Search results for 'universals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Chad Carmichael (2010). Universals. Philosophical Studies 150 (3):373-89.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I argue that there are universals. I begin (Sect. 1) by proposing a sufficient condition for a thing’s being a universal. I then argue (Sect. 2) that some truths exist necessarily. Finally, I argue (Sects. 3 and 4) that these truths are structured entities having constituents that meet the proposed sufficient condition for being universals.
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  2. Thomas Mormann (2010). Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition. Axiomathes 20 (2 -3):229 - 253.score: 24.0
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that Lewis and (...)
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  3. John Bolender (2006). Nomic Universals and Particular Causal Relations: Which Are Basic and Which Are Derived? Philosophia 34 (4):405-410.score: 24.0
    Armstrong holds that a law of nature is a certain sort of structural universal which, in turn, fixes causal relations between particular states of affairs. His claim that these nomic structural universals explain causal relations commits him to saying that such universals are irreducible, not supervenient upon the particular causal relations they fix. However, Armstrong also wants to avoid Plato’s view that a universal can exist without being instantiated, a view which he regards as incompatible with naturalism. This (...)
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  4. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.score: 24.0
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor as (...)
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  5. Frits Staal (1988). Universals: Studies in Indian Logic and Linguistics. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    This collection of articles and review essays, including many hard to find pieces, comprises the most important and fundamental studies of Indian logic and linguistics ever undertaken. Frits Staal is concerned with four basic questions: Are there universals of logic that transcend culture and time? Are there universals of language and linguistics? What is the nature of Indian logic? And what is the nature of Indian linguistics? By addressing these questions, Staal demonstrates that, contrary to the general assumption (...)
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  6. Rubenstein, Mary C. MacLeod & M. Eric, Universals.score: 24.0
    Universals are a class of mind independent entities, usually contrasted with individuals, postulated to ground and explain relations of qualitative identity and resemblance among individuals. Individuals are said to be similar in virtue of sharing universals. An apple and a ruby are both red, and their common redness results from sharing a universal. If they are both red at the same time, the universal, red, must be in two places at once. This makes universals quite different from (...)
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  7. Evan Fales (1990). Causation and Universals. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Then, adopting the view of Armstrong and others that causation is grounded in a second-order relation between universals, he explores a range of topics for ...
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  8. Anna Wierzbicka (1996). Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Conceptual primitives and semantic universals are the cornerstones of a semantic theory which Anna Wierzbicka has been developing for many years. Semantics: Primes and Universals is a major synthesis of her work, presenting a full and systematic exposition of that theory in a non-technical and readable way. It delineates a full set of universal concepts, as they have emerged from large-scale investigations across a wide range of languages undertaken by the author and her colleagues. On the basis of (...)
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  9. Ingvar Johansson (2009). Proof of the Existence of Universals—and Roman Ingarden's Ontology. Metaphysica 10 (1):65-87.score: 24.0
    The paper ends with an argument that says: necessarily, if there are finitely spatially extended particulars, then there are monadic universals. Before that, in order to characterize the distinction between particulars and universals, Roman Ingarden’s notions of existential moments and modes (ways) of being are presented, and a new pair of such existential moments is introduced: multiplicity–monadicity. Also, it is argued that there are not only real universals, but instances of universals (tropes) and fictional universals (...)
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  10. Nathan Stemmer (2007). On Universals: An Extensionalist Alternative to Quine's Resemblance Theory. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (1):75 - 90.score: 24.0
    The notion of similarity plays a central role in Quine’s theory of Universals and it is with the help of this notion that Quine intends to define the concept of kind which also plays a central role in the theory. But as Quine has admitted, his attempts to define kinds in terms of similarities were unsuccessful and it is mainly because of this shortcoming that Quine’s theory has been ignored by several philosophers (see, e.g., Armstrong, D. M. (1978a). Nominalism (...)
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  11. Friederike Moltmann (2005). Two Kinds of Universals and Two Kinds of Collections. Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (6):739 - 776.score: 24.0
    This paper argues for an ontological distinction between two kinds of universals, 'kinds of tropes' such as 'wisdom' and properties such as 'the property of being wise'. It argues that the distinction is parallel to that between two kinds of collections, pluralities such as 'the students' and collective objects such as 'the class'. The paper argues for the priortity of distributive readings with pluralities on the basis of predicates of extent or shape, such 'large' or 'long'.
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  12. Scott Berman (2008). Universals: Ways or Things? [REVIEW] Metaphysica 9 (2):219-234.score: 24.0
    What all contemporary so-called aristotelian realists have in common has been identified by David Armstrong as the principle of instantiation. This principle has been put forward in different versions, but all of them have the following simple consequence in common: uninstantiated universals do not exist. Such entities are for the lotus-eating Platonist to countenance, but not for any sort of moderate realist. I shall argue that this principle, in any guise, is not the best way to differentiate aristotelianism from (...)
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  13. Richard Brian Davis (2013). How to Individuate Universals—Or Not. Axiomathes 23 (3):551-566.score: 24.0
    In a recent article in this journal, J. P. Moreland (2013) extends his theory of individuation to include universals. In this note, I show how Moreland’s novel proposal leads to the unwanted conclusion that every concrete particular exists of necessity and has but a single essential property.
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  14. Will Rasmussen (2009). The Realism of Universals in Plato and Nyāya. Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (3):231-252.score: 24.0
    It has become commonplace in introductions to Indian philosophy to construe Plato’s discussion of forms (εἶδος/ἰδέα) and the treatment in Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika of universals ( sāmānya/jāti ) as addressing the same philosophical issue, albeit in somewhat different ways. While such a comparison of the similarities and differences has interest and value as an initial reconnaissance of what each says about common properties, an examination of the roles that universals play in the rest of their philosophical enquiries vitiates (...)
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  15. D. M. Armstrong (1989). Universals: An Opinionated Introduction. Westview Press.score: 24.0
    In this short text, a distinguished philosopher turns his attention to one of the oldest and most fundamental philosophical problems of all: How it is that we are able to sort and classify different things as being of the same natural class? Professor Armstrong carefully sets out six major theories—ancient, modern, and contemporary—and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each. Recognizing that there are no final victories or defeats in metaphysics, Armstrong nonetheless defends a traditional account of universals as (...)
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  16. Paul Gould (2012). The Problem of Universals, Realism, and God. Metaphysica 13 (2):183-194.score: 24.0
    There has been much discussion of late on what exactly the Problem of Universals is and is not. Of course answers to these questions and many more like it depend on what is supposed to be explained by a solution to the Problem of Universals. In this paper, I seek to establish two claims: first, that when the facts (explanada) to be explained and the kind of explanation needed are elucidated, it will be shown that the Problem of (...)
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  17. Catherine Legg (2001). Predication and the Problem of Universals. Philosophical Papers 30 (2):117-143.score: 24.0
    Abstract This paper contrasts the scholastic realisms of David Armstrong and Charles Peirce. It is argued that the so-called ?problem of universals? is not a problem in pure ontology (concerning whether universals exist) as Armstrong construes it to be. Rather, it extends to issues concerning which predicates should be applied where, issues which Armstrong sets aside under the label of ?semantics?, and which from a Peircean perspective encompass even the fundamentals of scientific methodology. It is argued that Peirce's (...)
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  18. Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (2002). The Problem of Universals and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis. Philosophical Papers 31 (1):39-47.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue, contra Fraser MacBride, that conceptual analysis, and in particular the distinction between numerical and qualitative identity, can solve the Problem of Universals, whether understood as the One over Many or the as the Many over One. In this paper I show why the solutions needed to solve either version of the problem must be in terms of truthmakers, and that the distinction between numerical and qualitative identity is not sufficient to solve them.
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  19. Jiri Benovsky (2014). Tropes or Universals: How (Not) to Make One's Choice. Metaphilosophy 45 (1):69-86.score: 24.0
    This article discusses a familiar version of trope theory as opposed to a familiar version of the theory of universals, examining how these two rivals address the problem of “attribute agreement”—a problem that has been at the root of the very reason for developing these theories in the first place. The article shows that there is not much of a difference between the ways these two theories handle the problem, and in a more general way it argues that there (...)
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  20. Dietmar Zaefferer (ed.) (1991). Semantic Universals and Universal Semantics. Foris Publications.score: 24.0
    Dietmar Zaefferer Institutfiir Deutsche Philologie Universitdt Munchen Schellingstr. 3 D-8000 Munchen 40 Semantic universals are the properties the ...
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  21. Lodi Nauta (2012). From Universals to Topics: The Realism of Rudolph Agricola, with an Edition of His Reply to a Critic. Vivarium 50 (2):190-224.score: 24.0
    Rudolph Agricola’s De inventione dialectica has rightly been regarded as the most original and influential textbook on argumentation, reading, writing, and communication in the Renaissance. At the heart of his treatment are the topics ( loci ), such as definition, genus, species, place, whole, parts, similars, and so on. While their function in Agricola’s system is argumentative and rhetorical, the roots of the topics are metaphysical, as Agricola himself explicitly acknowledges. It has led scholars to characterize Agricola as a realist (...)
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  22. M. F. Sharlow (2006). Chemical Elements and the Problem of Universals. Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):225-242.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I explore a seldom-recognized connection between the ontology of abstract objects and a current issue in the philosophy of chemistry. Specifically, I argue that realism with regard to universals implies a view of chemical elements similar to F.A. Paneth’s thesis about the dual nature of the concept of element.
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  23. Barbara Bloom Lloyd & John Gay (eds.) (1981). Universals of Human Thought: Some African Evidence. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This book was originally published in 1981 and the theme of universals attracted a great deal of attention in the decade preceding publication.
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  24. Arkadiusz Chrudzimski (2011). Realistyczne teorie uniwersaliów (realist theories of universals). In Sebastian Kołodziejczyk (ed.), Przewodnik po Metafizyce. WAM.score: 24.0
    This is a general introduction to the metaphysics o universals.
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  25. Steven T. Piantadosi & Edward Gibson (2014). Quantitative Standards for Absolute Linguistic Universals. Cognitive Science 38 (4):736-756.score: 24.0
    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods—frequentist and Bayesian—and show that in both (...)
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  26. Raja Ram Dravid (2001). The Problem of Universals in Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.score: 24.0
    The author gives a critical and comprehensive study of the fundamental problem of universals in Indian Philosophy.
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  27. D. M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    v. 1. Nominalism and realism.--v. 2. A theory of universals.
     
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  28. Mariusz Grygianiec (2013). Two Approaches to the Problem of Universals by J. M. Bocheński. Studies in East European Thought 65 (1-2):27-42.score: 24.0
    The main aim of the paper is to reconstruct and analyse two methodological approaches to the problem of universals, presented in Bocheński’s papers “Powszechniki jako treści cech w filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu” and “The Problem of Universals.” It is argued that, although these approaches are rather different from historical and methodological points of view, they are still based on the same ontological ground, viz. on immanent realism. The article provides a detailed analysis and comparison of the respective (...)
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  29. Charles Landesman (1971). The Problem of Universals. New York,Basic Books.score: 24.0
    On the relations of universals and particulars, by B. Russell.--Universals and resemblances, by H. H. Price.--On concept and object, by G. Frege.--Frege's hidden nominalism, by G. Bergmann.--Universals, by F. P. Ramsey.--Universals and metaphysical realism, by A. Donagan.--Universals and family resemblances, by R. Bambrough.--Particular and general, by P. F. Strawson.--The nature of universals and propositions, by G. F. Stout.--Are characteristics of particular things universal or particular? By G. E. Moore and G. F. Stout.--The relation of (...)
     
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  30. Michael J. Loux (ed.) (1970/1976). Universals and Particulars: Readings in Ontology. University of Notre Dame Press.score: 24.0
    Universals: Loux, M. J. The existence of universals. Russell, B. The world of universals. Quine, W. V. O. On what there is. Pears, D. F. Universals. Strawson, P. F. Particular and general. Wolterstorff, N. Qualities. Bambrough, R. Universals and family resemblances. Donagan, A. Universals and metaphysical realism. Sellars, W. Abstract entities. Wolterstorff, N. On the nature of universals.--Particulars: Loux, M. J. Particulars and their individuation. Black. M. The identity of indiscernibles. Ayer, A. J. (...)
     
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  31. Georg Theiner (2006). Collectivism and the Emergence of Linguistic Universals. In Rocha Luis Mateus, Yaeger Larry S., Bedau Mark A., Floreanu Dario, Goldstone Robert L. & Vespignani Alessandro (eds.), Artificial Life X. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press.score: 24.0
    My goal in this paper is to defend the plausibility of a particular version of collectivism – understood as the evolutionary claim that individual-level cognition is systematically biased in favor of aggregate-level regularities – in the domain of language. Chomsky's (1986) methodological promotion of I-language (speaker-internal knowledge) and the corresponding demotion of E-language (aggregate output of a population of speakers) has led mainstream cognitive science to view language essentially as a property of individual minds/brains whose evolution is best explained as (...)
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  32. Todd Bates (2010/2012). Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals. Continuum.score: 23.0
    Scotus recidivus? -- On the structure of material substance in Scotus' metaphysics -- Substantial natures : neither singular nor universal, but common -- On individuation by the haecceity -- Numerical singular created natures and supposita.
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  33. Dale Jacquette (2006). Bocheński on Property Identity and the Refutation of Universals. Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (3):293 - 316.score: 22.0
    An argument against multiply instantiable universals is considered in neglected essays by Stanislaw Lesniewski and I.M. Bochenski. Bochenski further applies Lesniewski's refutation of universals by maintaining that identity principles for individuals must be different than property identity principles. Lesniewski's argument is formalized for purposes of exact criticism and shown to involve both a hidden vicious circularity in the form of impredicative definitions and explicit self-defeating consequences. Syntactical restrictions on Leibnizian indiscernibility of identicals are recommended to forestall Lesniewski's paradox.
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  34. Graham Oddie (1991). Supervenience, Goodness, and Higher-Order Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (1):20 – 47.score: 22.0
    Supervenience theses promise ontological economy without reducibility. The problem is that they face a dilemma: either the relation of supervenience entails reducibility or it is mysterious. Recently higher-order universals have been invoked to avoid the dilemma. This article develops a higher-order framework in which this claim can be assessed. It is shown that reducibility can be avoided, but only at the cost of a rather radical metaphysical proposal.
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  35. Nicholas Evans & Stephen C. Levinson (2009). The Myth of Language Universals: Language Diversity and its Importance for Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):429-448.score: 22.0
    Talk of linguistic universals has given cognitive scientists the impression that languages are all built to a common pattern. In fact, there are vanishingly few universals of language in the direct sense that all languages exhibit them. Instead, diversity can be found at almost every level of linguistic organization. This fundamentally changes the object of enquiry from a cognitive science perspective. This target article summarizes decades of cross-linguistic work by typologists and descriptive linguists, showing just how few and (...)
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  36. David Ellerman (forthcoming). On Concrete Universals: A Modern Treatment Using Category Theory. AL-MUKHATABAT.score: 22.0
    Today it would be considered "bad Platonic metaphysics" to think that among all the concrete instances of a property there could be a universal instance so that all instances had the property by virtue of participating in that concrete universal. Yet there is a mathematical theory, category theory, dating from the mid-20th century that shows how to precisely model concrete universals within the "Platonic Heaven" of mathematics. This paper, written for the philosophical logician, develops this category-theoretic treatment of concrete (...)
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  37. Neil Levy (2004). Evolutionary Psychology, Human Universals, and the Standard Social Science Model. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):459-72.score: 21.0
    Proponents of evolutionary psychology take the existence of humanuniversals to constitute decisive evidence in favor of their view. Ifthe same social norms are found in culture after culture, we have goodreason to believe that they are innate, they argue. In this paper Ipropose an alternative explanation for the existence of humanuniversals, which does not depend on them being the product of inbuiltpsychological adaptations. Following the work of Brian Skyrms, I suggestthat if a particular convention possesses even a very small advantageover (...)
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  38. Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (2002). Resemblance Nominalism: A Solution to the Problem of Universals. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra offers a fresh philosophical account of properties. How is it that two different things (such as two red roses) can share the same property (redness)? According to resemblance nominalism, things have their properties in virtue of resembling other things. This unfashionable view is championed with clarity and rigor.
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  39. Karolina Hübner (forthcoming). Spinoza on Essences, Universals, and Beings of Reason. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.score: 21.0
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  40. T. Scaltsas (1994). Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Cornell University Press.score: 21.0
    The Theme A substance is a composite particular. If it is composed of further particulars, will the substance itself be one or many? ...
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  41. Roger N. Shepard (2001). Perceptual-Cognitive Universals as Reflections of the World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):581-601.score: 21.0
    The universality, invariance, and elegance of principles governing the universe may be reflected in principles of the minds that have evolved in that universe – provided that the mental principles are formulated with respect to the abstract spaces appropriate for the representation of biologically significant objects and their properties. (1) Positions and motions of objects conserve their shapes in the geometrically fullest and simplest way when represented as points and connecting geodesic paths in the six-dimensional manifold jointly determined by the (...)
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  42. Richard Ithamar Aaron (1952). The Theory of Universals. Oxford [Eng.]Clarendon Press.score: 21.0
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  43. Gonzalo Rodríguez Pereyra (2002). Resemblance Nominalism: A Solution to the Problem of Universals. Clarendon Press.score: 21.0
    Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra offers a fresh philosophical account of properties. How is it that two different things (such as two red roses) can share the same property (redness)? According to resemblance nominalism, things have their properties in virtue of resembling other things. This unfashionable view is championed with clarity and rigor.
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  44. Donald Brownstein (1973). Aspects of the Problem of Universals. University of Kansas.score: 21.0
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  45. D. S. Shwayder (1961). Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals. Berkeley, University of California Press.score: 21.0
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  46. Anna Wierzbicka (2005). Empirical Universals of Language as a Basis for the Study of Other Human Universals and as a Tool for Exploring Cross‐Cultural Differences. Ethos 33 (2):256-291.score: 21.0
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  47. Richard Ithamar Aaron (1947/1975). Our Knowledge of Universals. Haskell House Publishers.score: 21.0
     
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  48. David M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism Vol. I. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
  49. Roger Bacon (1989). Three Treatments of Universals. Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton.score: 21.0
  50. David M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism: A Theory of Universals Vol. Ii. Cambridge University Press.score: 21.0
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