The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: gender:female

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Truth:epistemic0.147
epistemic not epistemic
female
13.8%(20/144)
77.7%(112/144)
male
5.7%(39/675)
89.3%(603/675)
Response pairs: 819   p-value: < 0.001
Trolley problem:don't switch0.141
switch don't switch
female
65.3%(100/153)
17.6%(27/153)
male
76.3%(505/661)
9.9%(66/661)
Response pairs: 814   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.126
invariantism not invariantism
female
23.9%(33/138)
66.6%(92/138)
male
38.3%(237/618)
49.8%(308/618)
Response pairs: 756   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.123
correspondence not correspondence
female
43.7%(63/144)
47.9%(69/144)
male
57.9%(391/675)
37.1%(251/675)
Response pairs: 819   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.116
no yes
female
26.7%(43/161)
63.9%(103/161)
male
17.3%(123/708)
75.1%(532/708)
Response pairs: 869   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.116
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
female
14.6%(22/150)
72%(108/150)
male
11.5%(82/708)
82.7%(586/708)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.116
rationalism empiricism
female
25%(40/160)
51.2%(82/160)
male
36.6%(260/710)
40%(284/710)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: < 0.001
not Politics:libertarianism0.115
libertarianism not libertarianism
female
7.5%(10/132)
80.3%(106/132)
male
13.7%(79/576)
67.1%(387/576)
Response pairs: 708   p-value: 0.002
Abstract objects:nominalism0.115
Platonism nominalism
female
29.6%(45/152)
59.2%(90/152)
male
43.7%(305/697)
45.9%(320/697)
Response pairs: 849   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.112
yes no
female
56.2%(90/160)
36.8%(59/160)
male
68.7%(490/713)
25.9%(185/713)
Response pairs: 873   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.111
non-cognitivism cognitivism
female
26.1%(41/157)
62.4%(98/157)
male
18.4%(124/672)
73.9%(497/672)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.109
Humean non-Humean
female
37.4%(55/147)
53.7%(79/147)
male
24.8%(167/671)
65.8%(442/671)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: 0.001
External world:idealism0.101
idealism not idealism
female
5.6%(9/160)
88.1%(141/160)
male
4.2%(30/707)
92.3%(653/707)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.002
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.098
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
female
18%(24/133)
71.4%(95/133)
male
28.5%(185/649)
57%(370/649)
Response pairs: 782   p-value: 0.006
Proper names:Fregean0.093
Fregean Millian
female
44.2%(50/113)
37.1%(42/113)
male
33.4%(211/631)
49.9%(315/631)
Response pairs: 744   p-value: 0.011
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.088
contextualism not contextualism
female
58.6%(81/138)
31.8%(44/138)
male
44.6%(276/618)
43.5%(269/618)
Response pairs: 756   p-value: 0.015
Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.08
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
female
29.6%(40/135)
58.5%(79/135)
male
18.6%(116/623)
67.2%(419/623)
Response pairs: 758   p-value: 0.027
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.078
non-naturalism naturalism
female
19.5%(28/143)
63.6%(91/143)
male
31%(207/667)
54.4%(363/667)
Response pairs: 810   p-value: 0.026
not Politics:communitarianism0.077
communitarianism not communitarianism
female
15.1%(20/132)
72.7%(96/132)
male
17.7%(102/576)
63.1%(364/576)
Response pairs: 708   p-value: 0.04
not Free will:no free will0.071
no free will free will
female
5.9%(9/152)
84.8%(129/152)
male
13.9%(97/697)
76.9%(536/697)
Response pairs: 849   p-value: 0.038
Personal identity:psychological view0.069
psychological view not psychological view
female
43.7%(59/135)
34.8%(47/135)
male
36.6%(233/636)
42.4%(270/636)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.055
External world:skepticism0.064
skepticism not skepticism
female
3.1%(5/160)
90.6%(145/160)
male
5.3%(38/707)
91.2%(645/707)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.059
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.064
representationalism not representationalism
female
35.4%(45/127)
52.7%(67/127)
male
41.5%(230/553)
42.3%(234/553)
Response pairs: 680   p-value: 0.095
Politics:egalitarianism0.063
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
female
52.2%(69/132)
35.6%(47/132)
male
41.1%(237/576)
39.7%(229/576)
Response pairs: 708   p-value: 0.093
Truth:deflationary0.061
deflationary not deflationary
female
28.4%(41/144)
63.1%(91/144)
male
26.2%(177/675)
68.8%(465/675)
Response pairs: 819   p-value: 0.081
Newcomb's problem:one box0.061
one box two boxes
female
33.6%(34/101)
38.6%(39/101)
male
30%(157/523)
47.8%(250/523)
Response pairs: 624   p-value: 0.127
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.057
consequentialism not consequentialism
female
22.2%(30/135)
65.9%(89/135)
male
28.8%(180/623)
56.9%(355/623)
Response pairs: 758   p-value: 0.116
Free will:compatibilism0.051
compatibilism not compatibilism
female
68.4%(104/152)
22.3%(34/152)
male
59.2%(413/697)
31.5%(220/697)
Response pairs: 849   p-value: 0.137

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.22
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
female
8%(13/162)
91.9%(149/162)
male
0.4%(3/719)
99.5%(716/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy-0.109
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
female
48.3%(15/31)
51.6%(16/31)
male
50.8%(87/171)
49.1%(84/171)
Response pairs: 202   p-value: 0.122
not AOS:Metaphysics0.103
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
female
16%(26/162)
83.9%(136/162)
male
27.6%(199/719)
72.3%(520/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.002
AOS:Applied Ethics0.093
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
female
8.6%(14/162)
91.3%(148/162)
male
3.6%(26/719)
96.3%(693/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.005
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.089
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
female
1.8%(3/162)
98.1%(159/162)
male
7.5%(54/719)
92.4%(665/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.008
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.084
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
female
4.9%(8/162)
95%(154/162)
male
11.5%(83/719)
88.4%(636/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.012
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.071
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
female
6.1%(10/162)
93.8%(152/162)
male
11.9%(86/719)
88%(633/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.035
not AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.068
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
female
~0.6%(~1/162)
~99.3%(~161/162)
male
2.5%(18/719)
97.4%(701/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.043
not xian:Moore0.067
Moore not Moore
female
~0.6%(~1/162)
~99.3%(~161/162)
male
3.6%(26/719)
96.3%(693/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.046
AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.061
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
female
6.7%(11/162)
93.2%(151/162)
male
3.6%(26/719)
96.3%(693/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.07
AOS:Asian Philosophy0.059
Asian Philosophy not Asian Philosophy
female
2.4%(4/162)
97.5%(158/162)
male
0.8%(6/719)
99.1%(713/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.08
not xian:Carnap0.056
Carnap not Carnap
female
2.4%(4/162)
97.5%(158/162)
male
5.7%(41/719)
94.2%(678/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.096
not xian:Spinoza0.054
Spinoza not Spinoza
female
~0.6%(~1/162)
~99.3%(~161/162)
male
2.7%(20/719)
97.2%(699/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.109
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.053
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
female
6.1%(10/162)
93.8%(152/162)
male
3.4%(25/719)
96.5%(694/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.115
AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.05
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
female
14.1%(23/162)
85.8%(139/162)
male
10.1%(73/719)
89.8%(646/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.138
not AOS:Epistemology0.05
Epistemology not Epistemology
female
13.5%(22/162)
86.4%(140/162)
male
18.4%(133/719)
81.5%(586/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.138

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_birth0.086
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
female
57.3%(86/150)
42.6%(64/150)
male
48.5%(341/703)
51.4%(362/703)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.011
affil:region:Canada0.086
Canada not Canada
female
13.5%(22/162)
86.4%(140/162)
male
7.3%(53/719)
92.6%(666/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.01
phd_region:Canada0.085
Canada not Canada
female
6.1%(10/162)
93.8%(152/162)
male
2.3%(17/719)
97.6%(702/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.011
year_of_phd0.084
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
female
57.8%(77/133)
42.1%(56/133)
male
47.8%(273/571)
52.1%(298/571)
Response pairs: 704   p-value: 0.025
nationality_region:Canada0.081
Canada not Canada
female
11.7%(19/162)
88.2%(143/162)
male
6.2%(45/719)
93.7%(674/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.016
nationality_region:Europe0.068
Europe not Europe
female
17.2%(28/162)
82.7%(134/162)
male
11.4%(82/719)
88.5%(637/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.043
affil:region:Europe0.063
Europe not Europe
female
9.8%(16/162)
90.1%(146/162)
male
5.8%(42/719)
94.1%(677/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.061
not nationality_region:United Kingdom0.061
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
female
12.3%(20/162)
87.6%(142/162)
male
18.3%(132/719)
81.6%(587/719)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.07