thing that is accomplished through generalization is instruction in how to understand the identity of the generalized-from person or people, so in addition to (...)
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  48. Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo (2010). The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning. Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.score: 18.0
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  49. Charles Sayward (2002). Geach on Generalization. Dialogue 41 (02):221-.score: 18.0
    There are plausible objections to substitutional construals of generalization. But these objections do not apply to a substitutional construal of generalization proposed by Peter Geach several years ago. This paper examines Geach’s conception.
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  50. Richard Shillcock (2014). The Concrete Universal and Cognitive Science. Axiomathes 24 (1):63-80.score: 18.0
    Cognitive science depends on abstractions made from the complex reality of human behaviour. Cognitive scientists typically wish the abstractions in their theories to be universals, but seldom attend to the ontology of universals. Two sorts of universal, resulting from Galilean abstraction and materialist abstraction respectively, are available in the philosophical literature: the abstract universal—the one-over-many universal—is the universal conventionally employed by cognitive scientists; in contrast, a concrete universal is a material entity that can appear within (...)
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