The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: nationality_region:United States

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Proper names:Millian0.123
Fregean Millian
United States
28.1%(107/380)
52.1%(198/380)
not United States
42.1%(170/403)
43.9%(177/403)
Response pairs: 783   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:further-fact view0.121
further-fact view not further-fact view
United States
18.2%(76/416)
59.1%(246/416)
not United States
9.5%(38/397)
71.5%(284/397)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.116
deontology not deontology
United States
35.1%(143/407)
50.1%(204/407)
not United States
24.9%(98/393)
61.8%(243/393)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.113
yes no
United States
60.6%(285/470)
32.1%(151/470)
not United States
71.5%(322/450)
24%(108/450)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitvism0.109
non-cognitivism cognitivism
United States
16%(71/443)
77.6%(344/443)
not United States
22.6%(98/432)
66.6%(288/432)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.104
moral anti-realism moral realism
United States
23.8%(110/462)
67%(310/462)
not United States
34.5%(150/434)
57.3%(249/434)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.101
non-physicalism physicalism
United States
30.9%(144/465)
56.3%(262/465)
not United States
24.5%(111/453)
64.9%(294/453)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.002
God:theism0.1
atheism theism
United States
70.6%(329/466)
21.2%(99/466)
not United States
77.3%(349/451)
13.5%(61/451)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
not Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.094
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
United States
11.1%(39/350)
73.7%(258/350)
not United States
17.2%(63/366)
66.9%(245/366)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.011
Teletransporter:death0.088
death survival
United States
38.4%(159/414)
39.1%(162/414)
not United States
33.1%(134/404)
46.5%(188/404)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: 0.011
not Truth:deflationary0.087
deflationary not deflationary
United States
23.6%(103/435)
71%(309/435)
not United States
29.9%(128/428)
63.3%(271/428)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.01
Epistemic justification:internalism0.085
externalism internalism
United States
46.9%(205/437)
35.2%(154/437)
not United States
54.7%(236/431)
27.3%(118/431)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.012
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.084
invariantism not invariantism
United States
33.4%(134/401)
54.1%(217/401)
not United States
39%(156/399)
50.3%(201/399)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.017
Knowledge:rationalism0.081
empiricism rationalism
United States
38.7%(181/467)
37%(173/467)
not United States
45.1%(204/452)
31.8%(144/452)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.014
Time:A-theory0.075
A-theory B-theory
United States
30.5%(83/272)
43.7%(119/272)
not United States
28.9%(90/311)
48.2%(150/311)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.07
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.071
consequentialism not consequentialism
United States
24.3%(99/407)
60.9%(248/407)
not United States
30.7%(121/393)
55.9%(220/393)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.044
not Free will:compatibilism0.071
compatibilism not compatibilism
United States
57%(260/456)
33.3%(152/456)
not United States
65.4%(290/443)
25.9%(115/443)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.033
not Personal identity:psychological view0.066
psychological view not psychological view
United States
35%(146/416)
42.3%(176/416)
not United States
42%(167/397)
39%(155/397)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.059
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.064
contextualism not contextualism
United States
47.8%(192/401)
39.6%(159/401)
not United States
45.3%(181/399)
44.1%(176/399)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.07
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.064
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
United States
28.2%(117/414)
55.5%(230/414)
not United States
24.3%(100/411)
64.4%(265/411)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.066
Truth:correspondence0.061
correspondence not correspondence
United States
57.9%(252/435)
36.7%(160/435)
not United States
51.6%(221/428)
41.5%(178/428)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.073
Aesthetic value:objective0.06
subjective objective
United States
34.5%(159/460)
47.8%(220/460)
not United States
42.7%(186/435)
44.8%(195/435)
Response pairs: 895   p-value: 0.072
not Truth:epistemic0.058
epistemic not epistemic
United States
7.3%(32/435)
87.3%(380/435)
not United States
7.4%(32/428)
85.7%(367/428)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.088
Moral motivation:externalism0.057
internalism externalism
United States
41.8%(160/382)
40.8%(156/382)
not United States
46.9%(182/388)
35.3%(137/388)
Response pairs: 770   p-value: 0.114
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.056
representationalism not representationalism
United States
39.4%(138/350)
45.4%(159/350)
not United States
42.3%(155/366)
41.8%(153/366)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.134
Newcomb's problem:one box0.055
one box two boxes
United States
34.1%(114/334)
44.9%(150/334)
not United States
26.4%(87/329)
46.5%(153/329)
Response pairs: 663   p-value: 0.157
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.055
qualia theory not qualia theory
United States
18.8%(66/350)
66%(231/350)
not United States
13.1%(48/366)
71%(260/366)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.141
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.055
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
United States
18.1%(74/407)
67%(273/407)
not United States
24.1%(95/393)
62.5%(246/393)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.12
Free will:libertarianism0.054
libertarianism not libertarianism
United States
16.6%(76/456)
73.6%(336/456)
not United States
11.7%(52/443)
79.6%(353/443)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.105
Abstract objects:Platonism0.051
nominalism Platonism
United States
37.3%(171/458)
52.1%(239/458)
not United States
41.7%(182/436)
47.4%(207/436)
Response pairs: 894   p-value: 0.127

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
metasurvey:accuracy0.112
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
United States
56.3%(58/103)
43.6%(45/103)
not United States
43.9%(47/107)
56%(60/107)
Response pairs: 210   p-value: 0.105
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.108
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
United States
14.3%(68/474)
85.6%(406/474)
not United States
22.7%(104/457)
77.2%(353/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.103
Quine not Quine
United States
9%(43/474)
90.9%(431/474)
not United States
3.9%(18/457)
96%(439/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
xian:Husserl0.102
Husserl not Husserl
United States
2.1%(10/474)
97.8%(464/474)
not United States
~0.2%(~1/457)
~99.7%(~456/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.089
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
United States
6.9%(33/474)
93%(441/474)
not United States
3%(14/457)
96.9%(443/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.006
xian:Mill0.078
Mill not Mill
United States
6.1%(29/474)
93.8%(445/474)
not United States
2.8%(13/457)
97.1%(444/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
not xian:Russell0.078
Russell not Russell
United States
4.6%(22/474)
95.3%(452/474)
not United States
8.5%(39/457)
91.4%(418/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
tradition:continental0.076
continental analytic
United States
5.2%(25/474)
86.2%(409/474)
not United States
1.9%(9/457)
89.9%(411/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.02
xian:Heidegger0.074
Heidegger not Heidegger
United States
2.1%(10/474)
97.8%(464/474)
not United States
~0.2%(~1/457)
~99.7%(~456/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.023
xian:Rawls0.068
Rawls not Rawls
United States
5.9%(28/474)
94%(446/474)
not United States
3%(14/457)
96.9%(443/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.038
AOS:Normative Ethics0.067
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
United States
17.2%(82/474)
82.7%(392/474)
not United States
12.4%(57/457)
87.5%(400/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
AOS:Epistemology0.065
Epistemology not Epistemology
United States
19.6%(93/474)
80.3%(381/474)
not United States
14.6%(67/457)
85.3%(390/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.065
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
United States
2.9%(14/474)
97%(460/474)
not United States
1%(5/457)
98.9%(452/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.063
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
United States
8.2%(39/474)
91.7%(435/474)
not United States
12%(55/457)
87.9%(402/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.054
not xian:Frege0.062
Frege not Frege
United States
5.9%(28/474)
94%(446/474)
not United States
9.1%(42/457)
90.8%(415/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.058
xian:Marx0.061
Marx not Marx
United States
2.1%(10/474)
97.8%(464/474)
not United States
0.6%(3/457)
99.3%(454/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
xian:Plato0.056
Plato not Plato
United States
5%(24/474)
94.9%(450/474)
not United States
2.8%(13/457)
97.1%(444/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.087
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.056
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
United States
8.2%(39/474)
91.7%(435/474)
not United States
11.5%(53/457)
88.4%(404/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.087
xian:Spinoza0.053
Spinoza not Spinoza
United States
3.1%(15/474)
96.8%(459/474)
not United States
1.5%(7/457)
98.4%(450/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.106

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
affil:region:United States0.596
United States not United States
United States
89.6%(425/474)
10.3%(49/474)
not United States
31.5%(144/457)
68.4%(313/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
phd_region:United States0.492
United States not United States
United States
77.4%(367/474)
22.5%(107/474)
not United States
28.2%(129/457)
71.7%(328/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:United Kingdom0.358
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
United States
5.9%(28/474)
94%(446/474)
not United States
34.5%(158/457)
65.4%(299/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:Europe0.257
Europe not Europe
United States
~0.2%(~1/474)
~99.7%(~473/474)
not United States
13.3%(61/457)
86.6%(396/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not phd_region:United Kingdom0.247
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
United States
4.4%(21/474)
95.5%(453/474)
not United States
20.7%(95/457)
79.2%(362/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not phd_region:Europe0.202
Europe not Europe
United States
0.6%(3/474)
99.3%(471/474)
not United States
9.4%(43/457)
90.5%(414/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_phd-0.195
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
United States
42%(166/395)
57.9%(229/395)
not United States
60.6%(197/325)
39.3%(128/325)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
not phd_region:Australasia0.185
Australasia not Australasia
United States
~0.2%(~1/474)
~99.7%(~473/474)
not United States
6.5%(30/457)
93.4%(427/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:Australasia0.176
Australasia not Australasia
United States
1.6%(8/474)
98.3%(466/474)
not United States
9.8%(45/457)
90.1%(412/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:Canada0.155
Canada not Canada
United States
4.2%(20/474)
95.7%(454/474)
not United States
12.9%(59/457)
87%(398/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_birth-0.135
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
United States
44%(204/463)
55.9%(259/463)
not United States
57.4%(234/407)
42.5%(173/407)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: < 0.001
not phd_region:Canada0.086
Canada not Canada
United States
1.4%(7/474)
98.5%(467/474)
not United States
4.3%(20/457)
95.6%(437/457)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.008