Search results for 'universal generalization' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nick Chater, Paul M. B. Vitányi & Neil Stewart (2001). Universal Generalization and Universal Inter-Item Confusability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):659-660.score: 96.0
    We argue that confusability between items should be distinguished from generalization between items. Shepard's data concern confusability, but the theories proposed by Shepard and by Tenenbaum & Griffiths concern generalization, indicating a gap between theory and data. We consider the empirical and theoretical work involved in bridging this gap. [Shepard; Tenenbaum & Griffiths].
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  2. Sinan Dogramaci (2010). Knowledge of Validity. Noûs 44 (3):403-432.score: 90.0
    What accounts for how we know that certain rules of reasoning, such as reasoning by Modus Ponens, are valid? If our knowledge of validity must be based on some reasoning, then we seem to be committed to the legitimacy of rule-circular arguments for validity. This paper raises a new difficulty for the rule-circular account of our knowledge of validity. The source of the problem is that, contrary to traditional wisdom, a universal generalization cannot be inferred just on the (...)
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  3. Roger N. Shepard (2001). Perceptual-Cognitive Universals as Reflections of the World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):581-601.score: 84.0
    The universality, invariance, and elegance of principles governing the universe may be reflected in principles of the minds that have evolved in that universe – provided that the mental principles are formulated with respect to the abstract spaces appropriate for the representation of biologically significant objects and their properties. (1) Positions and motions of objects conserve their shapes in the geometrically fullest and simplest way when represented as points and connecting geodesic paths in the six-dimensional manifold jointly determined by the (...)
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  4. Alice Drewery (2005). The Logical Form of Universal Generalizations. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (3):373 – 393.score: 72.0
    First order logic does not distinguish between different forms of universal generalization; in this paper I argue that lawlike and accidental generalizations (broadly construed) have a different logical form, and that this distinction is syntactically marked in English. I then consider the relevance of this broader conception of lawlikeness to the philosophy of science.
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  5. Theo A. F. Kuipers (1978). On the Generalization of the Continuum of Inductive Methods to Universal Hypotheses. Synthese 37 (3):255 - 284.score: 72.0
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  6. Nick Chater & Gordon D. A. Brown (2008). From Universal Laws of Cognition to Specific Cognitive Models. Cognitive Science 32 (1):36-67.score: 66.0
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  7. C. Kenneth Waters (1998). Causal Regularities in the Biological World of Contingent Distributions. Biology and Philosophy 13 (1):5-36.score: 60.0
    Former discussions of biological generalizations have focused on the question of whether there are universal laws of biology. These discussions typically analyzed generalizations out of their investigative and explanatory contexts and concluded that whatever biological generalizations are, they are not universal laws. The aim of this paper is to explain what biological generalizations are by shifting attention towards the contexts in which they are drawn. I argue that within the context of any particular biological explanation or investigation, biologists (...)
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  8. Stephen H. Phillips (2002). Does Classicism Explain Universality? Minds and Machines 12 (3):423-434.score: 60.0
    One of the hallmarks of human cognition is the capacity to generalize over arbitrary constituents. Recently, Marcus (1998, 1998a, b; Cognition 66, p. 153; Cognitive Psychology 37, p. 243) argued that this capacity, called universal generalization (universality), is not supported by Connectionist models. Instead, universality is best explained by Classical symbol systems, with Connectionism as its implementation. Here it is argued that universality is also a problem for Classicism in that the syntax-sensitive rules that are supposed to provide (...)
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  9. Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths (2001). Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.score: 60.0
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a (...)
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  10. Ruurik Holm (2013). Non-Zero Probabilities for Universal Generalizations. Synthese 190 (18):4001-4007.score: 56.0
    This article discusses the classical problem of zero probability of universal generalizations in Rudolf Carnap’s inductive logic. A correction rule for updating the inductive method on the basis of evidence will be presented. It will be shown that this rule has the effect that infinite streams of uniform evidence assume a non-zero limit probability. Since Carnap’s inductive logic is based on finite domains of individuals, the probability of the corresponding universal quantification changes accordingly. This implies that universal (...)
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  11. Brian R. Gaines (2010). Human Rationality Challenges Universal Logic. Logica Universalis 4 (2):163-205.score: 54.0
    Tarski’s conceptual analysis of the notion of logical consequence is one of the pinnacles of the process of defining the metamathematical foundations of mathematics in the tradition of his predecessors Euclid, Frege, Russell and Hilbert, and his contemporaries Carnap, Gödel, Gentzen and Turing. However, he also notes that in defining the concept of consequence “efforts were made to adhere to the common usage of the language of every day life.” This paper addresses the issue of what relationship Tarski’s analysis, and (...)
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  12. S. L. Zabell (1996). Confirming Universal Generalizations. Erkenntnis 45 (2-3):267 - 283.score: 48.0
    The purpose of this paper is to make a simple observation regarding the Johnson-Carnap continuum of inductive methods (see Johnson 1932, carnap 1952). From the outset, a common criticism of this continuum was its failure to permit the confirmation of universal generalizations: that is, if an event has unfailingly occurred in the past, the failure of the continuum to give some weight to the possibility that the event will continue to occur without fail in the future. The (...)
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  13. Douglas Walton (1999). Rethinking the Fallacy of Hasty Generalization. Argumentation 13 (2):161-182.score: 48.0
    This paper makes a case for a refined look at the so- called ‘fallacy of hasty generalization’ by arguing that this expression is an umbrella term for two fallacies already distinguished by Aristotle. One is the fallacy of generalizing in an inappropriate way from a particular instance to a universal generalization containing a ‘for all x’ quantification. The other is the secundum quid (‘in a certain respect’) fallacy of moving to a conclusion that is supposed to be a (...)
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  14. Hugues Leblanc (1979). Generalization in First-Order Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (4):835-857.score: 48.0
    DEALING INITIALLY WITH QC, THE STANDARD QUANTIFICATIONAL CALCULUS OF ORDER ONE, THE AUTHOR COMMENTS ON A SHORTCOMING, REPORTED IN 1956 BY MONTAGUE AND HENKIN, IN CHURCH'S ACCOUNT OF A PROOF FROM HYPOTHESES, AND SKETCHES THREE WAYS OF RIGHTING THINGS. THE THIRD, WHICH EXPLOITS A TRICK OF FITCH'S, IS THE SIMPLEST OF THE THREE. THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATES IT SOME, SUPPLYING FRESH PROOF OF UGT, THE UNIVERSAL GENERALIZATION THEOREM. THE PROOF HOLDS GOOD AS ONE PASSES FROM QC TO QC asterisk (...)
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  15. Christopher Gauker (1997). Universal Instantiation: A Study of the Role of Context in Logic. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 46 (2):185-214.score: 42.0
    The rule of universal instantiation appears to be subject to counterexamples, although the rule of existential generalization is not subject to the same doubts. This paper is a survey of ways of responding to this problem, both conservative and revisionist. The conclusion drawn is that logical validity should be defined in terms of assertibility in a context rather than in terms of truth on an interpretation. Contexts are here defined, not in terms of the attitudes of the interlocutors, (...)
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  16. Shimon Edelman, Generalization to Novel Images in Upright and Inverted Faces.score: 42.0
    An image of a face depends not only on its shape, but also on the viewpoint, illumination conditions, and facial expression. A face recognition system must overcome the changes in face appearance induced by these factors. This paper investigate two related questions: the capacity of the human visual system to generalize the recognition of faces to novel images, and the level at which this generalization occurs. We approach this problems by comparing the identi cation and generalization capacity for (...)
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  17. James Bradley (2002). The Speculative Generalization of the Function: A Key to Whitehead. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (2):253 - 271.score: 42.0
    In Process and Reality (1929) and subsequent writings, A.N. Whitehead builds on the success of the Frege-Russell generalization of the mathematical function and develops his philosophy on that basis. He holds that the proper generalization of the meaning of the function shows that it is primarily to be defined in terms of many-to-one mapping activity, which he terms 'creativity'. This allows him to generalize the range of the function, so that it constitutes a universal ontology of construction (...)
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  18. Gerhard Schurz, Local, General and Universal Prediction Strategies: A Game-Theoretical Approach to the Problem of Induction.score: 40.0
    In this paper I present a game-theoretical approach to the problem of induction. I investigate the comparative success of prediction methods by mathematical analysis and computer programming. Hume's problem lies in the fact that although the success of object-inductive prediction strategies is quite robust, they cannot be universally optimal. My proposal towards a solution of the problem of induction is meta-induction. I show that there exist meta-inductive prediction strategies whose success is universally optimal, modulo short-run losses which are upper-bounded. I (...)
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  19. Nathan Rosen (1991). Can One Have a Universal Time in General Relativity? Foundations of Physics 21 (4):459-472.score: 40.0
    The rest-frame of the universe determines a universal, or absolute time, that given by a clock at rest in it. The question is raised whether one can have a satisfactory universal time in general relativity if a gravitational field is present, i.e., whether there are coordinates such that the coordinate time is the time given everywhere by a clock at rest and they provide the correct description of our everyday experience. Several attempts are made to find such coordinates, (...)
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  20. Yury P. Shimansky (2004). The Concept of a Universal Learning System as a Basis for Creating a General Mathematical Theory of Learning. Minds and Machines 14 (4):453-484.score: 40.0
    The number of studies related to natural and artificial mechanisms of learning rapidly increases. However, there is no general theory of learning that could provide a unifying basis for exploring different directions in this growing field. For a long time the development of such a theory has been hindered by nativists' belief that the development of a biological organism during ontogeny should be viewed as parameterization of an innate, encoded in the genome structure by an innate algorithm, and nothing essentially (...)
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  21. Hans-Jürgen Treder (1976). Gravitation and Universal Fermi Coupling in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 6 (5):527-538.score: 40.0
    The generally covariant Lagrangian densityG = ℛ + 2K ℒmatter of the Hamiltonian principle in general relativity, formulated by Einstein and Hilbert, can be interpreted as a functional of the potentialsg ikand φ of the gravitational and matter fields. In this general relativistic interpretation, the Riemann-Christoffel form Γ kl i = kl i for the coefficients г kl i of the affine connections is postulated a priori. Alternatively, we can interpret the LagrangianG as a functional of φ, gik, and the (...)
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  22. Ken Gemes (1997). Inductive Skepticism and the Probability Calculus I: Popper and Jeffreys on Induction and the Probability of Law-Like Universal Generalizations. Philosophy of Science 64 (1):113-130.score: 36.0
  23. Arundhati Das, Surajit Chattopadhyay & Ujjal Debnath (2012). Validity of the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Logamediate and Intermediate Scenarios of the Universe. Foundations of Physics 42 (2):266-283.score: 36.0
    In this work, we have investigated the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in logamediate and intermediate scenarios of the universe bounded by the Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons using and without using first law of thermodynamics. We have observed that the GSL is valid for Hubble, apparent, particle and event horizons of the universe in the logamediate scenario of the universe using first law and without using first law. Similarly the GSL is valid for all horizons (...)
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  24. Ian F. Carlstrom (1990). A Truth-Functional Logic for Near-Universal Generalizations. Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):379 - 405.score: 36.0
  25. Marion Smiley (1993). Feminist Theory and the Question of Identity. Women and Politics 13 (2):91-122.score: 36.0
    This article reflects upon what can go wrong when feminist philosophers begin with a universal identity, rather than with the needs of particular individuals, and argues that we can group individuals together without such a universal identity if we develop a practice of social generalization that places shared needs, rather than identities, at the center of attention.
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  26. Mei Wah M. Williams & Matthew Neil Williams (2012). Academic Dishonesty, Self-Control, and General Criminality: A Prospective and Retrospective Study of Academic Dishonesty in a New Zealand University. Ethics and Behavior 22 (2):89 - 112.score: 32.0
    Academic dishonesty is an insidious problem that besets most tertiary institutions, where considerable resources are expended to prevent and manage students' dishonest actions within academia. Using a mixed retrospective and prospective design this research investigated Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory as a possible explanation for academic dishonesty in 264 university students. The relationship between academic dishonesty and general criminality was also examined. A significant but small to moderate relationship between academic dishonesty and general criminality was present, including correlations with general (...)
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  27. A. Sorensen (2012). On a Universal Scale: Economy in Bataille's General Economy. Philosophy and Social Criticism 38 (2):169-197.score: 32.0
    This article analyses the general economy of Georges Bataille (1897–1962) in relation to political economy. In the first section I present a critical perspective on economy that is necessary in order to appreciate Bataille’s conception of general economy, which is presented in the second section. The general economy is first considered in a macro-perspective, which comprises the whole of the universe, second in a micro-perspective, where the subjective aspect of economy is maintained as non-objectified desire and inner experience. In the (...)
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  28. Lara Denis (2007). Abortion and Kant's Formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):547-580.score: 30.0
    The formula of universal law (FUL) is a natural starting point for philosophers interested in a Kantian perspective on the morality of abortion. I argue, however, that FUL does not yield much in the way of promising or substantive conclusions regarding the morality of abortion. I first reveal how two philosophers' (Hare's and Gensler's) attempts to use Kantian considerations of universality and prescriptivity fail to provide analyses of abortion that are either compelling or true to Kant=s understanding of FUL. (...)
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  29. Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski (2001). Nature, Nurture, and Universal Grammar. Linguistics And Philosophy 24 (2):139-186.score: 30.0
    In just a few years, children achieve a stable state of linguistic competence, making them effectively adults with respect to: understanding novel sentences, discerning relations of paraphrase and entailment, acceptability judgments, etc. One familiar account of the language acquisition process treats it as an induction problem of the sort that arises in any domain where the knowledge achieved is logically underdetermined by experience. This view highlights the cues that are available in the input to children, as well as childrens skills (...)
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  30. R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu (2007). A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.score: 30.0
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures (...)
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  31. Phil Corkum, Aristotle on Logical Consequence.score: 30.0
    Compare two conceptions of validity: under an example of a modal conception, an argument is valid just in case it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false; under an example of a topic-neutral conception, an argument is valid just in case there are no arguments of the same logical form with true premises and a false conclusion. This taxonomy of positions suggests a project in the philosophy of logic: the reductive analysis of the modal conception (...)
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  32. Richard Holton (2010). The Exception Proves the Rule. Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (4):369-388.score: 30.0
    When faced with a rule that they take to be true, and a recalcitrant example, people are apt to say: “The exception proves the rule”. When pressed on what they mean by this though, things are often less than clear. A common response is to dredge up some once-heard etymology: ‘proves’ here, it is often said, means ‘tests’. But this response—its frequent appearance even in some reference works notwithstanding1—makes no sense of the way in which the expression is used. To (...)
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  33. Alexander Bird (2002). Laws and Criteria. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (4):511-42.score: 30.0
    Debates concerning the analysis of the concept of law of nature must address the following problem. On the one hand, our grasp of laws of nature is via our knowledge of their instances. And this seems not only an epistemological truth but also a semantic one. The concept of a law of nature must be explicated in terms of the things that instantiate the law. It is not simply that a piece of metal that conducts electricity is evidence for a (...)
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  34. Christine Swanton (2010). A Challenge to Intellectual Virtue From Moral Virtue: The Case of Universal Love. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):152-171.score: 30.0
    Abstract: On the Aristotelian picture of virtue, moral virtue has at its core intellectual virtue. An interesting challenge for this orthodoxy is provided by the case of universal love and its associated virtues, such as the dispositions to exhibit grace, or to forgive, where appropriate. It is difficult to find a property in the object of such love, in virtue of which grace, for example, ought to be bestowed. Perhaps, then, love in general, including universal (...)
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  35. Arthur Ripstein (1994). Universal and General Wills: Hegel and Rousseau. Political Theory 22 (3):444-467.score: 30.0
  36. Robin Smith (1982). What Is Aristotelian Ecthesis? History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):113-127.score: 30.0
    I consider the proper interpretation of the process of ecthesis which Aristotle uses several times in the Prior analytics for completing a syllogistic mood, i.e., showing how to produce a deduction of a conclusion of a certain form from premisses of certain forms. I consider two interpretations of the process which have been advocated by recent scholars and show that one seems better suited to most passages while the other best fits a single remaining passage. I also argue that ecthesis (...)
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  37. Patrick Suppes (1964/2002). First Course in Mathematical Logic. Dover Publications.score: 30.0
    This introduction to rigorous mathematical logic is simple enough in both presentation and context for students of a wide range of ages and abilities. Starting with symbolizing sentences and sentential connectives, it proceeds to the rules of logical inference and sentential derivation, examines the concepts of truth and validity, and presents a series of truth tables. Subsequent topics include terms, predicates, and universal quantifiers; universal specification and laws of identity; axioms for addition; and universal generalization. Throughout (...)
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  38. Emiliano Ippoliti, Carlo Cellucci & Emily Grosholz (eds.) (2011). Logic and Knowlegde. Cambridge Scholar Publishing.score: 30.0
    Logic and Knowledge -/- Editor: Carlo Cellucci, Emily Grosholz and Emiliano Ippoliti Date Of Publication: Aug 2011 Isbn13: 978-1-4438-3008-9 Isbn: 1-4438-3008-9 -/- The problematic relation between logic and knowledge has given rise to some of the most important works in the history of philosophy, from Books VI–VII of Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Prior and Posterior Analytics, to Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and Mill’s A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive. It provides the title of an important collection of papers (...)
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  39. R. Sorensen (2012). The Sorites and the Generic Overgeneralization Effect. Analysis 72 (3):444-449.score: 30.0
    Sorites arguments employ an induction step such as ‘Small numbers have small successors’. People deduce that there must be an exception to the generalization but are reluctant to conclude that the generalization is false. My hypothesis is that the reluctance is due to the "Generic Overgeneralization Effect". Although the propounder of the sorites paradox intends the induction step to be a universal generalization, hearers assimilate universal generalizations to generic generalizations (for instance, ‘All birds fly’ tends (...)
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  40. Stephen Pollard (2007). Mathematical Determinacy and the Transferability of Aboutness. Synthese 159 (1):83 - 98.score: 30.0
    Competent speakers of natural languages can borrow reference from one another. You can arrange for your utterances of ‘Kirksville’ to refer to the same thing as my utterances of ‘Kirksville’. We can then talk about the same thing when we discuss Kirksville. In cases like this, you borrow “aboutness” from me by borrowing reference. Now suppose I wish to initiate a line of reasoning applicable to any prime number. I might signal my intention by saying, “Let p be any (...)
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  41. Raul Hakli & Sara Negri (2012). Does the Deduction Theorem Fail for Modal Logic? Synthese 187 (3):849-867.score: 30.0
    Various sources in the literature claim that the deduction theorem does not hold for normal modal or epistemic logic, whereas others present versions of the deduction theorem for several normal modal systems. It is shown here that the apparent problem arises from an objectionable notion of derivability from assumptions in an axiomatic system. When a traditional Hilbert-type system of axiomatic logic is generalized into a system for derivations from assumptions, the necessitation rule has to be modified in a way that (...)
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  42. Marcel Jackson (2008). Flat Algebras and the Translation of Universal Horn Logic to Equational Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (1):90-128.score: 30.0
    We describe which subdirectly irreducible flat algebras arise in the variety generated by an arbitrary class of flat algebras with absorbing bottom element. This is used to give an elementary translation of the universal Horn logic of algebras, and more generally still, partial structures into the equational logic of conventional algebras. A number of examples and corollaries follow. For example, the problem of deciding which finite algebras of some fixed type have a finite basis for their quasi-identities is shown (...)
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  43. Mirna Džamonja & Saharon Shelah (2004). On the Existence of Universal Models. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (7):901-936.score: 30.0
    Suppose that λ=λ <λ ≥ℵ0, and we are considering a theory T. We give a criterion on T which is sufficient for the consistent existence of λ++ universal models of T of size λ+ for models of T of size ≤λ+, and is meaningful when 2λ +>λ++. In fact, we work more generally with abstract elementary classes. The criterion for the consistent existence of universals applies to various well known theories, such as triangle-free graphs and simple theories. Having in (...)
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  44. Henry E. Kyburg Jr (1985). The Confirmation of Quantitative Laws. Philosophy of Science 52 (1):1-22.score: 30.0
    Quantitative laws are more typical of science than are generalizations involving observational predicates, yet much discussion of scientific inference takes the confirmation of a universal generalization by its instances to be typical and paradigmatic. The important difference is that measurement necessarily involves error. It is argued that because of error laws can no more be refuted by observation than they can be verified by observation. Without much background knowledge, tests of a law mainly provide evidence for the distribution (...)
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  45. Sebastian Enqvist (2013). A General Lindström Theorem for Some Normal Modal Logics. Logica Universalis 7 (2):233-264.score: 30.0
    There are several known Lindström-style characterization results for basic modal logic. This paper proves a generic Lindström theorem that covers any normal modal logic corresponding to a class of Kripke frames definable by a set of formulas called strict universal Horn formulas. The result is a generalization of a recent characterization of modal logic with the global modality. A negative result is also proved in an appendix showing that the result cannot be strengthened to cover every first-order elementary (...)
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  46. Jaap van Oosten (2006). A General Form of Relative Recursion. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (3):311-318.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this note is to observe a generalization of the concept "computable in..." to arbitrary partial combinatory algebras. For every partial combinatory algebra (pca) A and every partial endofunction on A, a pca A[f] is constructed such that in A[f], the function f is representable by an element; a universal property of the construction is formulated in terms of Longley's 2-category of pcas and decidable applicative morphisms. It is proved that there is always a geometric inclusion (...)
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  47. Sven Nyholm (2012). On the Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. Dissertation, University of Michiganscore: 30.0
    Whereas the universal law formula says to choose one’s basic guiding principles (or “maxims”) on the basis of their fitness to serve as universal laws, the humanity formula says to always treat the humanity in each person as an end, and never as a means only. Commentators and critics have been puzzled by Kant’s claims that these are two alternative statements of the same basic law, and have raised various objections to Kant’s suggestion that these are the most (...)
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  48. Jason Brennan (2007). Free Will in the Block Universe. Philosophia 35 (2):207-217.score: 28.0
    Carl Hoefer has argued that determinism in block universes does not privilege any particular time slice as the fundamental determiner of other time slices. He concludes from this that our actions are free, insofar as they are pieces of time slices we may legitimately regard as fundamental determiners. However, I argue that Hoefer does not adequately deal with certain remaining problems. For one, there remain pervasive asymmetries in causation and the macroscopic efficacy of our actions. I suggest that what Hoefer (...)
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  49. Erhard Scheibe (1991). General Laws of Nature and the Uniqueness of the Universe. In Evandro Agazzi & Alberto Cordero (eds.), Philosophy and the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 341--360.score: 28.0
    It seems a generally acknowledged view that physics is confined to the investigation of events that can be reproduced. “The natural scientist — says Pauli1 — is concerned with a particular kind of phenomena … he has to confine himself to that which is reproducible… I do not claim that the reproducible by itself is more important than the unique. But I do claim that the unique exceeds the treatment by scientific method. Indeed it is the aim of this method (...)
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  50. M. L. Dalla Chiara, A. Ledda, G. Sergioli & R. Giuntini (2013). The Toffoli-Hadamard Gate System: An Algebraic Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (3):467-481.score: 28.0
    Shi and Aharonov have shown that the Toffoli gate and the Hadamard gate give rise to an approximately universal set of quantum computational gates. The basic algebraic properties of this system have been studied in Dalla Chiara et al. (Foundations of Physics 39(6):559–572, 2009), where we have introduced the notion of Shi-Aharonov quantum computational structure. In this paper we propose an algebraic abstraction from the Hilbert-space quantum computational structures, by introducing the notion of Toffoli-Hadamard algebra. From an intuitive point (...)
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