Search results for 'value of life' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Context of Human Life (2001). Section I Interpreting Illness and Medicine in the Context of Human Life: Experience Vs. Objectivity. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka & Evandro Agazzi (eds.), Life Interpretation and the Sense of Illness Within the Human Condition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1.score: 600.0
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  2. Goodness Of Life (2013). The Badness of Death and the Goodness of Life. In Fred Feldman Ben Bradley (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death.score: 380.0
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  3. Hans-Jürgen Link (2013). Playing God and the Intrinsic Value of Life: Moral Problems for Synthetic Biology? Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):435-448.score: 180.0
    Most of the reports on synthetic biology include not only familiar topics like biosafety and biosecurity but also a chapter on ‘ethical concerns’; a variety of diffuse topics that are interrelated in some way or another. This article deals with these ‘ethical concerns’. In particular it addresses issues such as the intrinsic value of life and how to deal with ‘artificial life’, and the fear that synthetic biologists are tampering with nature or playing God. Its aim is (...)
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  4. Heiner Fangerau (2009). Genetics and the Value of Life: Historical Dimensions. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (2):105-112.score: 180.0
    The value of life can be viewed from moral, biologic, and economic perspectives. In connection with the development of genetics, each of these perspectives has gained importance throughout history. Whereas agricultural genetics has always been directed towards having an economic impact, from the beginning genetics research in humans has focused on all dimensions of the value of life. Today, health insurance, employers, politicians, and public health scientists view genetics research as one of the key disciplines to (...)
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  5. Joachim Boldt (2013). Do We Have A Moral Obligation to Synthesize Organisms to Increase Biodiversity? On Kinship, Awe, and the Value of Life's Diversity. Bioethics 27 (8):411-418.score: 179.0
    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined (...)
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  6. Christopher Cordner (2005). Life and Death Matters: Losing a Sense of the Value of Human Beings. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (3):207-226.score: 174.0
    The essay combines a specific and a more general theme. In attacking ‘the doctrine of the sanctity of human life’ Singer takes himself thereby to be opposing the conviction that human life has special value. I argue that this conviction goes deep in our lives in many ways that do not depend on what Singer identifies as central to that ‘doctrine’, and that his attack therefore misses its main target. I argue more generally that Singer’s own moral (...)
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  7. Joshua Glasgow (2013). The Shape of a Life and the Value of Loss and Gain. Philosophical Studies 162 (3):665-682.score: 168.0
    We ordinarily think that, keeping all else equal, a life that improves is better than one that declines. However, it has proven challenging to account for such value judgments: some, such as Fred Feldman and Daniel Kahneman, have simply denied that these judgments are rational, while others, such as Douglas Portmore, Michael Slote, and David Velleman, have proposed justifications for the judgments that appear to be incomplete or otherwise problematic. This article identifies problems with existing accounts and suggests (...)
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  8. Steven Horrobin (2006). Immortality, Human Nature, the Value of Life and the Value of Life Extension. Bioethics 20 (6):279–292.score: 150.0
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  9. Heike Baranzke (2012). "Sanctity-of-Life"—A Bioethical Principle for a Right to Life? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):295 - 308.score: 131.0
    For about five decades the phrase "sanctity-of-life" has been part of the Anglo-American biomedical ethical discussion related to abortion and end-of-life questions. Nevertheless, the concept's origin and meaning are unclear. Much controversy is based on the mistaken assumption that the concept denotes the absolute value of human life and thus dictates a strict prohibition on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I offer an analysis of the religious and philosophical history of the idea of "sanctity-of- (...)." Drawing on biblical texts and interpretation as well as Kant's secularization of the concept, I argue that "sanctity" has been misunderstood as an ontological feature of biological human life, and instead locate the idea within the historical virtue-ethical tradition, which understands sanctification as a personal achievement through one's own actions. (shrink)
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  10. Hugo Nurnberg & Douglas P. Lackey (2010). The Ethics of Life Insurance Settlements: Investing in the Lives of Unrelated Individuals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):513 - 534.score: 124.0
    Life insurance settlements, or life settlements, are life insurance policies owned by investor-beneficiaries on the lives of unrelated individuals. With life settlements, investors make substantial payments to the insured individuals upon purchasing such policies, pay any remaining premius, and collect the death benefits upon the demise of the insured individuals. Transactions involving life settlements seem poised to become a major source of profits for investment banks, comparable in dollar amount to subprime mortgages. With life (...)
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  11. John Harris (1999). The Concept of the Person and the Value of Life. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (4):293-308.score: 123.0
    : The concept of the person has come to be intimately connected with questions about the value of life. It is applied to those sorts of beings who have some special value or moral importance and where we need to prioritize the needs or claims of different sorts of individuals. "Person" is a concept designating individuals like us in some important respects, but possibly including individuals who are very unlike us in other respects. What are these respects (...)
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  12. Daniel P. Sulmasy (2011). Speaking of the Value of Life. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2):181-199.score: 123.0
    The notion of the value of life is often invoked in discussions regarding medical care for the sick and the dying. This theme has figured in arguments about medical ethics for decades, but many of the phrases associated with this concept have received little serious scrutiny. It is true that some philosophers have declared a few commonly used phrases such as “the sanctity of life,” “the infinite value of life,” and “the value of (...) itself” to be unclear at best or misguided at worst. Their hasty dismissal of these phrases, however, is not the end of the story. I generally agree with this philosophical judgment but for reasons very different from those typically given by others. Moreover, the reasons I wish to .. (shrink)
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  13. Paul T. Menzel (2011). The Value of Life at the End of Life: A Critical Assessment of Hope and Other Factors. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):215-223.score: 123.0
    Low opportunity cost, weak influence of quality of life in the face of death, the social value of life extension to others, shifting psychological reference points, and hope have been proposed as factors to explain why people apparently perceive marginal life extension at the end of life to have disproportionately greater value than its length. Such value may help to explain why medical spending to extend life at the end of life (...)
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  14. R. Huxtable (2013). 'In a Twilight World'? Judging the Value of Life for the Minimally Conscious Patient. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (9):565-569.score: 123.0
    The recent ruling from England on the case of M is one of very few worldwide to consider whether life-sustaining treatment, in the form of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, should continue to be provided to a patient in a minimally conscious state. Formally concerned with the English law pertaining to precedent autonomy (specifically advance decision-making) and the best interests of the incapacitated patient, the judgment issued in M's case implicitly engages with three different accounts of the value (...)
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  15. Nicholas Maxwell (2006). Learning to Live a Life of Value. In Jason A. Merchey (ed.), Living a Life of Value. Values of the Wise Press. 383--395.score: 120.0
    Much of my working life has been devoted to trying to get across the point that we urgently need to bring about a revolution in the aims and methods of academic inquiry, so that the basic aim becomes to seek and promote wisdom rather than just acquire knowledge.
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  16. John Harris (1985). The Value of Life. Routledge & Kegan Paul.score: 120.0
    This book, like the practice of medicine itself, is about the value of life. Health care is one of the clearest and most visible expressions of a society's ...
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  17. Andreas Hasman & Lars Peter Østerdal (2004). Equal Value of Life and the Pareto Principle. Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):19-33.score: 120.0
    A principle claiming equal entitlement to continued life has been strongly defended in the literature as a fundamental social value. We refer to this principle as ‘equal value of life'. In this paper we argue that there is a general incompatibility between the equal value of life principle and the weak Pareto principle and provide proof of this under mild structural assumptions. Moreover we demonstrate that a weaker, age-dependent version of the equal value (...)
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  18. Joshua Seachris (2013). The Sub Specie Aeternitatis Perspective and Normative Evaluations of Life's Meaningfulness: A Closer Look. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):605-620.score: 119.0
    It is a common pessimistic worry among both philosophers and non-philosophers that our lives, viewed sub specie aeternitatis, are meaningless given that they make neither a noticeable nor lasting impact from this vast, cosmic perspective. The preferred solution for escaping this kind of pessimism is to adopt a different measure by which to evaluate life’s meaningfulness. One of two primary routes is often taken here. First, one can retreat back to the sub specie humanitatis perspective, and argue that (...) is meaningful only when viewed within the local context of human values, cares, and concerns. Or, second, one can distinguish between perspectives and standards for meaningfulness, arguing that the latter are independent of the former and are the most appropriate means by which evaluations of life’s meaningfulness are made. Importantly, none of these issues can be sufficiently addressed without first answering a prior question, and one that is surprisingly under-addressed in the literature: What is the sub specie aeternitatis perspective? Unfortunately, many philosophers who employ this perspective do so without carefully defining or clarifying it, or, if they do clarify what it means, they only note its time and spatial components. I will argue that, in addition to these components, this perspective includes something like a modal component (following Thomas Nagel), and an ontological Normative component. I will then apply this more nuanced understanding of the sub specie aeternitatis perspective to the question of whether perspectives can be distinguished from standards for meaningfulness. (shrink)
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  19. Till Grüne-Yanoff (2009). Mismeasuring the Value of Statistical Life. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (2):109-123.score: 119.0
    The value of a statistical life (VSL) is an important tool for cost?benefit analysis of regulatory policies that concern fatality risks. Its proponents claim that it measures people's risk preferences, and that VSL therefore is a tool of vicarious governance. This paper criticizes the revealed preference method for measuring VSL. It specifies three minimal conditions for vicarious governance: sensitivity, fairness and hypothetical compromise, and shows that the VSL measure, in its common application in policy formation and analysis, violates (...)
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  20. Mara Miller (forthcoming). “A Matter of Life and Death': Yasunari Kawabata on the Value of Art After the Atomic Bombings. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.score: 119.0
    This paper explores the possible interpretations—and the implications of those interpretations—of a comment about the importance of art made by Yasunari Kawabata (1899-1972), later the first Japanese Nobel laureate for literature: that “Looking at old works of art is a matter of life and death.” (In 1949 Kawabata visited Hiroshima in his capacity as president of the Japan literary society PEN to inspect the damage caused by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima that helped end World War II. On his (...)
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  21. John Haldane & Patrick Lee (2003). Aquinas on Human Ensoulment, Abortion and the Value of Life. Philosophy 78 (2):255-278.score: 117.0
    Although there is a significant number of books and essays in which Aquinas's thought is examined in some detail, there are still many aspects of his writings that remain unknown to those outside the field of Thomistic studies; or which are generally misunderstood. An example is Aquinas's account of the origins of individual human life. This is the subject of a chapter in a recent book by Robert Pasnau on Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature (Cambridge: CUP, 2001). Since there (...)
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  22. Dan R. Dalton & Richard A. Cosier (1991). An Issue in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Experiential Approach to Establish the Value of Human Life. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (4):311 - 315.score: 117.0
    While the notion of establishing a value for human life may be uncomfortable for some, we argue that it is a fundamental requirement for many aspects of public policy. We compare a number of approaches which have been traditionally relied on to make estimations. Also, we provide an exercise which provides an unusual, but we hope provocative, perspective on the evaluation of human life.
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  23. John H. Bryant (1995). Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics. In. In Zbigniew Bańkowski & John H. Bryant (eds.), Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics: Highlights and Papers of the Xxviiith Cioms Conference, Ixtapa, Guerrero State, Mexico, 17-20 April 1994. Cioms. 28--27.score: 116.0
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  24. W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz (2010). Inclusive Values and the Righteousness of Life: The Foundation of Global Solidarity. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (3):305 - 313.score: 114.3
    Many scholars have argued that unity of humankind can be established on the basis of some basic or core human values. Instead of engaging in a comparative empirical research, compiling lists of core values derived from different cultures, discuss their relevance for human fellowship, I examine the simple values of life that during the 1980s united people in Poland and made them to form the powerful civic movement, which was Solidarity. Today we live in a world that is fundamentally (...)
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  25. Iddo Landau (2014). Standards, Perspectives, and the Meaning of Life: A Reply to Seachris. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):457-468.score: 114.0
    IntroductionIn a recent article in this journal, Joshua W. Seachris (2012) argues that the distinction I make between perspectives and standards in sub specie aeternitatis arguments for the meaninglessness of life does not hold for a salient component of the sub specie aeternitatis perspective: the ontological-normative component. In this article I suggest that Seachris’s argument is problematic in a number of ways and ought to be rejected.BackgroundVarious authors, such as Albert Camus (1969, p. 78), Nicholas Rescher (1990, p. 153) (...)
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  26. Nicholas Maxwell (2009). How Can Life of Value Best Flourish in the Real World? In Leemon McHenry (ed.), Science and the Pursuit of Wisdom. Ontos Verlag.score: 113.0
    The Urgent Need for an Intellectual Revolution For much of my working life (from 1972 onwards) I have argued, in and out of print, that we need to bring about a revolution in the aims and methods of science – and of academic inquiry more generally. Instead of giving priority to the search for knowledge, academia needs to devote itself to seeking and promoting wisdom by rational means, wisdom being the capacity to realize what is of value in (...)
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  27. Dena S. Davis (2001). Is Life of Infinite Value? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (3):239-246.score: 113.0
    : It is possible and necessary to compare stretches of human life with other goods, such as the good of conserving resources for others. A minute of human life is not of infinite value; all else being equal, a minute of life is less valuable than 10 years of the same life. Nevertheless, this ability to evaluate human life does not necessarily lead to total commodification of human life.
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  28. Aaron Smuts (2013). Five Tests for What Makes a Life Worth Living. Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (4):1-21.score: 108.0
    I evaluate four historically precedented tests for what makes a life worth living: (1) The Suicide Test (Camus), (2) The Recurrence Test (Schopenhauer and Nietzsche), (3) The Extra Life Test (Cicero and Hume), and (4) The Preferring Not to Have Been Test (Job and Williams). I argue that all four fail and tentatively defend the heuristic value of a fifth, The Pre-Existence Test for what makes a life worth living: (5) A life worth living is (...)
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  29. Brian Domino (2013). Looking at the Meaning of Life Hydra-Scopically: Diderot and the Value of the Human. Philosophy and Literature 36 (2):363-377.score: 106.0
    In 1975 E. O. Wilson called for biologists to appropriate ethics.1 Few philosophers worried deeply about this potential usurpation because they felt firmly ensconced on the other side of the Humean wall from the biologists. Science can provide neither guidance (“oughts”) nor values. Perhaps nowhere is this more clear than in the crowning question of ethics; namely, what is the meaning of life? Since evolution proposes an ateleological account of the natural world, biologists can dismiss the question to which (...)
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  30. J. Harris (1987). QALYfying the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 13 (3):117-123.score: 105.0
    This paper argues that the Quality Adjusted Life Year or QALY is fatally flawed as a way of priority setting in health care and of dealing with the problem of scarce resources. In addition to showing why this is so the paper sets out a view of the moral constraints that govern the allocation of health resources and suggests reasons for a new attitude to the health budget.
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  31. Peter Singer (1980). Animals and the Value of Life. In Tom L. Beauchamp & Tom Regan (eds.), Matters of Life and Death. Temple University Press.score: 104.0
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  32. Thomas Davidson (1896). Is Life Worth Living? International Journal of Ethics 6 (2):231-235.score: 102.0
    A Reply to William James on the value of life.
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  33. J. Harris (2013). Life in the Cloud and Freedom of Speech. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):307-311.score: 102.0
    This paper is primarily about the personal and public responsibilities of ethics and of ethicists in speaking, writing and commenting publicly about issues of ethical, political and social significance. The paper argues that any such interventions are ‘willy-nilly’, actually or potentially, in the public domain in ways that make any self-conscious decision about intended publics or audiences problematic. In it is argued that a famous, and hitherto useful, distinction relating to the ethical limitations on freedom of speech which we owe (...)
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  34. H. Ramsay (1998). Distinctive Moralities: The Value of Life and Our Duties to the Handicapped. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 32 (4):507-517.score: 102.0
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  35. Jeff Noonan (2013). The Life-Value of Death: Mortality, Finitude, and Meaningful Lives. Journal of Philosophy of Life 3 (1):1-23.score: 101.0
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  36. L. Syd M. Johnson (2013). Can They Suffer? The Ethical Priority of Quality of Life Research in Disorders of Consciousness. Bioethica Forum 6 (4):129-136.score: 100.0
    There is ongoing ethical and legal debate about withdrawing life sup- port for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Frequently fu- eling the debate are implicit assumptions about the value of life in a state of impaired consciousness, and persistent uncertainty about the quality of life (QoL) of these persons. Yet there are no validated methods for assessing QoL in this population, and a significant obstacle to doing so is their inability to communicate. Recent neuroscientific discoveries (...)
     
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  37. Roy W. Perrett (2010). Ineffability, Signification and the Meaning of Life. Philosophical Papers 39 (2):239-255.score: 99.0
    There is an apparent tension between two familiar platitudes about the meaning of life: (i) that 'meaning' in this context means 'value', and (ii) that such meaning might be ineffable. I suggest a way of trying to bring these two claims together by focusing on an ideal of a meaningful life that fuses both the axiological and semantic senses of 'significant'. This in turn allows for the possibility that the full significance of a life might be (...)
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  38. Raphael Cohen-Almagor & Merav Shmueli (2000). Can Life Be Evaluated? The Jewish Halachic Approach Vs. The Quality of Life Approach in Medical Ethics: A Critical View. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):117-137.score: 99.0
    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of requests formercy killings by patients and their relatives. Under certain conditions,the patient may prefer death to a life devoid of quality. In contrast to thosewho uphold this quality of life approach, those who hold the sanctity oflife approach claim that life has intrinsic value and must be preservedregardless of its quality. This essay describes these two approaches,examines their flaws, and offers a golden path between (...)
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  39. Abdul-Rasheed Rabiu & Kapil Sugand (2014). Has the Sanctity of Life Law 'Gone Too Far'?: Analysis of the Sanctity of Life Doctrine and English Case Law Shows That the Sanctity of Life Law has Not 'Gone Too Far'. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9 (1):5.score: 99.0
    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend (...)
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  40. Joseph Raz (2001). Value, Respect, and Attachment. Cambridge University Press.score: 99.0
    The book is a contribution to the study of values, as they affect both our personal and our public life. It defends the view that values are necessarily universal, on the ground that that is a condition of their intelligibility. It does, however, reject most common conceptions of universality, like those embodied in the writings on human rights. It aims to reconcile the universality of value with (a) the social dependence of value and (b) the centrality to (...)
     
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  41. Owen J. Flanagan (1996). Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press.score: 93.0
    Human beings have the unique ability to consciously reflect on the nature of the self. But reflection has its costs. We can ask what the self is, but as David Hume pointed out, the self, once reflected upon, may be nowhere to be found. The favored view is that we are material beings living in the material world. But if so, a host of destabilizing questions surface. If persons are just a sophisticated sort of animal, then what sense is there (...)
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  42. F. M. Kamm (2001). Ronald Dworkin on Abortion and Assisted Suicide. Journal of Ethics 5 (3):221-240.score: 93.0
    In the first part of this article, I raisequestions about Dworkin''s theory of theintrinsic value of life and about the adequacyof his proposal to understand abortion in termsof different ways of valuing life. In thesecond part of the article, I consider hisargument in ``The Philosophers'' Brief on AssistedSuicide'''', which claims that the distinctionbetween killing and letting die is morallyirrelevant, the distinction between intendingand foreseeing death can be morally relevantbut is not always so. I argue that thekilling/letting die (...)
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  43. Jeff McMahan (1988). Death and the Value of Life. Ethics 99 (1):32-61.score: 93.0
    Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
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  44. R. G. Frey (2005). Pain, Vivisection, and the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (4):202-204.score: 93.0
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  45. A. G. M. Campbell (1979). Infanticide and the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 5 (3):150-150.score: 93.0
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  46. Maartje Schermer (2003). In Search of `the Good Life' for Demented Elderly. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):35-44.score: 93.0
    It may seem paradoxical to speak of the ‘goodlife’ for demented elderly. Many people consider dementia to be a life-wrecking disease and nursing homes to be terrible places. Still, it is relevant to ask how we can make life as good as possible for demented nursing home residents. This paper explores what three standard philosophical accounts of well-being — subjective preference theory, objectivist theories, and hedonism — have to say about the good life for demented people. It (...)
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  47. Theo van Willigenburg (2001). An Internalist View on the Value of Life and Some Tricky Cases Relevant to It. Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (1):25–35.score: 93.0
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  48. A. Williams (1987). Brief Response: QALYfying the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 13 (3):123-123.score: 93.0
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  49. C. Farsides (1991). Medical Ethics and the Value of Life. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):111-111.score: 93.0
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  50. A. H. Lesser (1985). The Value of Life: An Introduction to Medical Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (4):213-213.score: 93.0
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