Search results for 'use' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. M. Ichael R. Use (2004). I May Be Old Fashioned butReviewed by M ICHAEL R USE, 183 Dodd Hall, Department of Philosophy, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 323061500, USA. [REVIEW] Annals of Science 61 (3).score: 120.0
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  2. Krist Vaesen (2012). The Cognitive Bases of Human Tool Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):203-262.score: 24.0
    This article has two goals. First, it synthesizes and critically assesses current scientific knowledge about the cognitive bases of human tool use. Second, it shows how the (...)
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  3. Wayne A. Davis (2007). Knowledge Claims and Context: Loose Use. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 132 (3):395 - 438.score: 24.0
    There is abundant evidence of contextual variation in the use ofS knows p.” Contextualist theories explain this variation in terms of semantic hypotheses that refer to (...)
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  4. Tracey Bretag & Saadia Mahmud (2009). Self-Plagiarism or Appropriate Textual Re-Use? Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (3):193-205.score: 24.0
    Self-plagiarism requires clear definition within an environment that places integrity at the heart of the research enterprise. This paper explores the whole notion of self-plagiarism by (...) academics and distinguishes between appropriate and inappropriate textual re-use in academic publications, while considering research on other forms of plagiarism such as student plagiarism. Based on the practical experience of the authors in identifying academicsself-plagiarism using both electronic detection and manual analysis, a simple model is proposed for identifying self-plagiarism by academics. (shrink)
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  5. Todd S. Mei (2009). The Preeminence of Use: Reevaluating the Relation Between Use and Exchange in Aristotle's Economic Thought. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (4):pp. 523-548.score: 24.0
    Aristotles economic thinking in the Nicomachean Ethics 5.5 and Politics 1 provides one of the earliest analyses of the economic nature exchange. Establishing the significance of (...) Aristotle in this area has often led modern commentators to equate Aristotles descriptive analysis of use and exchange to the definitions of use-value and exchange-value as it is found in Karl Marx. In this article, I show that Aristotles understanding of use and exchange is qualitatively different from this interpretation, focusing in particular on the ethical nature of use and how, for Aristotle, exchange is an extension of practical deliberation. (shrink)
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  6. Mark Textor (2007). The Use Theory of Meaning and Semantic Stipulation. Erkenntnis 67 (1):29 - 45.score: 24.0
    According to Horwichs use theory of meaning, the meaning of a word W is engendered by the underived acceptance of certain sentences containing W. Horwich applies (...)this theory to provide an account of semantic stipulation: Semantic stipulation proceeds by deciding to accept sentences containing an as yet meaningless word W. Thereby one brings it about that W gets an underived acceptance property. Since a words meaning is constituted by its (basic) underived acceptance property, this decision endows the word with a meaning. The use-theoretic account of semantic stipulation contrasts with the standard view that semantic stipulation proceeds by assigning the meaning (reference) to W that makes a certain set of sentences express true propositions. In this paper I will argue that the use-theoretic account does not work. I take Frege to have already made the crucial point: "a definition does not assert anything but lays down something ["etwas festsetzt"]” (Frege 1899, 36). A semantic stipulation for W cannot be the decision to accept a sentence containing W or be explained in terms of such an acceptance. Semantic stipulation constitutes a problem for Horwich's use theory of meaning, especially his basic notion of acceptance. (shrink)
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  7. Mei-Fang Chen, Ching-Ti Pan & Ming-Chuan Pan (2009). The Joint Moderating Impact of Moral Intensity and Moral Judgment on Consumer's Use Intention of Pirated Software. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):361 - 373.score: 24.0
    Moral issues have been included in the studies of consumer misbehavior research, but little is known about the joint moderating effect of moral intensity and moral judgment (...)
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  8. Atsushi Asai & Yasuhiro Kadooka (2013). Reexamination of the Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Practice. Bioethics 27 (4):186-193.score: 24.0
    A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard (...)
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  9. Lalit Kant & D. T. Mourya (2010). Managing Dual Use Technology: It Takes Two to Tango. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):77-83.score: 24.0
    Like nuclear energy, most technologies could have dual usefor health and well being and disaster and terror. Some research publications have brought to the forefront the (...)tragic consequences of the latter potential through their possible use. Monitoring life science research and development (R&D) to prevent possible misuse is a challenging task globally, more so in developing economies like India, which are emerging as major biotech hubs. As a signatory to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, India has put in motion a process of evolving a series of measures to manage dual-use technology. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has taken a lead in drafting model codes of conduct, ethics and practice for use by other S&T agencies to tailor them as per their requirements. Taking cue from the discussions held by the editors of the various medical and science journals in the developed world, the Indian Journal of Medical Research, the official publication of the ICMR, is working on policy and uniform practice of publication of dual-use research results. The Government of India too has promulgated legal provisions to minimize the risks of misuse of technology, like the Weapons of Mass Destruction Act. Clearly, no single agency would be able to manage the dual-use of technology effectively. Multiple agencies have to come together to work in tandem for effective implementation of various measure and also like Janus, ensure that they are neither too restrictive nor intrusive to discourage the development of science. (shrink)
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  10. Michael J. Selgelid (2009). Dual-Use Research Codes of Conduct: Lessons From the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):175-183.score: 24.0
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expressiondual useand examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated (...)
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  11. Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Kathinka Evers & Stefan Eriksson (2011). A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences. Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.score: 24.0
    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by (...) complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle existfor example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vaguethe analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. (shrink)
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  12. Seumas Miller & Michael J. Selgelid (2007). Ethical and Philosophical Consideration of the Dual-Use Dilemma in the Biological Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):523-580.score: 24.0
    The dual-use dilemma arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact that one and the same (...)piece of scientific research sometimes has the potential to be used for bad as well as good purposes. It is an ethical dilemma since it is about promoting good in the context of the potential for also causing harm, e.g., the promotion of health in the context of providing the wherewithal for the killing of innocents. It is an ethical dilemma for the researcher because of the potential actions of others, e.g., malevolent non-researchers who might steal dangerous biological agents, or make use of the original researchers work. And it is a dilemma for governments concerned with the security of their citizens, as well as their health. In this article we construct a taxonomy of types ofexperiments of concernin the biological sciences, and thereby map the terrain of ethical risk. We then provide a series of analyses of the ethical problems and considerations at issue in the dual-use dilemma, including the impermissibility of certain kinds of research and possible restrictions on dissemination of research results given the risks to health and security. Finally, we explore the main available institutional responses to some of the specific ethical problems posed by the dual-use dilemma in the biological sciences. (shrink)
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  13. John Forge (2010). A Note on the Definition ofDual Use”. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):111-118.score: 24.0
    While there has been much interest in this topic, no generally accepted definition of dual use has been forthcoming. As a contribution to this issue, it is (...)
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  14. Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl (2011). Tool Use, Planning and Future Thinking in Children and Animals. In Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Butterfill (eds.), Tool use and causal cognition. Oxford University Press. 129.score: 24.0
    This chapter considers in what sense, if any, planning and future thinking is involved both in the sort of behaviour examined by McCarty et al. (1999) and (...)
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  15. Frida Kuhlau, Stefan Eriksson, Kathinka Evers & Anna T. Höglund (2008). Taking Due Care: Moral Obligations in Dual Use Research. Bioethics 22 (9):477-487.score: 24.0
    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual (...)
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  16. Marek Czarkowski (2010). The Dilemma of Dual Use Biological Research: Polish Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):99-110.score: 24.0
    Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and/or national security is termed dual use. In (...)Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting such threats are required, and the national system of biosecurity should enable early, reliable, and complete identification of this type of research. Scientists should have a fundamental role in this process, their duty being to immediately, upon identification, report research with dual use potential. An important entity in the identification system of dual use research should also be the Central Register of Biological and Biomedical Research, which gathers information about all biological and biomedical research being conducted in a given country. Publishers, editors, and review committees of journals and other scientific publications should be involved in evaluating results of clinical trials. The National Council of Biosecurity should be the governmental institution responsible for developing a system of dual use research threat prevention. Its role would be to develop codes of conduct, form counsel of expertise, and monitor the problem at national level, while the Dual Use Research Committee would be responsible for individual cases. In Poland, current actions aiming to provide biological safety were based on developing and passing an act about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and creating a GMO Committee. Considering experiences of other nations, one should view these actions as fragmentary, and thus insufficient protection against dual use research threats. (shrink)
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  17. Jeffrey Kovac (2007). Moral Rules, Moral Ideals, and Use-Inspired Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):159-169.score: 24.0
    Moral rules provide the baseline for ethics, proscribing unacceptable behavior; moral ideals inspire us to act in ways that improve the human condition. Whatever the moral ideals (...)
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  18. Koos van der Bruggen (2012). Possibilities, Intentions and Threats: Dual Use in the Life Sciences Reconsidered. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):741-756.score: 24.0
    Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters of a few weeks later, the concept of dual use has spread widely in the (...)life sciences during the past decade. This article is aimed at a clarification of the dual use concept and its scope of application for the life sciences. Such a clarification would greatly facilitate the work of policymakers seeking to ensure security while avoiding undesirable interventions of government in the conduct of science. The article starts with an overview of the main developments in life sciences in relation to dual use. This is illustrated by discussions on synthetic biology and dual use. The findings lead to a reconsideration of the dual use concept. An area in need of further attention is to what extent threats and intentions should have impact on the definition of dual use. Possible threats are analyzed against the background of the phenomenon of securitization of health care and life sciences: considering these sectors of society in security terms. Some caveats that should be taken into account in a dual use policy are described. An acceptable, adequate and applicable definition of the dual use concept could help researchers, universities, companies and policy makers. Such a definition should build upon, but go beyond, the view developed in the influential Fink-report, which concentrates on the so-calledexperiments of concern’, e.g. experiments that enhance the virulence of pathogens (National Research Council of the National Academies 2004) It will be argued thatin addition to these more technical aspectsa definition of dual use should include the aspect of threats and intentions. (shrink)
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  19. Louise Bezuidenhout (2013). Data Sharing and Dual-Use Issues. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):83-92.score: 24.0
    The concept of dual-use encapsulates the potential for well-intentioned, beneficial scientific research to also be misused by a third party for malicious ends. The concept of (...) dual-use challenges scientists to look beyond the immediate outcomes of their research and to develop an awareness of possible future (mis)uses of scientific research. Since 2001 much attention has been paid to the possible need to regulate the dual-use potential of the life sciences. Regulation initiatives fall under two broad categoriesthose that develop the ethical education of scientists and foster an awareness and responsibility of dual-use issues, and those which assess the regulation of information being generated by current research. Both types of initiatives are premised on a cautious, risk-adverse philosophy which advocates careful examination of all future endpoints of research endeavors. This caution advocated within initiatives such as pre-publication review of journal articles contrasts to the obligation to share underpinning data sharing discussions. As the dual-use debate has yet to make a significant impact on data sharing discussions (and vice versa) it is possible that these two areas of knowledge control may present areas of ethical conflict for scientists, and thus need to be more closely examined. This paper examines the tension between the obligation to share exemplified by data sharing principles and the concerns raised by the risk-cautious culture of the dual-use debates. The paper concludes by reflecting on the issues of responsibility as raised by dual-use as relating to data sharing, such as the chain of custody for shared data. (shrink)
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  20. David Friedman, Bracha Rager-Zisman, Eitan Bibi & Alex Keynan (2010). The Bioterrorism Threat and Dual-Use Biotechnological Research: An Israeli Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):85-97.score: 24.0
    Israel has a long history of concern with chemical and biological threats, since several hostile states in the Middle East are likely to possess such weapons. The (...)
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  21. Stefan Giesewetter (2014). "Meaning is Use" and Wittgenstein's Treatment of Philosophical Problems. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 3 (1):69-89.score: 24.0
    What is the relation between later Wittgensteins method of dissolving philosophical problems by reminding us of how we would actually use words, and his famous statement (...)thatmeaning is usein Investigations §43? The idea is widespread among readers of Wittgenstein that a close relation obtains between the two. This paper addresses a specific type of answer to this question: answers which have drawn on remarks of Wittgensteins where he explicitly establishes a connection between this method and certain misconceptions about meaningremarks such as Investigations §117. The paper will discuss answers which have advanced the following claim: Since it is places such as §43 which play a main role in debunking misconceptions of this kind, Wittgensteins statement thatmeaning is usemust be taken as directly related to the method of asking for the use of words. Drawing on so-calledtherapeuticreadings of Wittgenstein, what I intend to show is that this seemingly straightforward answer fails to fully accommodate the fact that §43 is itself a reminder of how we would actually use a word. The paper sets out to show how truly acknowledging this forces us to rethink the relation betweenmeaning is useand this method of Wittgensteins. (shrink)
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  22. Teresa McCormack, Christoph Hoerl & Stephen Andrew Butterfill (eds.) (2011). Tool Use and Causal Cognition. OUP Oxford.score: 24.0
    What cognitive abilities underpin the use of tools, and how are tools and their properties represented or understood by tool-users? Does the study of tool use (...)provide us with a unique or distinctive source of information about the causal cognition of tool-users? -/- Tool use is a topic of major interest to all those interested in animal cognition, because it implies that the animal has knowledge of the relationship between objects and their effects. There are countless examples of animals developing tools to achieve some goal-chimps sharpening sticks to use as spears, bonobos using sticks to fish for termites, and New Caledonian crows developing complex tools to extracts insects from logs. Studies of tool use have been used to examine an exceptionally wide range of aspects of cognition, such as planning, problem-solving and insight, naive physics, social relationship between action and perception. A key debate in recent research on animal cognition concerns the level of cognitive sophistication that is implied by animal tool use, and developmental psychologists have been addressing related questions regarding the processes through which children acquire the ability to use tools. In neuropsychology, patterns of impairments in tool use due to brain damage, and studies of neural changes associated with tool use, have also led to debates about the different types of cognitive abilities that might underpin tool use, and about how tool use may change the way space or the body is represented. -/- Tool Use and Causal Cognition provides a new interdisciplinary perspective on these issues with contributions from leading psychologists studying tool use and philosophers providing new analyses of the nature of causal understanding A ground-breaking volume which covers several disciplines, this volume will be of interest to psychologists, including animal researchers and developmental psychologists as well as philosophers, and neuroscientists. (shrink)
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  23. Thomas A. Cavanaugh (2000). Genetics and Fair Use Codes for Electronic Information. Ethics and Information Technology 2 (2):121-123.score: 24.0
    This paper concerns the deficiencies of currentlyaccepted principles governing the fair use ofelectronically recorded data when applied to geneticinformation. Principles are proposed by which to dealwith the (...)
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  24. Hadassa A. Noorda (2011). Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors. [REVIEW] Journal of Conflict and Security Law 16 (1):207-222.score: 24.0
    Book Review: Noam Lubell, Extraterritorial Use of Force against Non-State Actors.
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  25. [deleted]François Osiurak (2013). Apraxia of Tool Use is Not a Matter of Affordances. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:890.score: 24.0
    Apraxia of tool use is not a matter of affordances.
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  26. Svitlana V. Pustovit & Erin D. Williams (2010). Philosophical Aspects of Dual Use Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):17-31.score: 24.0
    The term dual use technologies refers to research and technology with the potential both to yield valuable scientific knowledge and to be used for nefarious purposes with (...)
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  27. Emma Keuleyan (2010). Liberty to Decide on Dual Use Biomedical Research: An Acknowledged Necessity. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):43-58.score: 24.0
    Humanity entered the twenty-first century with revolutionary achievements in biomedical research. At the same time multipledual-useresults have been published. The battle against infectious diseases (...) is meeting new challenges, with newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Both natural disaster epidemics, such as SARS, avian influenza, haemorrhagic fevers, XDR and MDR tuberculosis and many others, and the possibility of intentional mis-use, such as letters containing anthrax spores in USA, 2001, have raised awareness of the real threats. Many great men, including Goethe, Spinoza, J.B. Shaw, Fr. Engels, J.F. Kennedy and others, have recognized that liberty is also a responsibility. That is why the liberty to decide now represents an acknowledged necessity: biomedical research should be supported, conducted and published with appropriate measures to prevent potentialdual use”. Biomedical scientists should work according to the ethical principles of their Code of Conduct, an analogue of Hippocrates Oath of doctors; and they should inform government, society and their juniors about the problem. National science consulting boards of experts should be created to prepare guidelines and control the problem at state level. An international board should develop minimum standards to be applicable by each country. Bio-preparedness is considered another key-measure. (shrink)
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  28. Payal Doctor (forthcoming). Quotations, References, and the Re-Use of Texts in the Early Nyāya Tradition. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-27.score: 24.0
    In this case-study, I examine examples which fall within the five categories of the re-use of texts in the Nyāya Sūtra, Nyāya Bhāṣya, and Nyāya Vārttika (...) and note the form of quoting and embedment. It is found that the re-use of texts is prominent and that the category and method of embedding the re-used passages varies from author to author. Gautama embeds the most inter-language quotations without acknowledging his sources and Uddyotakara re-uses the most quotations and paraphrases while acknowledging his sources. Vātsyāyana re-uses the most direct quotations but only acknowledges his sources about half the time. Each author re-uses textual material for two reasons: (1) to demonstrate his authority in this field; and (2) to support his own arguments and to critique objections and opposing theories. Differences crop up in the methodologies of Gautama, Vātsyāyana, and Uddyotakara as the concept of an authority shifts over time, as the body of literature grows, and as new objections and opponents arise. (shrink)
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  29. [deleted]Melissa C. Duff & Sarah Brown-Schmidt (2012). The Hippocampus and the Flexible Use and Processing of Language. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Fundamental to all human languages is an unlimited expressive capacity and creative flexibility that allow speakers to rapidly generate novel and complex utterances. In turn, listeners interpret (...)
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  30. Nathan Harvill (2010). Use the Purpose by Which All May Benefit: The Semiotics of 'Public Use'. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 23 (1):49-60.score: 24.0
    This paper applies semiotic analysis to issues arising from the recent Supreme Court decision of Kelo v. City of New London [545 U.S.469] (2005). The author (...) uses the tools of semiotics to explore the evolution of language and speech and their relationship to the terms, “private propertyandpublic useas used by the Supreme Court and the general public in the years leading up to the Kelo decision. This paper will first provide an overview of the field of semiotics, describing the prevailing thought and the methods utilized by semioticians to find meaning. Second, the tools of semiotics will be applied to Supreme Court cases, beginning with Bauman v. Ross [167 U.S. 548] (1897) and continuing to Kelo v. City of New London. Utilizing these tools, the author will show how, within the span of approximately 100 years, the speech of the court has affected the language of legal discourse. The signs to which both Bauman and Kelo seek to attach meaning are found in the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution, which provides, in relevant part, “…nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”(emphasis added) (U.S. Const. Amendment 5). This dialectic activity resulted in the development of two different languages. One was used by the layperson, whereas the other was found in relevant legal/political institutions such as the US Supreme Court. This paper will focus on the fundamental change in the meaning of the sign/expressionpublic use.”. (shrink)
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  31. Alexander Kelle (2013). Beyond Patchwork Precaution in the Dual-Use Governance of Synthetic Biology. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1121-1139.score: 24.0
    The emergence of synthetic biology holds the potential of a major breakthrough in the life sciences by transforming biology into a predictive science. The dual-use characteristics (...)of similar breakthroughs during the twentieth century have led to the application of benignly intended research in e.g. virology, bacteriology and aerobiology in offensive biological weapons programmes. Against this background the article raises the question whether the precautionary governance of synthetic biology can aid in preventing this techno-science witnessing the same fate? In order to address this question, this paper proceeds in four steps: it firstly introduces the emerging techno-science of synthetic biology and presents some of its potential beneficial applications. It secondly analyses contributions to the bioethical discourse on synthetic biology as well as precautionary reasoning and its application to life science research in general and synthetic biology more specifically. The paper then identifies manifestations of a moderate precautionary principle in the emerging synthetic biology dual-use governance discourse. Using a dual-use governance matrix as heuristic device to analyse some of the proposed measures, it concludes that the identified measures can best be described aspatchwork precautionand that a more systematic approach to construct a web of dual-use precaution for synthetic biology is needed in order to guard more effectively against the fields future misuse for harmful applications. (shrink)
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  32. [deleted]Yong Jeong Kwangsun Yoo, William S. Sohn (2013). Tool-Use Practice Induces Changes in Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Parietal Areas. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, (...)
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  33. Taiwo A. Oriola (2010). The Use of Legal Software by Non-Lawyers and the Perils of Unauthorised Practice of Law Charges in the United States: a Review of Jayson Reynoso Decision. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (3):285-309.score: 24.0
    This paper critically reviews the judgment of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit In re: Jayson Reynoso: Frankfort Digital Services et al., v. (...)
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  34. Lijana Štarienė (2009). The Limits of the Use of Undercover Agents and the Right to a Fair Trial Under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 117 (3):263-284.score: 24.0
    Various special investigative methods are more often applied nowadays; their use is unavoidably induced by todays reality in combating organised crime in the spheres such as (...)corruption, prostitution, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, money counterfeit and etc. Therefore, special secret investigative methods are more often used and they are very effective in gathering evidence for the purpose of detecting and investigating very well-organised or latent crimes. Both the Convention on the Protection on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms itself, i.e. its Article 6, and other international instruments, such as the Council of Europes Criminal Law Convention, the Council of Europes Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and others, do not prohibit the use of special investigative methods, provided that their use does not violate human rights. The use of special investigative methods, such as undercover agents or other undercover investigative methods, cannot in itself infringe human rights and the right to a fair trial; however, its use must have clear limits and safeguards. The recent judgements of the European Court of Human Rights regarding the use of undercover agents confirm that the use of undercover agents in certain types of cases is often unavoidable and also very problematic, because the Court imposes on the member states of the Convention increasingly wider obligations. Partly this is determined by the fact that the current jurisprudence of the Court is still in the state of formation, therefore many questions are left unanswered. (shrink)
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  35. Bhawana Upadhyay (2005). Gendered Livelihoods and Multiple Water Use in North Gujarat. Agriculture and Human Values 22 (4):411-420.score: 24.0
    A variety of water-based livelihood activities undertaken by women and men in the villages of North Gujarat are under threat due to the unavailability of adequate (...)water. Excessive groundwater withdrawal and limited recharge have led to shrinking water tables. With shrinking supply and growing sectoral demand, the competition for access to water is growing and women, who command less political and social power in the patriarchal communities of South Asia, often find themselves marginalized. Women are basically considered domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well. This paper, drawing mainly on fieldwork undertaken in six villages of North Gujarat, India, tries to show how women use water for multiple purposes and help sustain the household economy. The paper argues that recognizing womens roles as multiple water users will help promote the productive use of water in enhancing rural livelihood and sustaining the household economy. With special reference to women respondents, the paper examines gender roles of both domestic and productive water users and explores how these roles help women to improve their socio-economic status. The paper also analyzes operational income and expenditures associated with water-based home enterprise. Individual interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation, daily routine diagrams, and key informant surveys were administered to collect primary data. Key findings show that access of women to water for productive use not only increases their income earning potential, but also helps strengthen their bargaining positions. (shrink)
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  36. Carl Martin Allwood & David Hakken (2001). ?Use? Discourses in System Development: Can Communication Be Improved? [REVIEW] AI and Society 15 (3):169-199.score: 24.0
    This paper aims to provide a basis for renewed talk aboutusein computing. Four currentdiscourse arenasare described. Different intentions manifest in each arena are (...)
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  37. Romulus Brancoveanu (2011). Public Use of Reason, Communication and Religious Change. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (28):154-175.score: 24.0
    Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; (...)
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  38. L. S. Colzato, M. J. Ruiz, W. P. Wildenberg, M. T. Bajo & B. Hommel (2009). Long-Term Effects of Chronic Khat Use: Impaired Inhibitory Control. Frontiers in Psychology 1:219-219.score: 24.0
    So far no studies have systematically looked into the cognitive consequences of khat use. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult (...)
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  39. Pascale Hugon (forthcoming). Text Re-Use in Early Tibetan Epistemological Treatises. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-39.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the modalities and mechanism of text-use pertaining to Indian and Tibetan material in a selection of Tibetan Buddhist epistemological treatises written between the (...)eleventh and the thirteenth century. It pays special attention to a remarkable feature of this corpus: the phenomenon ofrepeat,” that is, the unacknowledged integration of earlier material by an author within his own composition. This feature reveals an intellectual continuity in the tradition, and is found even for authors who claim a rupture from their predecessors. Regarding acknowledged text re-use in the form of quotations, I consider which factors condition the identification of the source (via the title of the text and/or name of the author) or the lack thereof, and what role quotations play for the respective authors. In particular, I discuss whether any inference can be drawn, from the presence or absence of quotations, about an authors knowledge of the corresponding source. (shrink)
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  40. Emar Maier (2007). Mixed Quotation: Between Use and Mention. In Proceedings of Lenls 2007.score: 24.0
    Quotation exhibits characteristics of both use and mention. I argue against the recently popular pragmatic reductions of quotation to mere language use (Recanati 2001), and in favor (...)
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  41. John M. Polimeni (2005). Simulating Agricultural Conversion to Residential Use in the Hudson River Valley: Scenario Analyses and Case Studies. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 22 (4):377-393.score: 24.0
    Land use changes threaten agricultural land. If agricultural land is going to be preserved, the social and economic causes of conversion must be understood. However, analyzing the (...)
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  42. Nathalie A. Steins & Victoria M. Edwards (1999). Platforms for Collective Action in Multiple-Use Common-Pool Resources. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (3):241-255.score: 24.0
    Collective action processes in complex, multiple-use common-pool resources (CPRs) have only recently become a focus of study. When CPRs evolve into more complex systems, resource use (...) by separate user groups becomes increasingly interdependent. This implies, amongst others, that the institutional framework governing resource use has to be re-negotiated to avoid adverse impacts associated with the increased access of any new stakeholders, such as overexploitation, alienation of traditional users, and inter-user conflicts. The establishment ofplatforms for resource use negotiationis a way of dealing with complex natural resource management problems. Platforms arise when stakeholders perceive the same resource management problem, realize their interdependence in solving it, and come together to agree on action strategies for solving the problem (Röling, 1994). This article sets the scene for a discussion in this Special Issue about the potential of nested platforms for resource use negotiation in facilitating collective action in the management of complex, multiple-use CPRs. The article has five objectives. First, we definecollective actionin the context of this paper. Second, we discuss the importance of collective action in multiple-use CPRs. Third, we introduce the concept of platforms to coordinate collective action by multiple users. Fourth, we address some issues that emerge from evidence in the field regarding the role and potential of nested platforms for managing complex CPRs. Finally, we raise five discussion statements. These will form the basis for the collection of articles in this special issue. (shrink)
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  43. Benjamin L. Turner, Melissa Wuellner, Timothy Nichols & Roger Gates (2014). Dueling Land Ethics: Uncovering Agricultural Stakeholder Mental Models to Better Understand Recent Land Use Conversion. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (5):831-856.score: 24.0
    The aim of this paper is to investigate how alternative land ethics of agricultural stakeholders may help explain recent land use changes. The paper first explores the (...)
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  44. Carmen Valor, Isabel Carrero & Raquel Redondo (2014). The Influence of Knowledge and Motivation on Sustainable Label Use. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (4):591-607.score: 24.0
    Sustainable labels are considered the best way for consumers to identify brands with environmental or social attributes on the shelves, and therefore promoted as a means to (...)
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  45. Rebecca Julia Cook (forthcoming). Off-Label Drug Use as a Consent and Health Regulation Issue in New Zealand. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-8.score: 24.0
    The termoff-label drug userefers to drugs that have not yet acquiredapprovedstatus or drugs that have acquiredapprovedstatus but are used with (...)a different dosage, route, or administration method other than that for which the drug has been approved. In New Zealand, the Medicines Act 1981 specifically allows for off-label drug use. However, this authority is limited by the Health and Disability Commissioner (Code of Health and Disability Services ConsumersRights) Regulations 1996 and the common law, which require that off-label drug use is of an acceptable standard, that the patient should be fully informed, and that the patient should give informed consent. Off-label drug use is an important issue because the current law provides medical practitioners very wide discretionary power, without providing clarification for what is required of the practitioner in exercising his or her discretion in prescribing off-label. This paper discusses possible solutions to this issue, for example, establishing protocol for off-label use, an electronic database of off-label use, and the amendment of legal provisions. (shrink)
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  46. Brett Edwards, James Revill & Louise Bezuidenhout (2013). From Cases to Capacity? A Critical Reflection on the Role of 'Ethical Dilemmas' in the Development of Dual-Use Governance. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):1-12.score: 24.0
    The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzingdilemmasfacing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization (...)of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates aboutdual-usebird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally. (shrink)
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  47. Alessandro Graheli (forthcoming). Epistemology of Textual Re-Use in the Nyāyamañjarī. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-34.score: 24.0
    The epistemology of śabda is one of the main themes in Bhaṭṭa Jayantas Nyāyamañjarī, and, in the hypotheses explored in this paper, also the conceptual basis (...)of Jayantas textual re-use. The sixth chapter of the Nyāyamañjarī contains a debate between Vaiyākaraṇas and Mīmāṃsakas who, respectively, advocated an holistic or atomistic theory of language. Selected Jayantas re-uses from Vyākaraṇa, Mīmāṃsā, and Nyāya sources are here surveyed and analyzed, with a focus on their meaning and on the context. The method of analysis is partially following Moravcsiks scheme for a classification of citations, as well as Smalls classification by symbolic functions. By re-using texts Jayanta not only imparted authority to his own arguments, but also reassessed the relation of his tradition with other ones. Re-used ideas and words stand for symbols of those authorstenets, and those authors represent symbols of their respective traditions. Moreover, by quoting a certain author Jayanta often anointed him with a symbolic status of trustworthy authority, and his statement with a status of śabdapramāṇa. (shrink)
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  48. Alois Mandondo (2001). Use of Woodland Resources Within and Across Villages in a Zimbabwean Communal Area. Agriculture and Human Values 18 (2):177-194.score: 24.0
    A topical issue in natural resource management is that of scale, in particular, the organizational entry-point to community-based systems of natural resource management. This study investigated (...) access to woodland resources from the perspective of the relevance of units (traditional villages) enjoying policy attention and the nature of boundaries of resource management units as espoused in academic debates. The relevance of the boundaries was investigated from the perspective of flow of resources across boundaries of the recommended units, and resource use relations among communities residing in contiguous units. The study used questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and personal observations to explore woodland resource use patterns within and across the villages. People acquired woodland products from both within their own villages and from adjacent ones. Most people extracted resources from within residence villages but varying proportions of the people extracted various products from other villages. In general, members of the ruling clanthose holding exclusively ancestral beliefs, those with traditional main house typeswere more likely to acquire resources from neighboring villages. People extracted lighter products like wild fruits, mushrooms, and medicinal herbs from other villages compared to bulkier products like fuel wood, kraal (cattle pens) and fence posts, wall and roof poles, and brushwood. The main reasons why people did not extract woodland products from other villages were availability of the products in their own villages, the long distances to walk to gather the resources from other villages, and, to a small extent, availability of substitutes and exclusion to some products by members of other villages. Overall, people did not deny woodland resource users from other villages access to resources in their own villages, although this applied less so in the case of extraction from areas under ritual designations or extraction for commercialization. The study argues that instead of aspiring for ``hard'' or ``distinct'' boundaries, policy needs to recognize ``diffuse and soft'' product use boundaries as a given, so as to promote resource management formulations/options that are more in phase with the operational contexts. (shrink)
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  49. [deleted]Sarah Brown-Schmidt Melissa C. Duff (2012). The Hippocampus and the Flexible Use and Processing of Language. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Fundamental to all human languages is an unlimited expressive capacity and creative flexibility that allow speakers to rapidly generate novel and complex utterances. In turn, listeners interpret (...)
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  50. Kathryn Nixdorff (2013). Education for Life Scientists on the Dual-Use Implications of Their Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (4):1487-1490.score: 24.0
    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about lifes vital processes. While this knowledge is essential (...)for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists as a means to foster a culture of responsibility and prevent the potential misuse of advances in the life sciences for non-peaceful purposes. Nevertheless, the implementation of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists has made little progress in institutions of higher learning. Professional societies and academic organizations have worked from the bottom-up in developing online dual-use biosecurity education modules that can be used for instruction. However, top-down help is needed from goverments if further progress is to be made in implementing biosecurity education for life scientists. (shrink)
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