Search results for 'word' (try it on Scholar)

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Bibliography: Words in Philosophy of Language
  1. Norbert Corver & Henk C. van Riemsdijk (eds.) (1994). Studies of Scrambling: Movement and Non-Movement Approaches to Free Word-Order Phenomena. Mouton De Gruyter.score: 24.0
    ... the phenomenon of variable word order within a clause. Ross (), who was one of the first to discuss this phenomenon within the generative paradigm, ...
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  2. Susann Fischer (2010). Word-Order Change as a Source of Grammaticalisation. John Benjamins Pub. Company.score: 24.0
    1. Introduction -- 2. Different views on grammaticalisation and its relation to word-order -- 3. Historical overview of oblique subjects in Germanic and Romance -- 4. Historical overview of stylistic fronting in Germanic and Romance -- 5. Accounting for the differences and similarities between the languages under investigation -- 6. Explaining the changes: minimalism meets von Humboldt and Meillet -- References.
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  3. Jae Jung Song (2012). Word Order. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    A one-stop resource on the current developments in word order research, this comprehensive survey provides an up-to-date, critical overview of this widely debated topic, exploring and evaluating research carried out in four major ...
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  4. Keith S. Apfelbaum & Bob McMurray (2011). Using Variability to Guide Dimensional Weighting: Associative Mechanisms in Early Word Learning. Cognitive Science 35 (6):1105-1138.score: 24.0
    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well-developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g., bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in nonphonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both noncontrastive information (...)
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  5. Thomas Hannagan & Jonathan Grainger (2012). Protein Analysis Meets Visual Word Recognition: A Case for String Kernels in the Brain. Cognitive Science 36 (4):575-606.score: 24.0
    It has been recently argued that some machine learning techniques known as Kernel methods could be relevant for capturing cognitive and neural mechanisms (Jäkel, Schölkopf, & Wichmann, 2009). We point out that ‘‘String kernels,’’ initially designed for protein function prediction and spam detection, are virtually identical to one contending proposal for how the brain encodes orthographic information during reading. We suggest some reasons for this connection and we derive new ideas for visual word recognition that are successfully put to (...)
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  6. Eva Koktova (1999). Word-Order Based Grammar. Mouton De Gruyter.score: 24.0
    In this book, a new theory of grammar based on word order is proposed: a deep word order as the multipartioned communicative-information structure of the ...
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  7. Stanka A. Fitneva & Morten H. Christiansen (2011). Looking in the Wrong Direction Correlates With More Accurate Word Learning. Cognitive Science 35 (2):367-380.score: 24.0
    Previous research on lexical development has aimed to identify the factors that enable accurate initial word-referent mappings based on the assumption that the accuracy of initial word-referent associations is critical for word learning. The present study challenges this assumption. Adult English speakers learned an artificial language within a cross-situational learning paradigm. Visual fixation data were used to assess the direction of visual attention. Participants whose longest fixations in the initial trials fell more often on distracter images performed (...)
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  8. Sergio Román & Pedro J. Cuestas (2008). The Perceptions of Consumers Regarding Online Retailers' Ethics and Their Relationship with Consumers' General Internet Expertise and Word of Mouth: A Preliminary Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):641 - 656.score: 24.0
    Ethical concerns of Internet users continue to rise. Accordingly, several scholars have called for systematic empirical research to address these issues. This study examines the conceptualization and measurement of consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers (CPEOR). Also, this research represents a first step into the analysis of the relationship between CPEOR, consumers' general Internet expertise and reported positive word of mouth (WOM). Results, from a convenience sample of 357 online shoppers, suggest that CPEOR can be operationalized as (...)
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  9. Sumarga H. Suanda & Laura L. Namy (2012). Detailed Behavioral Analysis as a Window Into Cross-Situational Word Learning. Cognitive Science 36 (3):545-559.score: 24.0
    Recent research has demonstrated that word learners can determine word-referent mappings by tracking co-occurrences across multiple ambiguous naming events. The current study addresses the mechanisms underlying this capacity to learn words cross-situationally. This replication and extension of Yu and Smith (2007) investigates the factors influencing both successful cross-situational word learning and mis-mappings. Item analysis and error patterns revealed that the co-occurrence structure of the learning environment as well as the context of the testing environment jointly affected learning (...)
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  10. Afsaneh Fazly, Afra Alishahi & Suzanne Stevenson (2010). A Probabilistic Computational Model of Cross-Situational Word Learning. Cognitive Science 34 (6):1017-1063.score: 24.0
    Words are the essence of communication: They are the building blocks of any language. Learning the meaning of words is thus one of the most important aspects of language acquisition: Children must first learn words before they can combine them into complex utterances. Many theories have been developed to explain the impressive efficiency of young children in acquiring the vocabulary of their language, as well as the developmental patterns observed in the course of lexical acquisition. A major source of disagreement (...)
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  11. Marc Ettlinger, Amy S. Finn & Carla L. Hudson Kam (2011). The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal. Cognitive Science 36 (4):655-673.score: 24.0
    It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. Participants were presented with an unsegmented speech stream with non-English word onsets that juxtaposed adherence to the SSP with transitional probabilities. Participants favored using the SSP in assessing word-hood, suggesting that the SSP represents a potentially powerful cue for word segmentation. To ensure the SSP influenced (...)
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  12. Katerina Kantartzis, Mutsumi Imai & Sotaro Kita (2011). Japanese Sound-Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in English-Speaking Children. Cognitive Science 35 (3):575-586.score: 24.0
    Sound-symbolism is the nonarbitrary link between the sound and meaning of a word. Japanese-speaking children performed better in a verb generalization task when they were taught novel sound-symbolic verbs, created based on existing Japanese sound-symbolic words, than novel nonsound-symbolic verbs (Imai, Kita, Nagumo, & Okada, 2008). A question remained as to whether the Japanese children had picked up regularities in the Japanese sound-symbolic lexicon or were sensitive to universal sound-symbolism. The present study aimed to provide support for the latter. (...)
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  13. Katherine Yoshida, Mijke Rhemtulla & Athena Vouloumanos (2012). Exclusion Constraints Facilitate Statistical Word Learning. Cognitive Science 36 (5):933-947.score: 24.0
    The roles of linguistic, cognitive, and social-pragmatic processes in word learning are well established. If statistical mechanisms also contribute to word learning, they must interact with these processes; however, there exists little evidence for such mechanistic synergy. Adults use co-occurrence statistics to encode speech–object pairings with detailed sensitivity in stochastic learning environments (Vouloumanos, 2008). Here, we replicate this statistical work with nonspeech sounds and compare the results with the previous speech studies to examine whether exclusion constraints contribute equally (...)
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  14. Jonathan F. Kominsky & Frank C. Keil (2014). Overestimation of Knowledge About Word Meanings: The “Misplaced Meaning” Effect. Cognitive Science 38 (8):1604-1633.score: 24.0
    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a “Misplaced Meaning” effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much they rely on outside sources to determine precise reference. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that children and adults show a highly consistent MM effect, and that it is stronger in young children. Study (...)
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  15. Cristina Baus, Kristof Strijkers & Albert Costa (2013). When Does Word Frequency Influence Written Production? Frontiers in Psychology 4:963.score: 24.0
    The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing) and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution) underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard) the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were (...)
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  16. Simin Karimi (ed.) (2003). Word Order and Scrambling. Blackwell Pub..score: 24.0
    Word Order and Scrambling introduces readers to recent research into the linguistic phenomenon called scrambling and is a valuable contribution to the fields of ...
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  17. Timothy Pritchard (2013). Locke and the Primary Signification of Words: An Approach to Word Meaning. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (3):486-506.score: 24.0
    Locke’s claim that the primary signification of (most) words is an idea, or complex of ideas, has received different interpretations. I support the majority view that Locke’s notion of primary signification can be construed in terms of linguistic meaning. But this reading has been seen as making Locke’s account vulnerable to various criticisms, of which I consider two. First, it appears to make the account vulnerable to the charge that an idea cannot play the role that a word meaning (...)
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  18. Gerlof J. Bouma & Petra Hendriks (2012). Partial Word Order Freezing in Dutch. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):53-73.score: 24.0
    Dutch allows for variation as to whether the first position in the sentence is occupied by the subject or by some other constituent, such as the direct object. In particular situations, however, this commonly observed variation in word order is ‘frozen’ and only the subject appears in first position. We hypothesize that this partial freezing of word order in Dutch can be explained from the dependence of the speaker’s choice of word order on the hearer’s interpretation of (...)
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  19. Peter Indefrey (2011). The Spatial and Temporal Signatures of Word Production Components: A Critical Update. Frontiers in Psychology 2:255.score: 24.0
    In the first decade of neurocognitive word production research the predominant approach was brain mapping, i.e. investigating the regional cerebral brain activation patterns correlated with word production tasks, such as picture naming and word generation. Indefrey and Levelt (2004) conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of word production studies that used this approach and combined the resulting spatial information on neural correlates of component processes of word production with information on the time course of word production (...)
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  20. Daniel Yurovsky, Chen Yu & Linda B. Smith (2013). Competitive Processes in Cross‐Situational Word Learning. Cognitive Science 37 (5):891-921.score: 24.0
    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition. Competitive mechanisms would allow learners to find the signal in noisy input and would help to explain the speed with which learners succeed in statistical learning tasks. Because cross-situational word learning provides (...)
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  21. [deleted]Penny M. Pexman Ian S. Hargreaves (2012). Does Richness Lose its Luster? Effects of Extensive Practice on Semantic Richness in Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Previous studies have reported facilitatory effects of semantic richness on word recognition (e.g., Yap, Pexman, Wellsby, Hargreaves & Huff, 2012). These effects suggest that word meaning is an important contributor to lexical decision task (LDT) performance, but what are the effects of repeated LDT practice on these semantic contributions? The current study utilized data from the British Lexicon Project in which 78 participants made lexical decision judgments for 28,730 words over 16 hours. We used linear mixed effects to (...)
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  22. Lauren Krogh (2012). An Innovative Approach to the Study of Word Learning Biases. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    An Innovative Approach to the Study of Word Learning Biases.
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  23. [deleted]Eric Halgren Matthew K. Leonard, Naja Ferjan Ramirez, Christina Torres, Marla Hatrak, Rachel I. Mayberry (2013). Neural Stages of Spoken, Written, and Signed Word Processing in Beginning Second Language Learners. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and (...)
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  24. [deleted]Urs Maurer, Bruno Rossion & Bruce D. McCandliss (2008). Category Specificity in Early Perception: Face and Word N170 Responses Differ in Both Lateralization and Habituation Properties. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2:18.score: 24.0
    Enhanced N170 ERP responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s might suggest a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left lateralized, while less consistent evidence suggests a right lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive unique faces, a form of habituation (...)
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  25. Kenny Smith, Andrew D. M. Smith & Richard A. Blythe (2011). Cross-Situational Learning: An Experimental Study of Word-Learning Mechanisms. Cognitive Science 35 (3):480-498.score: 24.0
    Cross-situational learning is a mechanism for learning the meaning of words across multiple exposures, despite exposure-by-exposure uncertainty as to the word's true meaning. We present experimental evidence showing that humans learn words effectively using cross-situational learning, even at high levels of referential uncertainty. Both overall success rates and the time taken to learn words are affected by the degree of referential uncertainty, with greater referential uncertainty leading to less reliable, slower learning. Words are also learned less successfully and more (...)
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  26. Erica H. Wojcik (2013). Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development Into Word Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word learning. After discussing what we (...)
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  27. Daniel Yurovsky, Chen Yu & Linda B. Smith (2012). Statistical Speech Segmentation and Word Learning in Parallel: Scaffolding From Child-Directed Speech. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    In order to acquire their native languages, children must learn richly structured systems with regularities at multiple levels. While structure at different levels could be learned serially, e.g. speech segmentation coming before word-object mapping, redundancies across levels make parallel learning more efficient. For instance, a series of syllables is likely to be a word not only because of high transitional probabilities, but also because of a consistently co-occurring object. But additional statistics require additional processing, and thus might not (...)
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  28. [deleted]Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum, Mario Liotti, Rick Perez, Sarabeth Fox & Marty G. Woldorff (2009). The Temporal Dynamics of Implicit Processing of Non-Letter, Letter, and Word-Forms in the Human Visual Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 24.0
    The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings) embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli (...)
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  29. Ludovic Ferrand, Marc Brysbaert, Emmanuel Keuleers, Boris New, Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Maria Augustinova & Christophe Pallier (2011). Comparing Word Processing Times in Naming, Lexical Decision, and Progressive Demasking: Evidence From Chronolex. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    We report performance measures for lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking for a large sample of monosyllabic, monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482). We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisition, and subjective frequency. Our results show that objective word frequency is by far the most important variable to predict reaction times in lexical decision. For word naming, it is (...)
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  30. Jessica S. Horst (2013). Context and Repetition in Word Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al., (2011) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children’s word learning in both shared storybook reading and other (...)
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  31. Janet H. Hsiao & Sze Man Lam (2013). The Modulation of Visual and Task Characteristics of a Writing System on Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition—A Computational Exploration. Cognitive Science 37 (5):861-890.score: 24.0
    Through computational modeling, here we examine whether visual and task characteristics of writing systems alone can account for lateralization differences in visual word recognition between different languages without assuming influence from left hemisphere (LH) lateralized language processes. We apply a hemispheric processing model of face recognition to visual word recognition; the model implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception that posits low spatial frequency biases in the right hemisphere and high spatial frequency (HSF) biases in the LH. (...)
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  32. Scott P. Johnson (2012). The Role of Association in Early Word-Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and (...)
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  33. Angèle Brunellière Noël Nguyen, Sophie Dufour (2012). Does Imitation Facilitate Word Recognition in a Non-Native Regional Accent? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    We asked to what extent phonetic convergence across speakers may facilitate later word recognition. Northern-French participants showed both a clear phonetic convergence effect towards Southern French in a word-repetition task, and a bias towards the phonemic system of their own variety in the recognition of single words. Perceptual adaptation to a non-native accent may be difficult when the native accent has a phonemic contrast that is associated with a single phonemic category in the non-native accent. Convergence towards a (...)
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  34. [deleted]M. Rabovsky, W. Sommer & R. Rahman (2011). The Time Course of Semantic Richness Effects in Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:11-11.score: 24.0
    The richness of semantic representations associated with individual words has emerged as an important variable in reading. In the present study we contrasted different measures of semantic richness and explored the time course of their influences during visual word processing as reflected in event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while participants performed a lexical decision task on visually presented words and pseudowords. For word stimuli, we orthogonally manipulated two frequently employed measures of semantic richness: The number of (...)
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  35. Yury Shtyrov (2011). Fast Mapping of Novel Word Forms Traced Neurophysiologically. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min) exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised (...)
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  36. Matthew W. Crocker Afra Alishahi, Afsaneh Fazly, Judith Koehne (2012). Sentence-Based Attentional Mechanisms in Word Learning: Evidence From a Computational Model. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000). Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the (...)
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  37. Vitória Piai Ardi Roelofs (2011). Attention Demands of Spoken Word Planning: A Review. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Attention and language are among the most intensively researched abilities in the cognitive neurosciences, but the relation between these abilities has largely been neglected. There is increasing evidence, however, that linguistic processes, such as those underlying the planning of words, cannot proceed without paying some form of attention. Here, we review evidence that word planning requires some but not full attention. The evidence comes from chronometric studies of word planning in picture naming and word reading under divided (...)
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  38. Judit Gervain Carline Bernard (2012). Prosodic Cues to Word Order: What Level of Representation? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’), whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome). Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to (...)
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  39. Sara C. Sereno Christopher J. Hand, Patrick J. O'Donnell (2012). Word-Initial Letters Influence Fixation Durations During Fluent Reading. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively). Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their (...)
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  40. [deleted]Ian S. Hargreaves & Penny M. Pexman (2012). Does Richness Lose its Luster? Effects of Extensive Practice on Semantic Richness in Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Previous studies have reported facilitatory effects of semantic richness on word recognition (e.g., Yap, Pexman, Wellsby, Hargreaves & Huff, 2012). These effects suggest that word meaning is an important contributor to lexical decision task (LDT) performance, but what are the effects of repeated LDT practice on these semantic contributions? The current study utilized data from the British Lexicon Project in which 78 participants made lexical decision judgments for 28,730 words over 16 hours. We used linear mixed effects to (...)
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  41. Jukka Hyönä (2012). The Role of Visual Acuity and Segmentation Cues in Compound Word Identification. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Studies are reviewed that demonstrate how the foveal area of the eye constrains how compound words are identified during reading. When compound words are short, their letters can be identified during a single fixation, leading to the whole-word route dominating word recognition from early on. Hence, visually marking morpheme boundaries by hyphens slows down processing by encouraging morphological decomposition when holistic processing is a feasible option. In contrast, the decomposition route dominates the early stages of identifying long compound (...)
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  42. Natasha M. Bryan Jessica S. Horst, Kelly L. Parsons (2011). Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning From Storybooks. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object (...)
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  43. Srinivasan Rajaraman John G. Holden (2012). The Self-Organization of a Spoken Word. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Pronunciation time probability density and hazard functions from large speeded word naming data sets were assessed for empirical patterns consistent with multiplicative and reciprocal feedback dynamics—interaction dominant dynamics. Lognormal and inverse power-law distributions are associated with multiplicative and interdependent dynamics in many natural systems. Mixtures of lognormal and inverse power-law distributions offered better descriptions of the participant’s distributions than the ex-Gaussian or ex- Wald—alternatives corresponding to additive, superposed, component processes. The evidence for interaction dominant dynamics suggests fundamental links between (...)
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  44. Laura Kaltwasser, Stephanie Ries, Werner Sommer, Robert Knight & Roel M. Willems (2013). Independence of Valence and Reward in Emotional Word Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Both emotion and reward are primary modulators of cognition: Emotional word content enhances word processing, and reward expectancy similarly amplifies cognitive processing from the perceptual up to the executive control level. Here, we investigate how these primary regulators of cognition interact. We studied how the anticipation of gain or loss modulates the neural time course (event-related potentials, ERPs) related to processing of emotional words. Participants performed a semantic categorization task on emotional and neutral words, which were preceded by (...)
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  45. Sachiko Kinoshita & Dennis Norris (2012). Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: (...)
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  46. Margot J. Taylor Marie Arsalidou, Alba Agostino, Sarah Maxwell (2012). “I Can Read These Colors.” Orthographic Manipulations and the Development of the Color-Word Stroop. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The colour-word Stroop is a popular measure in psychological assessments. Evidence suggests that Stroop performance relies heavily on reading, an ability that improves over childhood. One way to influence reading proficiency is by orthographic manipulations. To determine the degree of interference posed by orthographic manipulations with development, in addition to standard colour Words (purple) we manipulated letter positions: First/last letter in correct place (prulpe) and Scrambled (ulrpep). We tested children 7 to 16 years (n =128) and adults (n = (...)
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  47. Alfonso Caramazza Niels Janssen (2011). Lexical Selection in Multi-Word Production. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    In multi-word utterances, target words need to be selected in the context of other target words. In the present study, three hypotheses were tested that differed in their assumptions about whether the lexical selection mechanism considers the activation levels of the other target lexical representations, and whether it takes into account their grammatical class properties. Participants produced adjective+noun and noun+noun utterances in response to colored word and picture+word stimulus displays. In both types of utterances, the frequency of (...)
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  48. [deleted]Heinz Wimmer Philipp Ludersdorfer, Matthias Schurz, Fabio Richlan, Martin Kronbichler (2013). Opposite Effects of Visual and Auditory Word-Likeness on Activity in the Visual Word Form Area. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The present fMRI study investigated the effects of word-likeness of visual and auditory stimuli on activity along the ventral visual stream. In the context of a one-back task, we presented visual and auditory words, pseudowords, and artificial stimuli (i.e., false-fonts and reversed-speech, respectively). Main findings were regionally specific effects of word-likeness on activation in a left ventral occipitotemporal region corresponding to the classic localization of the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). Specifically, we found an inverse word-likeness (...)
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  49. [deleted]Vitória Piai, Ardi Roelofs, Daniel J. Acheson & Atsuko Takashima (2013). Attention for Speaking: Domain-General Control From the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Spoken Word Production. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:832.score: 24.0
    Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word (...)
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  50. Dennis Norris Sachiko Kinoshita (2012). Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: (...)
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