The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: year_of_phd

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Laws of nature:Humean0.155
Humean non-Humean
year_of_phd ≥ median
32.5%(108/332)
52.7%(175/332)
year_of_phd < median
21%(71/338)
72.7%(246/338)
Response pairs: 670   p-value: < 0.001
Mental content:externalism0.139
externalism internalism
year_of_phd ≥ median
62.9%(214/340)
23.2%(79/340)
year_of_phd < median
57.7%(189/327)
28.7%(94/327)
Response pairs: 667   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.126
relativism not relativism
year_of_phd ≥ median
2.7%(9/324)
84.2%(273/324)
year_of_phd < median
2.9%(9/303)
88.7%(269/303)
Response pairs: 627   p-value: 0.001
Time:B-theory0.124
A-theory B-theory
year_of_phd ≥ median
25.7%(62/241)
55.1%(133/241)
year_of_phd < median
31.3%(68/217)
40.5%(88/217)
Response pairs: 458   p-value: 0.007
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.12
invariantism not invariantism
year_of_phd ≥ median
38.8%(126/324)
48.1%(156/324)
year_of_phd < median
33.6%(102/303)
58%(176/303)
Response pairs: 627   p-value: 0.002
Teletransporter:survival0.106
survival death
year_of_phd ≥ median
47.1%(156/331)
32.3%(107/331)
year_of_phd < median
35.7%(110/308)
39.9%(123/308)
Response pairs: 639   p-value: 0.007
A priori knowledge:yes0.106
no yes
year_of_phd ≥ median
17.8%(64/358)
75.4%(270/358)
year_of_phd < median
20.9%(74/353)
69.4%(245/353)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.004
External world:skepticism0.105
skepticism not skepticism
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.6%(20/357)
90.1%(322/357)
year_of_phd < median
2.5%(9/353)
94%(332/353)
Response pairs: 710   p-value: 0.005
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.098
yes no
year_of_phd ≥ median
69.9%(251/359)
25.6%(92/359)
year_of_phd < median
61%(216/354)
31.6%(112/354)
Response pairs: 713   p-value: 0.008
Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.096
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
year_of_phd ≥ median
14.1%(40/283)
67.4%(191/283)
year_of_phd < median
13.3%(37/277)
73.6%(204/277)
Response pairs: 560   p-value: 0.023
Politics:egalitarianism0.088
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
year_of_phd ≥ median
47.2%(135/286)
34.2%(98/286)
year_of_phd < median
40.9%(117/286)
41.2%(118/286)
Response pairs: 572   p-value: 0.035
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.085
contextualism not contextualism
year_of_phd ≥ median
44.1%(143/324)
42.9%(139/324)
year_of_phd < median
51.4%(156/303)
40.2%(122/303)
Response pairs: 627   p-value: 0.033
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.084
cognitivism non-cognitivism
year_of_phd ≥ median
76.1%(258/339)
17.1%(58/339)
year_of_phd < median
67.8%(230/339)
22.4%(76/339)
Response pairs: 678   p-value: 0.028
Abstract objects:nominalism0.083
nominalism Platonism
year_of_phd ≥ median
41.4%(143/345)
48.4%(167/345)
year_of_phd < median
36.9%(130/352)
52.5%(185/352)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: 0.028
Truth:epistemic0.08
epistemic not epistemic
year_of_phd ≥ median
6.5%(22/337)
85.1%(287/337)
year_of_phd < median
6.8%(23/336)
88%(296/336)
Response pairs: 673   p-value: 0.038
Truth:deflationary0.078
deflationary not deflationary
year_of_phd ≥ median
27%(91/337)
64.6%(218/337)
year_of_phd < median
26.1%(88/336)
68.7%(231/336)
Response pairs: 673   p-value: 0.043
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.078
consequentialism not consequentialism
year_of_phd ≥ median
30.4%(97/319)
56.1%(179/319)
year_of_phd < median
24.2%(74/305)
62.2%(190/305)
Response pairs: 624   p-value: 0.051
Knowledge:rationalism0.072
rationalism empiricism
year_of_phd ≥ median
37.1%(133/358)
39.6%(142/358)
year_of_phd < median
32.5%(115/353)
45%(159/353)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.054
Science:scientific anti-realism0.068
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
year_of_phd ≥ median
11.6%(41/352)
81.2%(286/352)
year_of_phd < median
11.9%(42/352)
82.6%(291/352)
Response pairs: 704   p-value: 0.071
Proper names:Fregean0.065
Fregean Millian
year_of_phd ≥ median
38.1%(119/312)
42.6%(133/312)
year_of_phd < median
33%(99/300)
52.6%(158/300)
Response pairs: 612   p-value: 0.108
Free will:no free will0.063
no free will free will
year_of_phd ≥ median
14%(49/350)
76%(266/350)
year_of_phd < median
12.3%(43/348)
79.3%(276/348)
Response pairs: 698   p-value: 0.096
Logic:non-classical0.063
classical non-classical
year_of_phd ≥ median
62.8%(198/315)
17.4%(55/315)
year_of_phd < median
71.1%(220/309)
20%(62/309)
Response pairs: 624   p-value: 0.115
Mind:physicalism0.056
physicalism non-physicalism
year_of_phd ≥ median
60.8%(218/358)
27%(97/358)
year_of_phd < median
56.8%(200/352)
30.9%(109/352)
Response pairs: 710   p-value: 0.136
Trolley problem:don't switch0.054
don't switch switch
year_of_phd ≥ median
9.8%(34/344)
77.3%(266/344)
year_of_phd < median
7.6%(25/325)
78.4%(255/325)
Response pairs: 669   p-value: 0.162

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
metasurvey:accuracy0.204
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
year_of_phd ≥ median
61.9%(57/92)
38%(35/92)
year_of_phd < median
45.3%(34/75)
54.6%(41/75)
Response pairs: 167   p-value: 0.008
not AOS:Aesthetics0.136
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/363)
98.6%(358/363)
year_of_phd < median
6.4%(23/357)
93.5%(334/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.129
Quine not Quine
year_of_phd ≥ median
4.1%(15/363)
95.8%(348/363)
year_of_phd < median
9.8%(35/357)
90.1%(322/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.126
Aristotle not Aristotle
year_of_phd ≥ median
8.5%(31/363)
91.4%(332/363)
year_of_phd < median
15.9%(57/357)
84%(300/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.12
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
year_of_phd ≥ median
3%(11/363)
96.9%(352/363)
year_of_phd < median
6.7%(24/357)
93.2%(333/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.001
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.12
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/363)
98.6%(358/363)
year_of_phd < median
7.5%(27/357)
92.4%(330/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.001
xian:Lewis0.113
Lewis not Lewis
year_of_phd ≥ median
11%(40/363)
88.9%(323/363)
year_of_phd < median
5.6%(20/357)
94.3%(337/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.111
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/363)
98.8%(359/363)
year_of_phd < median
4.4%(16/357)
95.5%(341/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.002
tradition:analytic0.106
analytic continental
year_of_phd ≥ median
92.8%(337/363)
2.4%(9/363)
year_of_phd < median
84.5%(302/357)
5.6%(20/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.004
not xian:Wittgenstein0.101
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
year_of_phd ≥ median
3.8%(14/363)
96.1%(349/363)
year_of_phd < median
11.4%(41/357)
88.5%(316/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.006
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.1
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.9%(7/363)
98%(356/363)
year_of_phd < median
7%(25/357)
92.9%(332/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.007
xian:Frege0.086
Frege not Frege
year_of_phd ≥ median
9%(33/363)
90.9%(330/363)
year_of_phd < median
5.6%(20/357)
94.3%(337/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.021
not xian:Russell0.082
Russell not Russell
year_of_phd ≥ median
4.6%(17/363)
95.3%(346/363)
year_of_phd < median
8.6%(31/357)
91.3%(326/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.027
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.079
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
9.6%(35/363)
90.3%(328/363)
year_of_phd < median
13.7%(49/357)
86.2%(308/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.034
not xian:Spinoza0.075
Spinoza not Spinoza
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/363)
98.6%(358/363)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/357)
97.1%(347/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.044
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.073
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/363)
98.8%(359/363)
year_of_phd < median
3.3%(12/357)
96.6%(345/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.05
xian:Hume0.072
Hume not Hume
year_of_phd ≥ median
17.6%(64/363)
82.3%(299/363)
year_of_phd < median
12.6%(45/357)
87.3%(312/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.053
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.071
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.7%(28/363)
92.2%(335/363)
year_of_phd < median
13.1%(47/357)
86.8%(310/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.056
AOS:Epistemology0.069
Epistemology not Epistemology
year_of_phd ≥ median
19.8%(72/363)
80.1%(291/363)
year_of_phd < median
16.5%(59/357)
83.4%(298/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.064
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.068
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/363)
94.4%(343/363)
year_of_phd < median
1.9%(7/357)
98%(350/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.068
not xian:Locke0.066
Locke not Locke
year_of_phd ≥ median
2.4%(9/363)
97.5%(354/363)
year_of_phd < median
5%(18/357)
94.9%(339/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.076
not xian:Socrates0.064
Socrates not Socrates
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/363)
98.8%(359/363)
year_of_phd < median
1.6%(6/357)
98.3%(351/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.086
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.063
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/363)
94.4%(343/363)
year_of_phd < median
8.6%(31/357)
91.3%(326/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.091
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.062
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
year_of_phd ≥ median
8.2%(30/363)
91.7%(333/363)
year_of_phd < median
11.2%(40/357)
88.7%(317/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.096
not xian:Davidson0.062
Davidson not Davidson
year_of_phd ≥ median
3.8%(14/363)
96.1%(349/363)
year_of_phd < median
7%(25/357)
92.9%(332/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.096
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.056
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/363)
98.6%(358/363)
year_of_phd < median
2.5%(9/357)
97.4%(348/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.133
not xian:Rawls0.052
Rawls not Rawls
year_of_phd ≥ median
3%(11/363)
96.9%(352/363)
year_of_phd < median
4.7%(17/357)
95.2%(340/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.163
not AOS:Applied Ethics0.051
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
year_of_phd ≥ median
4.9%(18/363)
95%(345/363)
year_of_phd < median
5%(18/357)
94.9%(339/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.171

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_birth0.946
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
year_of_phd ≥ median
95.6%(328/343)
4.3%(15/343)
year_of_phd < median
15.2%(53/348)
84.7%(295/348)
Response pairs: 691   p-value: < 0.001
not nationality_region:United States0.195
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
45.7%(166/363)
54.2%(197/363)
year_of_phd < median
64.1%(229/357)
35.8%(128/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:United States0.188
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
55.9%(203/363)
44%(160/363)
year_of_phd < median
70.8%(253/357)
29.1%(104/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
nationality_region:Europe0.159
Europe not Europe
year_of_phd ≥ median
16.8%(61/363)
83.1%(302/363)
year_of_phd < median
7.2%(26/357)
92.7%(331/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
affil:region:United Kingdom0.144
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
year_of_phd ≥ median
22.5%(82/363)
77.4%(281/363)
year_of_phd < median
14%(50/357)
85.9%(307/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
gender:female0.084
female male
year_of_phd ≥ median
22%(77/350)
78%(273/350)
year_of_phd < median
15.8%(56/354)
84.1%(298/354)
Response pairs: 704   p-value: 0.025
nationality_region:Australasia0.066
Australasia not Australasia
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.7%(28/363)
92.2%(335/363)
year_of_phd < median
5.3%(19/357)
94.6%(338/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.076
not phd_region:United States0.061
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
65.2%(237/363)
34.7%(126/363)
year_of_phd < median
71.1%(254/357)
28.8%(103/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.101
nationality_region:Other0.06
Other not Other
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.1%(26/363)
92.8%(337/363)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/357)
97.1%(347/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.107
phd_region:Australasia0.06
Australasia not Australasia
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/363)
94.4%(343/363)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/357)
97.1%(347/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.107
affil:region:Europe0.057
Europe not Europe
year_of_phd ≥ median
6.6%(24/363)
93.3%(339/363)
year_of_phd < median
4.7%(17/357)
95.2%(340/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.126
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.05
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
year_of_phd ≥ median
14.8%(54/363)
85.1%(309/363)
year_of_phd < median
12.8%(46/357)
87.1%(311/357)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.18