Search results for 'universals modality' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Fraser MacBride (1999). Could Armstrong Have Been a Universal? Mind 108 (431):471-501.score: 96.0
    There cannot be a reductive theory of modality constructed from the concepts of sparse particular and sparse universal. These concepts are suffused with modal notions. I seek to establish this conclusion by tracing out the pattern of modal entanglements in which these concepts are involved. In order to appreciate the structure of these entanglements a distinction must be drawn between the lower-order necessary connections in which particulars and universals apparently figure, and higher-order necesary connections. The former type (...)
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  2. Chad Carmichael (2010). Universals. Philosophical Studies 150 (3):373-89.score: 72.0
    In this paper, I argue that there are universals. I begin (Sect. 1) by proposing a sufficient condition for a thing’s being a universal. I then argue (Sect. 2) that some truths exist necessarily. Finally, I argue (Sects. 3 and 4) that these truths are structured entities having constituents that meet the proposed sufficient condition for being universals.
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  3. Javier Kalhat (2011). Is There A Quasi-Mereological Account of Property Incompatibility? Acta Analytica 26 (2):115-133.score: 72.0
    Armstrong’s combinatorial theory of possibility faces the obvious difficulty that not all universals are compatible. In this paper I develop three objections against Armstrong’s attempt to account for property incompatibilities. First, Armstrong’s account cannot handle incompatibilities holding among properties that are either simple, or that are complex but stand to one another in the relation of overlap rather than in the part/ whole relation. Secondly, at the heart of Armstrong’s account lies a notion of structural universals which, building (...)
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  4. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2010). Natural Laws, Modality and Universals. Epistemologia 33:207-234.score: 72.0
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  5. Tomasz Bigaj (2012). Metaphysics. A Guided Tour for Beginners.score: 60.0
    This book contains a concise introduction to one of the most fundamental branches of philosophy, which deals with reality and its nature. Among the topics discussed are such metaphysical questions as "Are we fundamentally free?", "Does time really pass?", "Are there any abstract objects?", "What is causation?", "What are necessary and possible truths?". The book is aimed at absolute beginners, so it does not presuppose any previous knowledge of philosophy from the reader. For those who would like to pursue the (...)
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  6. Guram Bezhanishvili (2009). The Universal Modality, the Center of a Heyting Algebra, and the Blok–Esakia Theorem. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (3):253-267.score: 60.0
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  7. Vladimir Rybakov (2007). Logics with the Universal Modality and Admissible Consecutions. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (3):383-396.score: 60.0
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  8. Rybakov Vladimir (2007). Logics with the Universal Modality and Admissible Consecutions. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (3):383-396.score: 60.0
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  9. Bradley Armour-Garb (forthcoming). New Problems for Modal Fictionalism. Philosophical Studies:1-19.score: 56.0
    In this paper, after clarifying certain features of Gideon Rosen’s Modal Fictionalism, I raise two problems for that view and argue that these problems strongly suggest that advocates of a “Deflationist Strategy” ought not to endorse, or adopt Rosen-style Modal Fictionalism.
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  10. Susan Schneider (2001). Alien Individuals, Alien Universals, and Armstrong's Combinatorial Theory of Possibility. Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):575-593.score: 42.0
    Armstrong's combinatorialism, in his own words, is the following project: "My central metaphysical hypothesis is that all there is is the world of space and time. It is this world which is to supply the actual elements for the totality of combinations. So what is proposed is a Naturalistic form of a combinatorial theory."2 Armstrong calls his central hypothesis "Naturalism." He intends his well−known theory of universals to satisfy this thesis. He now attempts to give a naturalistic theory of (...)
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  11. Lilli Alanen (1991). Descartes, Conceivability, and Logical Modality. In Tamara Horowitz (ed.), Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy. Rowman and Littlefield.score: 42.0
    This paper examines Descartes' controversial theory of the creation of eternal truths and the views of modality attributed to Descartes in recent interpretations of it. It shows why attempts to make Descartes' view intelligible by distinctions of different kinds of modality fail to do justice to his theory, which is radical indeed without being incoherent or involving universal possibilism or irrationalism. Descartes' opposition to traditional rationalist views of modality, it suggests, can be seen instead as foreshadowing contemporary (...)
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  12. Philip Percival (2011). Predicate Abstraction, the Limits of Quantification, and the Modality of Existence. Philosophical Studies 156 (3):389-416.score: 29.0
    For various reasons several authors have enriched classical first order syntax by adding a predicate abstraction operator. “Conservatives” have done so without disturbing the syntax of the formal quantifiers but “revisionists” have argued that predicate abstraction motivates the universal quantifier’s re-classification from an expression that combines with a variable to yield a sentence from a sentence, to an expression that combines with a one-place predicate to yield a sentence. My main aim is to advance the cause of predicate abstraction while (...)
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  13. Marcus Kracht & Frank Wolter (1997). Simulation and Transfer Results in Modal Logic – a Survey. Studia Logica 59 (2):149-177.score: 26.0
    This papers gives a survey of recent results about simulations of one class of modal logics by another class and of the transfer of properties of modal logics under extensions of the underlying modal language. We discuss: the transfer from normal polymodal logics to their fusions, the transfer from normal modal logics to their extensions by adding the universal modality, and the transfer from normal monomodal logics to minimal tense extensions. Likewise, we discuss simulations of normal polymodal logics by (...)
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  14. Stephen Barker (2013). The Emperor's New Metaphysics of Powers. Mind (487):fzt082.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that the new metaphysics of powers, also known as dispositional essentialism or causal structuralism, is an illusory metaphysics. I argue for this in the following way. I begin by distinguishing three fundamental ways of seeing how facts of physical modality — facts about physical necessitation and possibility, causation, disposition, and chance — are grounded in the world. The first way, call it the first degree, is that the actual world or all worlds, in their entirety, are (...)
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  15. Stephen Mumford, Philosophical Publications of David Armstrong.score: 24.0
    Part I will deal with the central system of metaphysics that Armstrong developed between 1978 and 1997. This will concern, in turn, the major topics of universals, laws, modality, facts or states of affairs, and dispositions. It will be demonstrated how Armstrong’s distinct contributions to these separate problems came together in a unified and systematic account such that he could be judged as holding a single, very appealing, metaphysical theory.
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  16. Karen Bennett, “Perfectly Understood, Unproblematic, and Certain”: Lewis on Mereology.score: 24.0
    David Lewis famously takes mereology “to be perfectly understood, unproblematic, and certain” (1991, 75). It is central to his thought, appearing in his discussions of set theory, modality, vagueness, structural universals, and elsewhere. He held views not only about how composition works and when it occurs, but also about the role of mereology in philosophy. In this essay, I will proceed by articulating four theses that Lewis holds about composition. (I would call them the four U’s, if only (...)
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  17. Michael J. Loux (1998). Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.score: 24.0
    In this fully revised and updated version of the highly successful first edition, Michael J. Loux provides a fresh look at the central topics in metaphysics rendering this essential reading for anyone interested in metaphysics. Wherever possible, the author relates contemporary views to their classical sources in the history of philosophy.Some of the topics addressed include: the problem of universals; the nature of abstract entities; the problem of individuation; the nature of modality; identity through time; the nature of (...)
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  18. Alexander Bird (2004). Strong Necessitarianism: The Nomological Identity of Possible Worlds. Ratio 17 (3):256–276.score: 24.0
    Dispositional essentialism, a plausible view about the natures of (sparse or natural) properties, yields a satisfying explanation of the nature of laws also. The resulting necessitarian conception of laws comes in a weaker version, which allows differences between possible worlds as regards which laws hold in those worlds and a stronger version that does not. The main aim of this paper is to articulate what is involved in accepting the stronger version, most especially the consequence that all possible properties exist (...)
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  19. Katherine Hawley (2010). Mereology, Modality and Magic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):117 – 133.score: 24.0
    If the property _being a methane molecule_ is a universal, then it is a structural universal: objects instantiate _being a methane molecule_ just in case they have the right sorts of proper parts arranged in the right sort of way. Lewis argued that there can be no satisfactory account of structural universals; in this paper I provide a satisfactory account.
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  20. Brian Garrett (2006). What is This Thing Called Metaphysics? Routledge.score: 24.0
    Why is there something rather than nothing? Does god exist? Who am I? Metaphysics is concerned with ourselves and reality, and the most fundamental questions regarding existence. This clear and accessible introduction covers the central topics in Metaphysics in a concise but comprehensive way. Brian Garrett discusses the crucial concepts in a highly readable manner, easing the reader in with a look at paradoxes that aptly illustrate some important philosophical problems. He then goes on to address key areas of metaphysics: (...)
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  21. Geoffrey Hellman (2001). Three Varieties of Mathematical Structuralism. Philosophia Mathematica 9 (2):184-211.score: 24.0
    Three principal varieties of mathematical structuralism are compared: set-theoretic structuralism (‘STS’) using model theory, Shapiro's ante rem structuralism invoking sui generis universals (‘SGS’), and the author's modal-structuralism (‘MS’) invoking logical possibility. Several problems affecting STS are discussed concerning, e.g., multiplicity of universes. SGS overcomes these; but it faces further problems of its own, concerning, e.g., the very intelligibility of purely structural objects and relations. MS, in contrast, overcomes or avoids both sets of problems. Finally, it is argued that the (...)
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  22. Peter Forrest (2006). The Operator Theory of Instantiation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (2):213 – 228.score: 24.0
    Armstrong holds the Supervenience Theory of instantiation, namely that the instantiation of universals by particulars supervenes upon what particulars and what universals there are, where supervenience is stipulated to be explanatory or dependent supervenience. I begin by rejecting the Supervenience Theory of instantiation. Having done so it is then tempting to take instantiation as primitive. This has, however, an awkward consequence, undermining one of the main advantages universals have over tropes. So I examine another account hinted at (...)
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  23. Steve Fuller (2012). The Art of Being Human: A Project for General Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):113-123.score: 24.0
    Throughout the medieval and modern periods, in various sacred and secular guises, the unification of all forms of knowledge under the rubric of ‘science’ has been taken as the prerogative of humanity as a species. However, as our sense of species privilege has been called increasingly into question, so too has the very salience of ‘humanity’ and ‘science’ as general categories, let alone ones that might bear some essential relationship to each other. After showing how the ascendant Stanford School in (...)
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  24. Johan van Benthem, Guram Bezhanishvili & Mai Gehrke (2003). Euclidean Hierarchy in Modal Logic. Studia Logica 75 (3):327-344.score: 24.0
    For a Euclidean space , let L n denote the modal logic of chequered subsets of . For every n 1, we characterize L n using the more familiar Kripke semantics, thus implying that each L n is a tabular logic over the well-known modal system Grz of Grzegorczyk. We show that the logics L n form a decreasing chain converging to the logic L of chequered subsets of . As a result, we obtain that L is also a logic (...)
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  25. George Gargov & Valentin Goranko (1993). Modal Logic with Names. Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (6):607 - 636.score: 24.0
    We investigate an enrichment of the propositional modal language L with a "universal" modality ■ having semantics x ⊧ ■φ iff ∀y(y ⊧ φ), and a countable set of "names" - a special kind of propositional variables ranging over singleton sets of worlds. The obtained language ℒ $_{c}$ proves to have a great expressive power. It is equivalent with respect to modal definability to another enrichment ℒ(⍯) of ℒ, where ⍯ is an additional modality with the semantics x (...)
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  26. OIivier Bodenreider, Barry Smith & Anita Burgun (2004). The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology. In Achille Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference (FOIS 2004),. IOS Press.score: 24.0
    Medical terminology collects and organizes the many different kinds of terms employed in the biomedical domain both by practitioners and also in the course of biomedical research. In addition to serving as labels for biomedical classes, these names reflect the organizational principles of biomedical vocabularies and ontologies. Some names represent invariant features (classes, universals) of biomedical reality (i.e., they are a matter for ontology). Other names, however, convey also how this reality is perceived, measured, and understood by health professionals (...)
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  27. Philipp Keller, ∈ : Formal Concepts in a Material World Truthmaking and Exemplification as Types of Determination.score: 24.0
    In the first part ("Determination"), I consider different notions of determination, contrast and compare modal with non-modal accounts and then defend two a-modality theses concerning essence and supervenience. I argue, first, that essence is a a-modal notion, i.e. not usefully analysed in terms of metaphysical modality, and then, contra Kit Fine, that essential properties can be exemplified contingently. I argue, second, that supervenience is also an a-modal notion, and that it should be analysed in terms of constitution relations (...)
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  28. José Tomás Alvarado (2010). “La función de los universales en metafísica modal. Teorema 29.score: 24.0
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  29. Jose Tomas Alvarado Marambio (2010). The Function of Universals in Modal Metaphysics. Teorema 29 (3):77-101.score: 24.0
     
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  30. Michael J. Loux (ed.) (2008). Metaphysics: Contemporary Readings. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Metaphysics: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together leading philosophers writing on the major themes in Metaphysics. Chapters appear under the headings: Universals Particulars Modality and Possible Worlds Causation Time Persistence Realism and Anti-Realism Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editor which guides students gently into each topic. Articles by the following leading philosophers are included: Allaire, Anscombe, Armstrong, Black, Broad, Casullo, Dummett, Ewing, Heller, Hume, Kripke, Lewis, Mackie, McTaggart, Mellor, Merricks , (...)
     
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  31. Michael Loux (ed.) (2008). Metaphysics: Contemporary Readings: 2nd Edition. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Metaphysics: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together leading philosophers writing on the major themes in Metaphysics. Chapters appear under the headings: Universals Particulars Modality and Possible Worlds Causation Time Persistence Realism and Anti-Realism. Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editor which guides students gently into each topic. Articles by the following leading philosophers are included: Allaire, Anscombe, Armstrong, Black, Broad, Casullo, Dummett, Ewing, Heller, Hume, Kripke, Lewis, Mackie, McTaggart, Mellor, Merricks , (...)
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  32. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2010). Espacio modal y universales estructurales máximos. Estudios de Filosofía 41:111-138.score: 24.0
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  33. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2010). La función de los universales en metafísica modal. Teorema: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 29 (3):77-101.score: 24.0
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  34. Michael Rea (ed.) (2008). Metaphysics. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Metaphysics, at least roughly speaking, is the systematic investigation of fundamental presuppositions underlying commonsense and scientific views of the world. Most of us believe that we have bodies and minds, that we are free, that some things in the world are composed of other things and that these things interact causally with one another; we believe that, in addition to the "way things are", there are other ways things could have been, and so on. Common sense tells us that things (...)
     
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  35. Dean W. Zimmerman (ed.) (2006). Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, Volume 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press.score: 24.0
    Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is the forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character: this new series is a much-needed focus for it. OSM offers a broad view of the subject, featuring not only the traditionally central topics such as existence, identity, modality, time, and causation, but also the rich clusters of metaphysical questions in neighbouring fields, such as philosophy of mind and philosophy of (...)
     
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  36. George Bealer (1993). Universals. Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):5-32.score: 22.0
    Presented here is an argument for the existence of universals. Like Church's translation-test argument, the argument turns on considerations from intensional logic. But whereas Church's argument turns on the fine-grained informational content of intensional sentences, this argument turns on the distinctive logical features of 'that'-clauses embedded within modal contexts. And unlike Church's argument, this argument applies against truth-conditions nominalism and also against conceptualism and in re realism (the doctrine that universals are ontologically dependent upon the existence of (...)
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  37. Sebastian Enqvist (2013). A General Lindström Theorem for Some Normal Modal Logics. Logica Universalis 7 (2):233-264.score: 22.0
    There are several known Lindström-style characterization results for basic modal logic. This paper proves a generic Lindström theorem that covers any normal modal logic corresponding to a class of Kripke frames definable by a set of formulas called strict universal Horn formulas. The result is a generalization of a recent characterization of modal logic with the global modality. A negative result is also proved in an appendix showing that the result cannot be strengthened to cover every first-order elementary class (...)
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  38. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2013). Second-Order Barcan Formulas and Transcendent Universals. Ideas y Valores 62 (152):111-131.score: 22.0
    RESUMEN Se ha destacado que la Fórmula de Barcan -FB- y la Conversa de la Fórmula de Barcan -CFB- para lógica modal cuantificacional de orden superior parecen válidas. Si se interpreta que los cuantificadores tienen como rango propiedades, la validez de FB y CFB parece implicar la existencia de universales trascendentes, que no requieren estar instanciados para existir en un mundo posible. Se discute esta argumentación, porque la semántica, en la que los resultados de validez se siguen, no requiere que (...)
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  39. José Tomás Alvarado Marambio (2011). Classes of tropes as Ersatz universals. Trans/Form/Ação 34 (1).score: 22.0
    este trabajo considera el programa de reducción de universales por clases de tropos semejantes. Diversas cuestiones surgen acerca de la relación de semejanza: (1) ¿Presuponen los “respectos” de semejanza un universal? (2) ¿Induce un regres vicioso el hecho de que la relación de semejanza sea una relación? (3) Si hay diferentes respectos de comparación entre tropos, entonces hay espacio para las dificultades tradicionales contra el nominalismo de semejanza: la “comunidad imperfecta” y la “compañía”. ¿Pueden ser manejados estos problemas con clases (...)
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  40. Noam Sagiv & Jamie Ward (2006). Cross-Modal Interactions: Lessons From Synesthesia. In Susana Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, L. M. Martinez, J-M Alonso & P. U. Tse (eds.), Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier Science. 155--259.score: 20.0
    Synesthesia is a condition in which stimulation in one modality also gives rise to a perceptual experience in a second modality. In two recent studies we found that the condition is more common than previously reported; up to 5% of the population may experience at least one type of synesthesia. Although the condition has been traditionally viewed as an anomaly (e.g., breakdown in modularity), it seems that at least some of the mechanisms underlying synesthesia do reflect universal cross-modal (...)
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  41. Allen Hazen (1976). Expressive Completeness in Modal Language. Journal of Philosophical Logic 5 (1):25--46.score: 20.0
    The logics of the modal operators and of the quantifiers show striking analogies. The analogies are so extensive that, when a special class of entities (possible worlds) is postulated, natural and non-arbitrary translation procedures can be defined from the language with the modal operators into a purely quantificational one, under which the necessity and possibility operators translate into universal and existential quantifiers. In view of this I would be willing to classify the modal operators as ‘disguised’ quantifiers, and I think (...)
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  42. Veneeta Dayal (1998). Any as Inherently Modal. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (5):433-476.score: 20.0
    The primary theoretical focus of this paper is on Free Choice uses of any, in particular on two phenomena that have remained largely unstudied. One involves the ability of any phrases to occur in affirmative episodic statements when aided by suitable noun modifiers. The other involves the difference between modals of necessity and possibility with respect to licensing of any. The central thesis advanced here is that FC any is a universal determiner whose domain of quantification is not a set (...)
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  43. Jan Dejnozka (1990). The Ontological Foundation of Russell's Theory of Modality. Erkenntnis 32 (3):383 - 418.score: 20.0
    Prominent thinkers such as Kripke and Rescher hold that Russell has no modal logic, even that Russell was indisposed toward modal logic. In Part I, I show that Russell had a modal logic which he repeatedly described and that Russell repeatedly endorsed Leibniz's multiplicity of possible worlds. In Part II, I describe Russell's theory as having three ontological levels. In Part III, I describe six Parmenidean theories of being Russell held, including: literal in 1903; universal in 1912; timeless in 1914; (...)
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  44. Patrick Blackburn & Jerry Seligman (1995). Hybrid Languages. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (3):251-272.score: 20.0
    Hybrid languages have both modal and first-order characteristics: a Kripke semantics, and explicit variable binding apparatus. This paper motivates the development of hybrid languages, sketches their history, and examines the expressive power of three hybrid binders. We show that all three binders give rise to languages strictly weaker than the corresponding first-order language, that full first-order expressivity can be gained by adding the universal modality, and that all three binders can force the existence of infinite models and have undecidable (...)
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  45. Johan Van Benthem, Guram Bezhanishvili & Mai Gehrke (2003). Euclidean Hierarchy in Modal Logic. Studia Logica 75 (3):327 - 344.score: 20.0
    For a Euclidean space ${\Bbb R}^{n}$ , let $L_{n}$ denote the modal logic of chequered subsets of ${\Bbb R}^{n}$ . For every n ≥ 1, we characterize $L_{n}$ using the more familiar Kripke semantics thus implying that each $L_{n}$ is a tabular logic over the well-known modal system Grz of Grzegorczyk. We show that the logics $L_{n}$ form a decreasing chain converging to the logic $L_{\infty}$ of chequered subsets of ${\Bbb R}^{\infty}$ . As a result, we obtain that $L_{\infty}$ is (...)
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  46. Andrzej Indrzejczak & Michał Zawidzki (2013). Decision Procedures for Some Strong Hybrid Logics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (4):389-409.score: 20.0
    Hybrid logics are extensions of standard modal logics, which significantly increase the expressive power of the latter. Since most of hybrid logics are known to be decidable, decision procedures for them is a widely investigated field of research. So far, several tableau calculi for hybrid logics have been presented in the literature. In this paper we introduce a sound, complete and terminating tableau calculus T H(@,E,D, ♦ −) for hybrid logics with the satisfaction operators, the universal modality, the difference (...)
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  47. Edith Hemaspaandra (1996). The Price of Universality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 37 (2):174-203.score: 20.0
    We investigate the effect on the complexity of adding the universal modality and the reflexive transitive closure modality to modal logics. From the examples in the literature, one might conjecture that adding the reflexive transitive closure modality is at least as hard as adding the universal modality, and that adding either of these modalities to a multi-modal logic where the modalities do not interact can only increase the complexity to EXPTIME-complete. We show that the first conjecture (...)
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  48. Kit Fine (1994). Essence and Modality. Philosophical Perspectives 8:1-16.score: 18.0
    It is my aim in this paper to show that the contemporary assimilation of essence to modality is fundamentally misguided and that, as a consequence, the corresponding conception of metaphysics should be given up. It is not my view that the modal account fails to capture anything which might reasonably be called a concept of essence. My point, rather, is that the notion of essence which is of central importance to the metaphysics of identity is not to be understood (...)
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  49. Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum (2011). Dispositional Modality. In C. F. Gethmann (ed.), Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft, Deutsches Jahrbuch Philosophie 2. Meiner Verlag.score: 18.0
    There has been much discussion of powers or real dispositions in the past decade, but there remains an issue that has been inadequately treated. This concerns the precise modal value that comes with dispositionality. We contend in this paper that dispositionality involves a non-alethic, sui generis, irreducible modality. Dispositions only tend towards their manifestations; they do not necessitate them. Tendency is, of course, a dispositional term itself, so this last statement offers little by way of illumination. But given our (...)
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  50. Tuomas E. Tahko (2013). Soames's Deflationism About Modality. Erkenntnis 78 (6):1367-1379.score: 18.0
    One type of deflationism about metaphysical modality suggests that it can be analysed strictly in terms of linguistic or conceptual content and that there is nothing particularly metaphysical about modality. Scott Soames is explicitly opposed to this trend. However, a detailed study of Soames’s own account of modality reveals that it has striking similarities with the deflationary account. In this paper I will compare Soames’s account of a posteriori necessities concerning natural kinds with the deflationary one, specifically (...)
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