Search results for 'working memory' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  7
    Working Memory (2012). Features and Conjunctions in Visual Working Memory. In Jeremy M. Wolfe & Lynn C. Robertson (eds.), From Perception to Consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman. Oxford University Press 369.
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  2. Working Memory (1990). Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. In J. McGaugh, Jerry Weinberger & G. Lynch (eds.), Brain Organization and Memory. Guilford Press 285.
     
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  3. Peter Carruthers (2015). The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The Centered Mind offers a new view of the nature and causal determinants of both reflective thinking and, more generally, the stream of consciousness. Peter Carruthers argues that conscious thought is always sensory-based, relying on the resources of the working-memory system. This system enables sensory images to be sustained and manipulated through attentional signals directed at midlevel sensory areas of the brain. When abstract conceptual representations are bound into these images, we consciously experience ourselves as making judgments or (...)
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  4.  7
    Violette Hoareau, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat & Gaën Plancher (2016). Reconciling Two Computational Models of Working Memory in Aging. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):264-278.
    It is well known that working memory performance changes with age. Two recent computational models of working memory, TBRS* and SOB-CS, developed from young adults WM performances are opposed regarding the postulated causes of forgetting, namely time-based decay and interference for TBRS* and SOB-CS, respectively. In the present study, these models are applied on a set of complex span data produced by young and older adults. As expected, these models are unable to account for the older (...)
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  5.  32
    David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters (1999). Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as (...)
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  6.  44
    Daniel S. Ruchkin, Jordan Grafman, Katherine Cameron & Rita S. Berndt (2003). Working Memory Retention Systems: A State of Activated Long-Term Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):709-728.
    High temporal resolution event-related brain potential and electroencephalographic coherence studies of the neural substrate of short-term storage in working memory indicate that the sustained coactivation of both prefrontal cortex and the posterior cortical systems that participate in the initial perception and comprehension of the retained information are involved in its storage. These studies further show that short-term storage mechanisms involve an increase in neural synchrony between prefrontal cortex and posterior cortex and the enhanced activation of long-term memory (...)
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  7.  30
    Jakub Szymanik & Marcin Zajenkowski (2011). Contribution of Working Memory in the Parity and Proportional Judgments. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 25:189-206.
    The paper presents an experimental evidence on differences in the sentence-picture verification under additional memory load between parity and proportional quantifiers. We asked subjects to memorize strings of 4 or 6 digits, then to decide whether a quantifier sentence is true at a given picture, and finally to recall the initially given string of numbers. The results show that: (a) proportional quantifiers are more difficult than parity quantifiers with respect to reaction time and accuracy; (b) maintaining either 4 or (...)
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  8.  29
    Iro Xenidou‐Dervou, Ernest C. D. M. Lieshout & Menno Schoot (2014). Working Memory in Nonsymbolic Approximate Arithmetic Processing: A Dual‐Task Study With Preschoolers. Cognitive Science 38 (1):101-127.
    Preschool children have been proven to possess nonsymbolic approximate arithmetic skills before learning how to manipulate symbolic math and thus before any formal math instruction. It has been assumed that nonsymbolic approximate math tasks necessitate the allocation of Working Memory (WM) resources. WM has been consistently shown to be an important predictor of children's math development and achievement. The aim of our study was to uncover the specific role of WM in nonsymbolic approximate math. For this purpose, we (...)
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  9.  4
    April Martin, Zhanna Bagdasarov & Shane Connelly (2015). The Capacity for Ethical Decisions: The Relationship Between Working Memory and Ethical Decision Making. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):271-292.
    Although various models of ethical decision making have implicitly called upon constructs governed by working memory capacity , a study examining this relationship specifically has not been conducted. Using a sense making framework of EDM, we examined the relationship between WMC and various sensemaking processes contributing to EDM. Participants completed an online assessment comprised of a demographic survey, intelligence test, various EDM measures, and the Automated Operation Span task to determine WMC. Results indicated that WMC accounted for unique (...)
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  10. David Barrett (2014). Consciousness, Attention, and Working Memory: An Empirical Evaluation of Prinz's Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (9-10):7-29.
    A popular issue in mind is to explain why conscious mental states are conscious. Prinz (2012) defends three claims in an effort to make such an explanation: (i)mental states become conscious when and only when we attend to them; (ii)attention is a process by which mental states become available to working memory; so (iii) mental states are conscious when and only when they become available to working memory. Here I attack Prinz's theory, made explicit in (iii), (...)
     
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  11.  58
    Jakub Szymanik & Marcin Zajenkowski (2010). Quantifiers and Working Memory. In Maria Aloni & Katrin Schulz (eds.), Amsterdam Colloquium 2009, LNAI 6042. Springer
    The paper presents a study examining the role of working<br>memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the<br>span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity<br>quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support<br>the data obtained previously in and predictions drawn from a computational<br>model.
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  12.  14
    Xiaohui Kong, Christian D. Schunn & Garrick L. Wallstrom (2010). High Regularities in Eye‐Movement Patterns Reveal the Dynamics of the Visual Working Memory Allocation Mechanism. Cognitive Science 34 (2):322-337.
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  13.  2
    Tobias Meilinger, Markus Knauff & Heinrich H. Bülthoff (2008). Working Memory in Wayfinding—A Dual Task Experiment in a Virtual City. Cognitive Science 32 (4):755-770.
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  14.  1
    Vinod Goela, David Pullara & Jordan Grafman (2001). A Computational Model of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction: Working Memory and the Tower of Hanoi Task. Cognitive Science 25 (2):287-313.
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  15. Bill Faw (2003). Pre-Frontal Executive Committee for Perception, Working Memory, Attention, Long-Term Memory, Motor Control, and Thinking: A Tutorial Review. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.
    As an explicit organizing metaphor, memory aid, and conceptual framework, the prefrontal cortex may be viewed as a five-member ‘Executive Committee,’ as the prefrontal-control extensions of five sub-and-posterior-cortical systems: the ‘Perceiver’ is the frontal extension of the ventral perceptual stream which represents the world and self in object coordinates; the ‘Verbalizer’ is the frontal extension of the language stream which represents the world and self in language coordinates; the ‘Motivator’ is the frontal cortical extension of a subcortical extended-amygdala stream (...)
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  16. Alan Baddeley (2007). Working Memory, Thought, and Action. OUP Oxford.
    'Working Memory, Thought, and Action' is the magnum opus of one of the most influential cognitive psychologists of the past 50 years. This new volume on the model he created discusses the developments that have occurred within the model in the past twenty years, and places it within a broader context.
     
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  17. Nelson Cowan, Candice C. Morey, Zhijian Chen & Michael Bunting (2007). What Do Estimates of Working Memory Capacity Tell Us. In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. OUP Oxford
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  18. Jackie Andrade (2001). The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience. In Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press 60-78.
  19.  41
    Marco Mazzone (2013). Attention to the Speaker. The Conscious Assessment of Utterance Interpretations in Working Memory. Language and Communication 33:106-114.
    The role of conscious attention in language processing has been scarcely considered, despite the wide-spread assumption that verbal utterances manage to attract and manipulate the addressee’s attention. Here I claim that this assumption is to be understood not as a figure of speech but instead in terms of attentional processes proper. This hypothesis can explain a fact that has been noticed by supporters of Relevance Theory in pragmatics: the special role played by speaker-related information in utterance interpretation. I argue that (...)
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  20.  8
    Stefan L. Frank, Thijs Trompenaars & Shravan Vasishth (2016). Cross‐Linguistic Differences in Processing Double‐Embedded Relative Clauses: WorkingMemory Constraints or Language Statistics? Cognitive Science 40 (3):554-578.
    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas (...)
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  21.  23
    Ran R. Hassin, John A. Bargh, Andrew D. Engell & Kathleen C. McCulloch (2009). Implicit Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):665-678.
    Working Memory plays a crucial role in many high-level cognitive processes . The prevalent view holds that active components of WM are predominantly intentional and conscious. This conception is oftentimes expressed explicitly, but it is best reflected in the nature of major WM tasks: All of them are blatantly explicit. We developed two new WM paradigms that allow for an examination of the role of conscious awareness in WM. Results from five studies show that WM can operate unintentionally (...)
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  22.  2
    Lotte F. Van Dillen & Sander L. Koole (2009). How Automatic is “Automatic Vigilance”? The Role of Working Memory in Attentional Interference of Negative Information. Cognition and Emotion 23 (6):1106-1117.
    (2009). How automatic is “automatic vigilance”? The role of working memory in attentional interference of negative information. Cognition & Emotion: Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 1106-1117.
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  23.  8
    Paul F. Hill & Lisa J. Emery (2013). Episodic Future Thought: Contributions From Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):677-683.
    The ability to imagine hypothetical events in one’s personal future is thought to involve a number of constituent cognitive processes. We investigated the extent to which individual differences in working memory capacity contribute to facets of episodic future thought. College students completed simple and complex measures of working memory and were cued to recall autobiographical memories and imagine future autobiographical events consisting of varying levels of specificity . Consistent with previous findings, future thought was related to (...)
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  24. Han Lee & Gregory V. Simpson (2005). Phase Locking of Single Neuron Activity to Theta Oscillations During Working Memory in Monkey Extrastriate Visual Cortex. Neuron 45:147-156.
    activity” has been considered to play a major role in the short-term maintenance of memories. Many studies since then have provided support for this view and greatly advanced our knowledge of the effects of stimulus type and modality on delay activity and its temporal dynamics. In humans, working memory has also been a subject of intense investigation using scalp and intracranial electroencephalography as well as magnetoencephalography, which provide estimates of local population activity. The published findings include reports of (...)
     
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  25. J. B. Newman & A. A. Grace (1999). Binding Across Time: The Selective Gating of Frontal and Hippocampal Systems Modulating Working Memory and Attentional States. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.
    Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation (...)
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  26.  20
    J. P. Maxwell, R. S. W. Masters & F. F. Eves (2003). The Role of Working Memory in Motor Learning and Performance. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.
    Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these (...)
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  27. Susan M. Courtney, Jennifer K. Roth & Sala & B. Joseph (2007). A Hierarchical Biased-Competition Model of Domain-Dependent Working Memory Mainatenance and Executive Control. In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. OUP Oxford
     
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  28.  51
    Pierre Barrouillet & Jean-Francois Lecas (1999). Mental Models in Conditional Reasoning and Working Memory. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (4):289 – 302.
    Johnson-Laird's mental models theory claims that reasoning is a semantic process of construction and manipulation of models in working memory of limited capacity. Accordingly, both a deduction and a given interpretation of a premise would be all the harder the higher the number of models they require. The purpose of the present experiment was twofold. First, it aimed to demonstrate that the interpretation of if...then conditional sentences in children (third, sixth, and ninth graders) evolves as a function of (...)
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  29.  7
    M. Deruiter, R. Phaf, B. Elzinga & R. Dyck (2004). Dissociative Style and Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Span. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):821-828.
    Dissociative style is mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology, but it may also reflect a fundamental characteristic of healthy information processing. Due to the close link between attention and working memory and the previous finding of enhanced attentional abilities with a high dissociative style, a positive relationship was also expected between dissociative style and verbal working memory span. In a sample of 119 psychology students, it was found that the verbal span of the (...)
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  30.  1
    Samantha J. Brooks, Owen G. O'Daly, Rudolf Uher, Helgi B. Schiöth, Janet Treasure & Iain C. Campbell (2012). Subliminal Food Images Compromise Superior Working Memory Performance in Women with Restricting Anorexia Nervosa. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):751-763.
    Prefrontal cortex is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa . It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls completed a dorsolateral PFC working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when (...)
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  31.  10
    Robert B. Glassman (2005). The Epic of Personal Development and the Mystery of Small Working Memory. Zygon 40 (1):107-130.
    . A partial analogy exists between the lifespan neuropsychological development of individuals and the biological evolution of species: In both of these major categories of growth, progressive emergence of wholes transcends inherently limited part‐processes. The remarkably small purview of each moment of consciousness experienced by an individual may be a crucial aspect of maintaining organization in that individual's cognitive development, protecting it from combinatorial chaos. In this essay I summarize experimental psychology research showing that working memory capacity comprises (...)
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  32.  18
    Karl Christoph Klauer (1997). Working Memory Involvement in Propositional and Spatial Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):9 – 47.
    Four experiments assessed the relative involvement of different working memory components in two types of reasoning tasks: propositional and spatial reasoning. Using the secondary-task methodology, visual, central-executive, and phonological loads were realised. Although the involvement of visuospatial resources in propositional reasoning has traditionally been considered to be small, an overall analysis of the present data suggests an alternative account. A theoretical analysis of the pattern of results in terms of Evans' (1984, 1989) twostage theory of reasoning is proposed (...)
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  33. Torkel Klingberg (2008). The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory. Oxford University Press Usa.
    As the pace of technological change accelerates, we are increasingly experiencing a state of information overload. Statistics show that we are interrupted every three minutes during the course of the work day. Multitasking between email, cell-phone, text messages, and four or five websites while listening to an iPod forces the brain to process more and more informaton at greater and greater speeds. And yet the human brain has hardly changed in the last 40,000 years. Are all these high-tech advances overtaxing (...)
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  34.  10
    Dr Simon J. Handley, A. Capon, M. Beveridge, I. Dennis & J. St BT Evans (2004). Working Memory, Inhibitory Control and the Development of Children's Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):175 – 195.
    The ability to reason independently from one's own goals or beliefs has long been recognised as a key characteristic of the development of formal operational thought. In this article we present the results of a study that examined the correlates of this ability in a group of 10-year-old children ( N = 61). Participants were presented with conditional and relational reasoning items, where the content was manipulated such that the conclusion to the arguments were either congruent, neutral, or incongruent with (...)
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  35.  30
    Graeme S. Halford, Steven Phillips & William H. Wilson (2008). The Missing Link: Dynamic, Modifiable Representations in Working Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):137-138.
    We propose that the missing link from nonhuman to human cognition lies with our ability to form, modify, and re-form dynamic bindings between internal representations of world-states. This capacity goes beyond dynamic feature binding in perception and involves a new conception of working memory. We propose two tests for structured knowledge that might alleviate the impasse in empirical research in nonhuman animal cognition.
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  36. Alan Baddeley (2007). Working Memory, Thought, and Action. Oxford University Press Uk.
    'Working Memory, Thought, and Action' is the magnum opus of one of the most influential cognitive psychologists of the past 50 years. This new volume on the model he created discusses the developments that have occurred within the model in the past twenty years, and places it within a broader context. Working memory is a temporary storage system that underpins our capacity for coherent thought. Some 30 years ago, Baddeley and Hitch proposed a way of thinking (...)
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  37.  18
    Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.) (2007). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. OUP Oxford.
    Working memory has been one of the most intensively studied systems in cognitive psychology. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory brings together world class researchers from around the world to summarise our current knowledge of this field, and directions for future research.
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  38. Heather Buttle (2011). Attention and Working Memory in Mindfulness-Meditation Practices. Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (2):123-134.
    The construct of “mindfulness” has increasingly become a focus of research related to meditation practices and techniques. There is a growing body of research indicating clinical efficacy from therapeutic use, while cognitive neuroscience has provided an insight into the brain regions and mechanisms involved. Significantly, these approaches converge to suggest that attention is an important mechanism with trainable sub-components. This article discusses the role of attention and argues that memory has been neglected as a potential key mechanism in mindfulness–meditation (...)
     
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  39.  11
    Michael Grimley, Hassan Dahraei & Richard J. Riding (2008). The Relationship Between Anxiety‐Stability, Working Memory and Cognitive Style. Educational Studies 34 (3):213-223.
    While prior research indicates that relationships exist between anxiety‐stability and working memory, and cognitive style and anxiety‐stability, they have not been considered together. The aim of this study was to consider how anxiety‐stability is related to working memory, gender and style in interaction. The sample consisted of 179 12–13‐year‐old Year 8 secondary comprehensive school pupils in the UK. Teachers rated the level of anxiety‐stability of pupils. Pupils completed an assessment of working memory efficiency, the (...)
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  40.  17
    Robert H. Logie, Naoyuki Osaka & Mark D'Esposito (2007). Working Memory Capacity, Control, Components and Theory An Editorial Overview. In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. OUP Oxford
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  41.  20
    Tiffany K. Jantz, Jessica J. Tomory, Christina Merrick, Shanna Cooper, Adam Gazzaley & Ezequiel Morsella (2014). Subjective Aspects of Working Memory Performance: Memoranda-Related Imagery. Consciousness and Cognition 25 (1):88-100.
    Although it is well accepted that working memory is intimately related to consciousness, little research has illuminated the liaison between the two phenomena. To investigate this under-explored nexus, we used an imagery monitoring task to investigate the subjective aspects of WM performance. Specifically, in two experiments, we examined the effects on consciousness of holding in mind information having a low versus high memory load, and holding memoranda in mind during the presentation of distractors . Higher rates of (...)
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  42.  18
    Wolfgang Klimesch & Bärbel Schack (2003). Activation of Long-Term Memory by Alpha Oscillations in a Working-Memory Task? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):743-743.
    We focus on the functional specificity of theta and alpha oscillations and show that theta is related to working memory, whereas alpha is related to semantic long-term memory. Recent studies, however, indicate that alpha oscillations also play an important role during short-term memory retention and retrieval. This latter finding provides support for the basic hypothesis suggested by Ruchkin et al.
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  43.  17
    Alison Capon, Simon Handley & Ian Dennis (2003). Working Memory and Reasoning: An Individual Differences Perspective. Thinking and Reasoning 9 (3):203 – 244.
    This article reports three experiments that investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and syllogistic and five-term series spatial inference. A series of complex and simple verbal and spatial working memory measures were employed. Correlational analyses showed that verbal and spatial working memory span tasks consistently predicted syllogistic and spatial reasoning performance. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that three factors best accounted for the data--a verbal, a spatial, and a general factor. Syllogistic reasoning performance (...)
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  44.  6
    Wim de Neys, Walter Schaeken & G. (2005). Working Memory and Everyday Conditional Reasoning: Retrieval and Inhibition of Stored Counterexamples. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):349 – 381.
    Two experiments examined the contribution of working memory (WM) to the retrieval and inhibition of background knowledge about counterexamples (alternatives and disablers, Cummins, 1995) during conditional reasoning. Experiment 1 presented a conditional reasoning task with everyday, causal conditionals to a group of people with high and low WM spans. High spans rejected the logically invalid AC and DA inferences to a greater extent than low spans, whereas low spans accepted the logically valid MP and MT inferences less frequently (...)
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  45.  17
    Henry Markovits, Celine Doyon & Michael Simoneau (2002). Individual Differences in Working Memory and Conditional Reasoning with Concrete and Abstract Content. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (2):97 – 107.
    This study examined the hypothesis that conditional reasoning involves visual short-term memory resources (Johnson-Laird, 1985). A total of 147 university students were given measures of verbal and visual short-term memory capacity and a series of concrete and abstract conditional reasoning problems. Results indicate that there is a positive correlation between verbal working memory capacity and reasoning with both concrete and abstract premises. A positive correlation was also obtained between visual working memory capacity and reasoning (...)
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  46.  13
    Pierre Barrouillet & Valérie Camos (2007). The Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model of Working Memory. In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. OUP Oxford 59--80.
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  47.  11
    Randi C. Martin (1999). Further Fractionations of Verbal Working Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):106-107.
    Although the working memory capacity involved in syntactic processing may be separate from the capacity involved in word list recall, other aspects of initial sentence interpretation appear to depend on some of the same capacities tapped by span tasks. Specifically, there appears to a capacity for lexical–semantic retention involved in both sentence comprehension and span measures.
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  48.  33
    Gregory C. Burgess, Todd S. Braver & Jeremy R. Gray (2006). Exactly How Are Fluid Intelligence, Working Memory, and Executive Function Related? Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Investigating the Mechanisms of Fluid Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):128-129.
    Blair proposes that fluid intelligence, working memory, and executive function form a unitary construct: fluid cognition. Recently, our group has utilized a combined correlational–experimental cognitive neuroscience approach, which we argue is beneficial for investigating relationships among these individual differences in terms of neural mechanisms underlying them. Our data do not completely support Blair's strong position. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  49.  29
    Dennis Garlick & Terrence J. Sejnowski (2006). There is More to Fluid Intelligence Than Working Memory Capacity and Executive Function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):134-135.
    Although working memory capacity and executive function contribute to human intelligence, we question whether there is an equivalence between them and fluid intelligence. We contend that any satisfactory neurobiological explanation of fluid intelligence needs to include abstraction as an important computational component of brain processing. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  50.  27
    Juan Pascual-Leone (2004). Hidden Operators of Mental Attention Applying on LTM Give the Illusion of a Separate Working Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):709-711.
    The authors' results support a functionalist conception of working memory: a manifold repertoire of schemes/schemas (long-term memory) and a small set of general-purpose “hidden operators.” Using some of these operators I define mental (i.e., endogenous) attention. Then, analyzing two of the authors' unexplained important findings, I illustrate the mental-attention model's explanatory power. Multivariate methodology that varies developmental, task differences, and individual differences is recommended.
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