Search results for 'values in science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  9
    National Committee for Research Ethics in Science & Technology (2009). Guidelines for Research Ethics in Science and Technology. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).
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  2. William R. Shea, International Council of Scientific Unions, International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science & Universidade de Coimbra (1988). Revolutions in Science Their Meaning and Relevance. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  3. Matthew J. Brown (2013). Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to (...)
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  4.  52
    Sven Ove Hansson (2007). Values in Pure and Applied Science. Foundations of Science 12 (3):257-268.
    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high (...)
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  5.  67
    Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe & Erik Steen Kristensen (2002). Towards a Systemic Research Methodology in Agriculture: Rethinking the Role of Values in Science. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):3-23.
    The recent drastic developmentof agriculture, together with the growingsocietal interest in agricultural practices andtheir consequences, pose a challenge toagricultural science. There is a need forrethinking the general methodology ofagricultural research. This paper takes somesteps towards developing a systemic researchmethodology that can meet this challenge – ageneral self-reflexive methodology that forms abasis for doing holistic or (with a betterterm) wholeness-oriented research and providesappropriate criteria of scientific quality.From a philosophy of research perspective,science is seen as an interactive learningprocess with both (...)
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  6.  16
    Larry Laudan (1984). Science and Values: The Aims of Science and Their Role in Scientific Debate. University of California Press.
    Laudan constructs a fresh approach to a longtime problem for the philosopher of science: how to explain the simultaneous and widespread presence of both agreement and disagreement in science. Laudan critiques the logical empiricists and the post-positivists as he stresses the need for centrality and values and the interdependence of values, methods, and facts as prerequisites to solving the problems of consensus and dissent in science.
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  7.  77
    Justin Biddle (2013). State of the Field: Transient Underdetermination and Values in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):124-133.
    This paper examines the state of the field of “science and values”—particularly regarding the implications of the thesis of transient underdetermination for the ideal of value-free science, or what I call the “ideal of epistemic purity.” I do this by discussing some of the main arguments in the literature, both for and against the ideal. I examine a preliminary argument from transient underdetermination against the ideal of epistemic purity, and I discuss two different formulations of an objection (...)
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  8.  88
    Matthias Kaiser (1997). Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 2 (2):307-341.
    The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems unclear how PP relates to science. In section 2 of the paper a general overview of some historical and systematic (...)
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  9.  77
    Soemini Kasanmoentalib (1996). Science and Values in Risk Assessment: The Case of Deliberate Release of Genetically Engineered Organisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):42-60.
    To make more responsible decisions regarding risk and to understand disagreements and controversies in risk assessments, it is important to know how and where values are infused into risk assessment and how they are embedded in the conclusions. In this article an attempt is made to disentangle the relationship of science and values in decision-making concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. This exercise in applied philosophy of science is based on (...)
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  10. Heather Douglas (2000). Inductive Risk and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):559-579.
    Although epistemic values have become widely accepted as part of scientific reasoning, non-epistemic values have been largely relegated to the "external" parts of science (the selection of hypotheses, restrictions on methodologies, and the use of scientific technologies). I argue that because of inductive risk, or the risk of error, non-epistemic values are required in science wherever non-epistemic consequences of error should be considered. I use examples from dioxin studies to illustrate how non-epistemic consequences of error (...)
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  11.  65
    Ryan Meyer (2011). The Public Values Failures of Climate Science in the US. Minerva 49 (1):47-70.
    This paper examines the broad social purpose of US climate science, which has benefitted from a public investment of more than $30 billion over the last 20 years. A public values analysis identifies five core public values that underpin the interagency program. Drawing from interviews, meeting observations, and document analysis, I examine the decision processes and institutional structures that lead to the implementation of climate science policy, and identify a variety of public values failures accommodated (...)
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  12. Kevin C. Elliott & David Willmes (2013). Cognitive Attitudes and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):807-817.
    We argue that the analysis of cognitive attitudes should play a central role in developing more sophisticated accounts of the proper roles for values in science. First, we show that the major recent efforts to delineate appropriate roles for values in science would be strengthened by making clearer distinctions among cognitive attitudes. Next, we turn to a specific example and argue that a more careful account of the distinction between the attitudes of belief and acceptance can (...)
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  13.  71
    Kevin C. Elliott (2011). Direct and Indirect Roles for Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 78 (2):303-324.
    Although many philosophers have employed the distinction between “direct” and “indirect” roles for values in science, I argue that it merits further clarification. The distinction can be formulated in several ways: as a logical point, as a distinction between epistemic attitudes, or as a clarification of different consequences associated with accepting scientific claims. Moreover, it can serve either as part of a normative ideal or as a tool for policing how values influence science. While various formulations (...)
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  14.  26
    Kristina Rolin (2015). Values in Science: The Case of Scientific Collaboration. Philosophy of Science 82 (2):157-177.
    Much of the literature on values in science is limited in its perspective because it focuses on the role of values in individual scientists’ decision making, thereby ignoring the context of scientific collaboration. I examine the epistemic structure of scientific collaboration and argue that it gives rise to two arguments showing that moral and social values can legitimately play a role in scientists’ decision to accept something as scientific knowledge. In the case of scientific collaboration some (...)
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  15.  60
    Helen E. Longino (1996). Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy. In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers 39--58.
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
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  16.  33
    Ekaterina Svetlova (2014). Modelling Beyond Application: Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in Modern Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):79-98.
    In recent years, philosophers of science have begun to realize that the clear separation of the creation of models in academia and the application of models outside science is not possible. When these philosophers address hybrid contexts in which science is entwined with policy, business, and other realms of society, these often practically oriented realms no longer represent ‘the surroundings’ of science but rather are considered an essential part of it. I argue—and demonstrate empirically—that the judgement (...)
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  17.  34
    Phyllis Rooney (1992). On Values in Science: Is the Epistemic/Non-Epistemic Distinction Useful? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:13-22.
    The debate about the rational and the social in science has sometimes been developed in the context of a distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Paying particular attention to two important discussion in the last decade, by Longino and by McMullin, I argue that a fuller understanding of values in science ultimately requires abandoning the distinction itself. This is argued directly in terms of an analysis of the lack of clarity concerning what epistemic values are. (...)
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  18.  34
    Jeroen Van Bouwel, Dealing with Values in Science: Kinds, Roles and/or Procedures.
    In this paper, we inquire how the eternal tension between science and values has been tackled in philosophy of science by analysing three different strategies that have been used: (a) focussing on different kinds of values (e.g. epistemic vs. non-epistemic values) and allowing some of these kinds to be present in science (e.g. epistemic values); (b) stipulating the role values are allowed to play (e.g. an indirect, but not a direct role); and, (...)
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  19.  78
    Douglas Allchin, VALUES IN SCIENCE: An Introduction.
    Values intersect with science in three primary ways. First, there are values, particularly epistemic values, which guide scientific research itself. Second, the scientific enterprise is always embedded in some particular culture and values enter science through its individual practitioners, whether consciously or not. Finally, values emerge from science, both as a product and process, and may be redistributed more broadly in the culture or society. Also, scientific discoveries may pose new social challenges (...)
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  20.  3
    Martin Carrier (2012). Historical Epistemology: On the Diversity and Change of Epistemic Values in Science. Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 35 (3):239-251.
    Historische Epistemologie: Vielfalt und Wandel epistemischer Werte in der Wissenschaft. Die historische Epistemologie beinhaltet die Auffassung, dass das System des Wissens nicht durch die Beobachtungen festgelegt ist, sondern auch von epistemischen Anforderungen geprägt ist, die sich im historischen Forschungsprozess wandeln können. In der Folge ist das System des Wissens pfadabhängig in dem Sinn, dass seine Gestalt von epistemischen Entscheidungen beeinflusst ist, die zu bestimmten historischen Zeitpunkten getroffen wurden. Die vorliegende Arbeit zielt darauf ab, diesen Denkansatz auszuarbeiten, indem die doppelte Rolle (...)
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  21.  37
    Mark Bedau, Objectifying Values in Science: A Case Study.
    There are at least two different ways in which values and science can be connected. One is through the evaluation of science, and the other is through the scientific investigation of values. The evaluation of science is a non−scientific, political or ethical investigation of the practices of science. Various proposed and actual scientific practices call out for social and ethical evaluation. A few that have received recent attention are the human genome project, intelligence testing, (...)
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  22. Valeriano Iranzo (1995). Epistemic Values in Science. Sorites 1:81-95.
    The paper is a critical examination of some aspects of Laudan's views in his book Science and Values. Not only do the aims of science change; there are axiological disputes in science as well. Scientific disagreements are not solely theoretical or methodological. Progress in science consists not only in developing new theories more suitable for implementing certain epistemic values than earlier ones but also in reaching a deeper understanding of those values. The paper (...)
     
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  23.  35
    Wenceslao J. González (2008). Economic Values in the Configuration of Science. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):85-112.
    The axiological question of the role of economic values in the configuration of science is analyzed here following several steps: 1) the acceptance of the presence of values in science (among them, economic values in connection with scientific progress); 2) the clarification of the realms of values in science, which gives room for an "economics of science"; 3) the analysis of economic values in the internal perspective (cognitive and methodological), which is (...)
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  24.  55
    Helen E. Longino (1990). Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton University Press.
    This is an important book precisely because there is none other quite like it.
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  25.  9
    Roberto de Andrade Martins (2001). Intrinsic Values in Science. Revista Patagónica de Filosofía 2 (2):5-25.
    In the early 20th century, science was supposed to be “value free”. In 1953 Richard Rudner claimed that “the scientist qua scientist makes value judgments”, and later philosophers discussed the relations between science and values. From the 60’s onward Michael Scriven and other authors came to the conclusion that non-moral values (intrinsic or epistemic values) are required to evaluate scientific works. This paper supports this general view. However, it stresses that there are several independent scientific (...)
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  26. David M. Black (2011). Why Things Matter: The Place of Values in Science, Psychoanalysis and Religion. Routledge.
    In this book, David M. Black asks questions such as 'why do we care?' and 'what gives our values power?' using ideas from psychoanalysis and its adjacent sciences such as neuroscience and evolutionary biology in order to do so. _Why Things Matter_ explores how the comparatively new scientific discipline of consciousness studies requires us to recognize that subjectivity is as irreducible a feature of the world as matter and energy. Necessarily inter-disciplinary, this book draws on science, philosophy and (...)
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  27. Vlasova Svetlana V. (2008). Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-315.
    The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can (...)
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  28. Kristen K. Intemann (2004). Should Science Be Value-Free? Rethinking the Role of Ethical and Political Values in the Justification of Scientific Theories. Dissertation, University of Washington
    It is often claimed that science should be "value-free in that ethical, political, and social values have no legitimate role in the justification of scientific theories. Although such values may influence which hypotheses are pursued, or whether some application of scientific theories is desirable, they play no legitimate role in scientific reasoning. ;I argue against the view that all science ought to be value-free. Examining a range of cases from biology, (...)
     
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  29.  13
    Andrew Miles (2009). On the Interface Between Science, Medicine, Faith and Values in the Individualization of Clinical Practice: A Review and Analysis of 'Medicine of the Person' Cox, J., Campbell, A. V. & Fulford, K. W. M., Eds (2007). [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1000-1024.
  30.  26
    Vlasova Svetlana V. (2008). Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-315.
    The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can (...)
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  31.  23
    V. Svetlana (2008). Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 37:309-315.
    The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can (...)
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  32.  7
    Daniel J. McKaughan & Kevin C. Elliott (2015). Introduction: Cognitive Attitudes and Values in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53:57-61.
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  33.  80
    Ernan McMullin (1982). Values in Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982 (4):3-28.
    This paper argues that the appraisal of theory is in important respects closer in structure to value-judgement than it is to the rule-governed inference that the classical tradition in philosophy of science took for granted.
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  34.  19
    Kristen Intemann (2015). Distinguishing Between Legitimate and Illegitimate Values in Climate Modeling. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):217-232.
    While it is widely acknowledged that science is not “free” of non-epistemic values, there is disagreement about the roles that values can appropriately play. Several have argued that non-epistemic values can play important roles in modeling decisions, particularly in addressing uncertainties ; Risbey 2007; Biddle and Winsberg 2010; Winsberg : 111-137, 2012); van der Sluijs 359-389, 2012). On the other hand, such values can lead to bias ; Bray ; Oreskes and Conway 2010). Thus, it (...)
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  35.  70
    Jeffrey Burkhardt (1999). Scientific Values and Moral Education in the Teaching of Science. Perspectives on Science 7 (1):87-110.
    : Implicit instruction about values occurs throughout scientific communication, whether in the university classroom or in the larger public forum. The concern of this paper is that the kind of values education that occurs includes "reverse moral education," the idea that moral considerations are at best extra scientific if not simply irrational. The (a)moral education that many scientists unwittingly foist on their "students" undergirds the scientific establishment's typical responses to larger social issues: "Huff!" In this paper I explain (...)
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  36.  35
    Mauro Dorato (2004). Epistemic and Nonepistemic Values in Science. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press 52--77.
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  37. Sharyn Clough (2008). Solomon's Empirical/Non-Empirical Distinction and the Proper Place of Values in Science. Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 265-279.
    In assessing the appropriateness of a scientific community's research effort, Solomon considers a number of "decision vectors," divided into the empirical and non-empirical. Value judgments get sorted as non-empirical vectors. By way of contrast, I introduce Anderson's discussion of the evidential role of value judgments. Like Anderson, I argue that value judgments are empirical in the relevant sense. I argue further that Solomon's decision matrix needs to be reconceptualized: the distinction should not be between the empirical vs. non-empirical, but between (...)
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  38.  11
    Mark A. Bedau (2004). A Case Study in Objectifying Values in Science. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press 190.
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  39.  5
    Walter Feinberg (2012). Critical Pragmatist and the Reconnection of Science and Values in Educational Research. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 4:222-240.
    Randomized field experiments, which in the United States has been proposed as the gold standard of educational research, is dismissed by some critics as "positivistic". Although this dismissal over identifies positivism with a specific research method, the larger point is accurate: the "gold standard" is often insensitive to local situations and human value and philosophical positivism supports and en-courages this insensitivity. In this paper I examine the way positivism is limited in terms of its understanding of the role of (...)
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  40.  34
    Bruce M. Psaty & Thomas S. Inui (1991). The Place of Human Values in the Language of Science: Kuhn, Saussure, and Structuralism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).
    The current paradigm in medicine generally distinguishes between genetic and environmental causes of disease. Although the word paradigm has become a commonplace, the theories of Thomas Kuhn have not received much attention in the journals of medicine. Kuhn's structuralist method differs radically from the daily activities of the scientific method itself. Using linguistic theory, this essay offers a structuralist reading of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Our purpose is to highlight the similarities between these structuralist models of (...) and language. In part, we focus on the logic that enables Kuhn to assert the priority of perception over interpretation in the history of science. To illustrate some of these issues, we refer to the distinction between environmental and genetic causes of disease. While the activity of scientific research results in the revision of concepts in science, the production of significant differences that shape our knowledge is in part a social and linguistic process. (shrink)
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  41. Paul Roubiczek (1969). Ethical Values in the Age of Science. London, Cambridge U.P..
    In this 1969 text, Paul Roubiczek argues that in the age of science there is still a place for ethics and a need for the philosophical method. He attempts to prove this by examining the contributions of three disciplines - history, psychology and sociology - towards man's understanding of his moral involvement with society. By illustrating that all three leave gaps or lead to contradictions, he poses the question of whether it is possible to speak of an absolute morality, (...)
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  42.  57
    Kristen Intemann (2005). Feminism, Underdetermination, and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1001-1012.
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  43.  43
    Matthew J. Brown (2013). Science, Values, and Democracy in the Global Climate Change Debate. In Shane Ralston (ed.), Philosophical Pragmatism and International Relations: Essays for a Bold New World. Lexington 127-158.
    This chapter will develop and apply ideas drawn from and inspired by Dewey’s work on science and democracy to the context of international relations (IR). I will begin with Dewey’s views on the nature of democracy, which lead us into his philosophy of science. I will show that scientific and policy inquiry are inextricably related processes, and that they both have special requirements in a democratic context. There are some challenges applying these ideas to the IR case, (...)
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  44. Gerald Doppelt (2008). Values in Science. In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge
     
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  45.  10
    Mariano Artigas (2008). Values in Science. In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang 14--115.
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  46.  18
    Kristina Rolin (2012). A Feminist Approach to Values in Science. Perspectives on Science 20 (3):320-330.
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  47.  8
    Paul Weingartner (2008). The Places of Values in Science. In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang 14--141.
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  48. M. Curd & J. A. Cover (forthcoming). Rationality, Objectivity, and Values in Science. Philosophy of Science.
     
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  49. Stanley R. Herwitz & Marion Guerra (1996). Perspectives, Partnerships, and Values in Science Education: A University and Public Elementary School Collaboration. Science Education 80 (1):21-34.
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  50. Hugh Lacey (2005). Values and Objectivity in Science: The Current Controversy About Transgenic Crops. Lexington Books.
    This book offers an account of how values play an important role within scientific practices, and how this account illuminates many ethical issues that arise concerning scientific practices and applications.
     
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