Search results for 'values in science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. National Committee for Research Ethics in Science & Technology (2009). Guidelines for Research Ethics in Science and Technology. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).score: 1640.0
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  2. Matthew J. Brown (2014). Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.score: 726.0
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidential considerations (...)
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  3. Sven Ove Hansson (2007). Values in Pure and Applied Science. Foundations of Science 12 (3):257-268.score: 711.0
    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with (value-deprived) scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high entry (...)
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  4. Soemini Kasanmoentalib (1996). Science and Values in Risk Assessment: The Case of Deliberate Release of Genetically Engineered Organisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):42-60.score: 624.0
    To make more responsible decisions regarding risk and to understand disagreements and controversies in risk assessments, it is important to know how and where values are infused into risk assessment and how they are embedded in the conclusions. In this article an attempt is made to disentangle the relationship of science and values in decision-making concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. This exercise in applied philosophy of science is based on (...)
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  5. Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe & Erik Steen Kristensen (2002). Towards a Systemic Research Methodology in Agriculture: Rethinking the Role of Values in Science. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):3-23.score: 621.0
    The recent drastic developmentof agriculture, together with the growingsocietal interest in agricultural practices andtheir consequences, pose a challenge toagricultural science. There is a need forrethinking the general methodology ofagricultural research. This paper takes somesteps towards developing a systemic researchmethodology that can meet this challenge – ageneral self-reflexive methodology that forms abasis for doing holistic or (with a betterterm) wholeness-oriented research and providesappropriate criteria of scientific quality.From a philosophy of research perspective,science is seen as an interactive learningprocess with both (...)
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  6. Matthias Kaiser (1997). Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):307-341.score: 603.0
    The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems unclear how PP relates to science. In section 2 of the paper a general overview of some historical and systematic (...)
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  7. Ryan Meyer (2011). The Public Values Failures of Climate Science in the US. Minerva 49 (1):47-70.score: 570.0
    This paper examines the broad social purpose of US climate science, which has benefitted from a public investment of more than $30 billion over the last 20 years. A public values analysis identifies five core public values that underpin the interagency program. Drawing from interviews, meeting observations, and document analysis, I examine the decision processes and institutional structures that lead to the implementation of climate science policy, and identify a variety of public values failures accommodated (...)
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  8. Kevin Elliott & David Willmes (2014). Cognitive Attitudes and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):807-817.score: 549.0
    We argue that the analysis of cognitive attitudes should play a central role in developing more sophisticated accounts of the proper roles for values in science. First, we show that the major recent efforts to delineate appropriate roles for values in science would be strengthened by making clearer distinctions among cognitive attitudes. Next, we turn to a specific example and argue that a more careful account of the distinction between the attitudes of belief and acceptance can (...)
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  9. Kevin Elliott (2011). Direct and Indirect Roles for Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 78 (2):303-324.score: 549.0
    Although many philosophers have employed the distinction between “direct” and “indirect” roles for values in science, I argue that it merits further clarification. The distinction can be formulated in several ways: as a logical point, as a distinction between epistemic attitudes, or as a clarification of different consequences associated with accepting scientific claims. Moreover, it can serve either as part of a normative ideal or as a tool for policing how values influence science. While various formulations (...)
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  10. Phyllis Rooney (1992). On Values in Science: Is the Epistemic/Non-Epistemic Distinction Useful? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:13 - 22.score: 549.0
    The debate about the rational and the social in science has sometimes been developed in the context of a distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Paying particular attention to two important discussion in the last decade, by Longino and by McMullin, I argue that a fuller understanding of values in science ultimately requires abandoning the distinction itself. This is argued directly in terms of an analysis of the lack of clarity concerning what epistemic (...) are. I also argue that the philosophical import of much of the feminist work in philosophy of science is restricted by any kind of strict adherence to the distinction. (shrink)
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  11. Heather Douglas (2000). Inductive Risk and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):559-579.score: 546.0
    Although epistemic values have become widely accepted as part of scientific reasoning, non-epistemic values have been largely relegated to the "external" parts of science (the selection of hypotheses, restrictions on methodologies, and the use of scientific technologies). I argue that because of inductive risk, or the risk of error, non-epistemic values are required in science wherever non-epistemic consequences of error should be considered. I use examples from dioxin studies to illustrate how non-epistemic consequences of error (...)
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  12. Helen E. Longino (1996). Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy. In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. 39--58.score: 546.0
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
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  13. Wenceslao J. González (2008). Economic Values in the Configuration of Science. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):85-112.score: 543.0
    The axiological question of the role of economic values in the configuration of science is analyzed here following several steps: 1) the acceptance of the presence of values in science (among them, economic values in connection with scientific progress); 2) the clarification of the realms of values in science, which gives room for an "economics of science"; 3) the analysis of economic values in the internal perspective (cognitive and methodological), which is (...)
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  14. Jeroen Van Bouwel, Dealing with Values in Science: Kinds, Roles and/or Procedures.score: 540.0
    In this paper, we inquire how the eternal tension between science and values has been tackled in philosophy of science by analysing three different strategies that have been used: (a) focussing on different kinds of values (e.g. epistemic vs. non-epistemic values) and allowing some of these kinds to be present in science (e.g. epistemic values); (b) stipulating the role values are allowed to play (e.g. an indirect, but not a direct role); and, (...)
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  15. Douglas Allchin, VALUES IN SCIENCE: An Introduction.score: 537.0
    Values intersect with science in three primary ways. First, there are values, particularly epistemic values, which guide scientific research itself. Second, the scientific enterprise is always embedded in some particular culture and values enter science through its individual practitioners, whether consciously or not. Finally, values emerge from science, both as a product and process, and may be redistributed more broadly in the culture or society. Also, scientific discoveries may pose new social challenges (...)
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  16. Mark Bedau, Objectifying Values in Science: A Case Study.score: 537.0
    There are at least two different ways in which values and science can be connected. One is through the evaluation of science, and the other is through the scientific investigation of values. The evaluation of science is a non−scientific, political or ethical investigation of the practices of science. Various proposed and actual scientific practices call out for social and ethical evaluation. A few that have received recent attention are the human genome project, intelligence testing, (...)
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  17. Vlasova Svetlana V. (2008). Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-315.score: 516.0
    The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can be (...)
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  18. Andrew Miles (2009). On the Interface Between Science, Medicine, Faith and Values in the Individualization of Clinical Practice: A Review and Analysis of 'Medicine of the Person' Cox, J., Campbell, A. V. & Fulford, K. W. M., Eds (2007). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1000-1024.score: 516.0
  19. V. Svetlana (2008). Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-315.score: 516.0
    The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can be (...)
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  20. Ernan McMullin (1982). Values in Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982 (4):3 - 28.score: 510.0
    This paper argues that the appraisal of theory is in important respects closer in structure to value-judgement than it is to the rule-governed inference that the classical tradition in philosophy of science took for granted.
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  21. Sharyn Clough (2008). Solomon's Empirical/Non-Empirical Distinction and the Proper Place of Values in Science. Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 265-279.score: 495.0
    In assessing the appropriateness of a scientific community's research effort, Solomon considers a number of "decision vectors," divided into the empirical and non-empirical. Value judgments get sorted as non-empirical vectors. By way of contrast, I introduce Anderson's discussion of the evidential role of value judgments. Like Anderson, I argue that value judgments are empirical in the relevant sense. I argue further that Solomon's decision matrix needs to be reconceptualized: the distinction should not be between the empirical vs. non-empirical, but between (...)
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  22. Jeffrey Burkhardt (1999). Scientific Values and Moral Education in the Teaching of Science. Perspectives on Science 7 (1):87-110.score: 495.0
    : Implicit instruction about values occurs throughout scientific communication, whether in the university classroom or in the larger public forum. The concern of this paper is that the kind of values education that occurs includes "reverse moral education," the idea that moral considerations are at best extra scientific if not simply irrational. The (a)moral education that many scientists unwittingly foist on their "students" undergirds the scientific establishment's typical responses to larger social issues: "Huff!" In this paper I explain (...)
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  23. Justin Biddle (2013). State of the Field: Transient Underdetermination and Values in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):124-133.score: 486.0
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  24. Mauro Dorato (2004). Epistemic and Nonepistemic Values in Science. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. 52--77.score: 486.0
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  25. Mark A. Bedau (2004). A Case Study in Objectifying Values in Science. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. 190.score: 486.0
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  26. Bruce M. Psaty & Thomas S. Inui (1991). The Place of Human Values in the Language of Science: Kuhn, Saussure, and Structuralism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).score: 477.0
    The current paradigm in medicine generally distinguishes between genetic and environmental causes of disease. Although the word paradigm has become a commonplace, the theories of Thomas Kuhn have not received much attention in the journals of medicine. Kuhn's structuralist method differs radically from the daily activities of the scientific method itself. Using linguistic theory, this essay offers a structuralist reading of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Our purpose is to highlight the similarities between these structuralist models of (...) and language. In part, we focus on the logic that enables Kuhn to assert the priority of perception over interpretation in the history of science. To illustrate some of these issues, we refer to the distinction between environmental and genetic causes of disease. While the activity of scientific research results in the revision of concepts in science, the production of significant differences that shape our knowledge is in part a social and linguistic process. (shrink)
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  27. Ekaterina Svetlova (2014). Modelling Beyond Application: Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in Modern Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):79-98.score: 471.0
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  28. Matthew J. Brown (2013). Science, Values, and Democracy in the Global Climate Change Debate. In Shane Ralston (ed.), Philosophical Pragmatism and International Relations: Essays for a Bold New World. Lexington. 127-158.score: 459.0
    This chapter will develop and apply ideas drawn from and inspired by Dewey’s work on science and democracy to the context of international relations (IR). I will begin with Dewey’s views on the nature of democracy, which lead us into his philosophy of science. I will show that scientific and policy inquiry are inextricably related processes, and that they both have special requirements in a democratic context. There are some challenges applying these ideas to the IR case, but (...)
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  29. Kristen Intemann (2005). Feminism, Underdetermination, and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1001-1012.score: 459.0
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  30. Kristina Rolin (2012). A Feminist Approach to Values in Science. Perspectives on Science 20 (3):320-330.score: 459.0
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  31. Mariano Artigas (2008). Values in Science. In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang. 14--115.score: 459.0
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  32. Paul Weingartner (2008). The Places of Values in Science. In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang. 14--141.score: 459.0
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  33. M. Curd & J. A. Cover (forthcoming). Rationality, Objectivity, and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science.score: 459.0
     
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  34. Gerald Doppelt (2008). Values in Science. In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge.score: 459.0
     
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  35. Stanley R. Herwitz & Marion Guerra (1996). Perspectives, Partnerships, and Values in Science Education: A University and Public Elementary School Collaboration. Science Education 80 (1):21-34.score: 459.0
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  36. Ladislav Tondl (2001). Science, Values and the Human Dimensions. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 32 (2):307-327.score: 453.0
    The presented paper substantiates the principle that values are an immanent component of science and any rational cognitive activity. This principle belongs to the European cultural tradition starting from the book of Genesis of the Old Testament, the values of certainty in the antique Greek philosophy and Francis Bacon's coincidence of knowledge and power. Values in science form complicated structures inconnection with different types of knowledge including “the knowledge that”, empirical evidence, various types of generalizations (...)
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  37. Tom Henighan (ed.) (1980). Brave New Universe: Testing the Values of Science in Society. Tecumseh Press.score: 453.0
     
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  38. John Dupré (2004). Science and Values and Values in Science: Comments on Philip Kitcher's Science, Truth, and Democracy. Inquiry 47 (5):505 – 514.score: 450.0
  39. Vincent K. Y. Ho (2011). Medicine, Methodology, and Values Trade-Offs in Clinical Science and Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):243-255.score: 450.0
    In recent years, society has come to recognize that the work performed by scientists, like that of journalists and politicians, may be influenced by the interests they serve. As a result, scientists' research is increasingly contested as a source of reliable knowledge. Such has been the case in issues concerning the climate debate, for example, where research results are at times perceived to comfortably fit in with the viewpoints of interested parties outside science. In medicine, governmental as well as (...)
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  40. Alvin M. Weinberg (1984). Values in Science: Unity as a Criterion of Scientific Choice. [REVIEW] Minerva 22 (1):1-12.score: 450.0
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  41. Ann Palm (1974). Commentary: Human Values in Science. BioScience 24 (11):657-659.score: 450.0
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  42. Klasien Horstman & Engeline van Rens-Leenaarts (2002). Beyond the Boundary Between Science and Values: Re-Evaluating the Moral Dimension of the Nurse's Role in Cot Death Prevention. Nursing Ethics 9 (2):137-154.score: 447.0
    This article combines a philosophical critique of the idea that public health nurses are primary technicians who neutrally hand over scientifically established facts on risks to the public and an empirical analysis of the actual work of public health nurses. It is argued that the relationship between facts and values in public health is complex and that, despite the introduction of several scientifically-based standards and guidelines, public health nurses are not technicians. They do moral work and experience ethical dilemmas. (...)
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  43. Warren Kinston (1995). Working with Values: Software of the Mind: A Systematic and Practical Account of Purpose, Value, and Obligation in Organizations and Society: The Original Reference Text as Used by Consultants in Sigma, the Centre for Transdisciplinary Science. The Centre.score: 445.0
  44. Barbara Adam (1998). Values in the Cultural Timescapes of Science. Cultural Values 2 (2-3):385-402.score: 444.0
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  45. Matthew J. Brown (2013). The Source and Status of Values for Socially Responsible Science. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):67-76.score: 441.0
    Philosophy of Science After Feminism is an important contribution to philosophy of science, in that it argues for the central relevance of advances from previous work in feminist philosophy of science and articulates a new vision for philosophy of science going in to the future. Kourany’s vision of philosophy of science’s future as “socially engaged and socially responsible” and addressing questions of the social responsibility of science itself has much to recommend it. I focus (...)
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  46. M. Gunther & K. Reshaur (1971). Science and Values in Political "Science". Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 (1):113-121.score: 438.0
  47. Jan Marten Ivo Klaver (2008). The Galileo Case: Trial/Science/Truth. By Mario d'Addiothe Church and Galileo. (Studies in Science and the Humanities From the Reilly Center for Science Technology and Values) Ed. By Ernan mcmullinGalileo, Darwin, and Hawking: The Interplay of Science, Reason, and Religion. By Phil Dowe. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 49 (4):685–687.score: 435.0
  48. Vivian Weil (1994). Book Review:Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management. Deborah G. Mayo, Rachelle D. Hollander. [REVIEW] Ethics 104 (3):651-.score: 435.0
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