The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
A priori knowledge:yes0.467
yes no
yes
86%(517/601)
9.4%(57/601)
no
43.1%(111/257)
45.1%(116/257)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.221
non-naturalism naturalism
yes
34.2%(192/560)
49.8%(279/560)
no
18.4%(44/239)
71.5%(171/239)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.216
rationalism empiricism
yes
41.1%(247/600)
35.8%(215/600)
no
23.6%(61/258)
57.7%(149/258)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.204
moral realism moral anti-realism
yes
65.1%(381/585)
28%(164/585)
no
45%(113/251)
46.2%(116/251)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.185
non-Humean Humean
yes
67.9%(384/565)
24.4%(138/565)
no
48.3%(117/242)
39.6%(96/242)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.173
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
yes
32.1%(176/547)
55.5%(304/547)
no
15.5%(35/225)
68.8%(155/225)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.165
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
yes
81.9%(485/592)
12.5%(74/592)
no
70.4%(179/254)
22%(56/254)
Response pairs: 897   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.146
Platonism nominalism
yes
46.4%(269/579)
44.2%(256/579)
no
32.1%(82/255)
58%(148/255)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:correspondence0.143
correspondence not correspondence
yes
60.2%(345/573)
34.2%(196/573)
no
44.8%(109/243)
51.4%(125/243)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: < 0.001
Mental content:internalism0.139
internalism externalism
yes
31.2%(177/566)
55.4%(314/566)
no
16.8%(40/237)
70.8%(168/237)
Response pairs: 851   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.129
invariantism not invariantism
yes
40.4%(213/526)
47.7%(251/526)
no
30.1%(67/222)
61.7%(137/222)
Response pairs: 793   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.123
libertarianism not libertarianism
yes
17.2%(101/587)
73.5%(432/587)
no
7.6%(19/248)
85.4%(212/248)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.121
cognitivism non-cognitivism
yes
74.5%(425/570)
19.2%(110/570)
no
65.9%(161/244)
23.7%(58/244)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: < 0.001
not Zombies:inconceivable0.114
inconceivable not inconceivable
yes
15.5%(85/547)
72.2%(395/547)
no
24.4%(55/225)
60%(135/225)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: 0.001
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.106
qualia theory not qualia theory
yes
17.4%(83/475)
67.7%(322/475)
no
13.8%(28/202)
72.7%(147/202)
Response pairs: 712   p-value: 0.004
Normative ethics:deontology0.101
deontology not deontology
yes
34.6%(180/519)
53.7%(279/519)
no
21.9%(49/223)
63.2%(141/223)
Response pairs: 790   p-value: 0.004
Epistemic justification:internalism0.097
internalism externalism
yes
36.2%(206/569)
44.6%(254/569)
no
27.3%(67/245)
58.7%(144/245)
Response pairs: 860   p-value: 0.004
not Truth:deflationary0.096
deflationary not deflationary
yes
24%(138/573)
70.3%(403/573)
no
33.7%(82/243)
62.5%(152/243)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.004
God:theism0.086
theism atheism
yes
16.9%(101/596)
75%(447/596)
no
10.1%(26/257)
82.1%(211/257)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.009
Mind:non-physicalism0.084
non-physicalism physicalism
yes
30.6%(184/601)
59%(355/601)
no
22.9%(59/257)
65.7%(169/257)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: 0.011
Proper names:Fregean0.082
Fregean Millian
yes
40.1%(208/518)
46.1%(239/518)
no
27.8%(61/219)
53.4%(117/219)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: 0.022
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.079
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
yes
19%(99/519)
69.3%(360/519)
no
26.9%(60/223)
58.2%(130/223)
Response pairs: 790   p-value: 0.026
Time:A-theory0.077
A-theory B-theory
yes
31.9%(126/394)
45.1%(178/394)
no
24.1%(37/153)
51.6%(79/153)
Response pairs: 580   p-value: 0.063
External world:non-skeptical realism0.077
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
yes
85.1%(511/600)
11.8%(71/600)
no
79.3%(200/252)
16.2%(41/252)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: 0.02
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.072
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
yes
4.8%(23/475)
80.4%(382/475)
no
2.4%(5/202)
84.1%(170/202)
Response pairs: 712   p-value: 0.054
Politics:communitarianism0.069
communitarianism not communitarianism
yes
18.2%(89/487)
62.4%(304/487)
no
18%(39/216)
70.8%(153/216)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: 0.06
Personal identity:psychological view0.066
psychological view not psychological view
yes
40.4%(217/536)
38.6%(207/536)
no
36.8%(84/228)
46.4%(106/228)
Response pairs: 806   p-value: 0.061
Trolley problem:switch0.063
switch don't switch
yes
74.7%(417/558)
11.1%(62/558)
no
73.8%(184/249)
13.6%(34/249)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.065
not Free will:no free will0.062
no free will free will
yes
11.9%(70/587)
78.8%(463/587)
no
16.1%(40/248)
77%(191/248)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: 0.064
Logic:classical0.057
non-classical classical
yes
22.6%(121/534)
63.2%(338/534)
no
27.4%(61/222)
58.1%(129/222)
Response pairs: 798   p-value: 0.107
Teletransporter:survival0.056
survival death
yes
43.5%(234/537)
36.8%(198/537)
no
39.2%(91/232)
39.2%(91/232)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.11
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.056
contextualism not contextualism
yes
43.7%(230/526)
44.4%(234/526)
no
52.2%(116/222)
39.6%(88/222)
Response pairs: 793   p-value: 0.115
Aesthetic value:objective0.053
objective subjective
yes
47.8%(279/583)
38.4%(224/583)
no
42.6%(107/251)
43.4%(109/251)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: 0.114
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.053
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
yes
38.9%(213/547)
48.8%(267/547)
no
41.7%(94/225)
42.6%(96/225)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: 0.129

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not xian:Quine0.22
Quine not Quine
yes
3.2%(20/607)
96.7%(587/607)
no
14.2%(37/259)
85.7%(222/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy0.189
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
yes
55%(76/138)
44.9%(62/138)
no
40.6%(26/64)
59.3%(38/64)
Response pairs: 209   p-value: 0.006
xian:Frege0.137
Frege not Frege
yes
9.7%(59/607)
90.2%(548/607)
no
3.4%(9/259)
96.5%(250/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Metaphysics0.13
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
yes
28.6%(174/607)
71.3%(433/607)
no
18.1%(47/259)
81.8%(212/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.128
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
yes
4.1%(25/607)
95.8%(582/607)
no
10.8%(28/259)
89.1%(231/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.092
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
yes
4.9%(30/607)
95%(577/607)
no
9.2%(24/259)
90.7%(235/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.005
not xian:Davidson0.09
Davidson not Davidson
yes
4.4%(27/607)
95.5%(580/607)
no
8.1%(21/259)
91.8%(238/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.006
xian:Kant0.081
Kant not Kant
yes
13.6%(83/607)
86.3%(524/607)
no
8.4%(22/259)
91.5%(237/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.013
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.08
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
yes
8.7%(53/607)
91.2%(554/607)
no
14.6%(38/259)
85.3%(221/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.015
not xian:Mill0.079
Mill not Mill
yes
3.1%(19/607)
96.8%(588/607)
no
6.9%(18/259)
93%(241/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.016
xian:Husserl0.078
Husserl not Husserl
yes
1.4%(9/607)
98.5%(598/607)
no
~0.3%(~1/259)
~99.6%(~258/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.017
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.075
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
yes
1.4%(9/607)
98.5%(598/607)
no
3.8%(10/259)
96.1%(249/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.022
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.075
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
yes
1.1%(7/607)
98.8%(600/607)
no
3.4%(9/259)
96.5%(250/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.022
AOS:Meta-Ethics0.072
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
yes
13.1%(80/607)
86.8%(527/607)
no
6.1%(16/259)
93.8%(243/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.028
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.072
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
yes
3.1%(19/607)
96.8%(588/607)
no
6.1%(16/259)
93.8%(243/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.028
not xian:Rawls0.072
Rawls not Rawls
yes
3.2%(20/607)
96.7%(587/607)
no
6.1%(16/259)
93.8%(243/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.028
not xian:Nietzsche0.065
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
yes
1.8%(11/607)
98.1%(596/607)
no
3.4%(9/259)
96.5%(250/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.048
tradition:analytic0.057
analytic continental
yes
90.1%(547/607)
3.9%(24/607)
no
85.3%(221/259)
3%(8/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.083
AOS:Philosophy of Law0.054
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
yes
3.4%(21/607)
96.5%(586/607)
no
~0.3%(~1/259)
~99.6%(~258/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.101
xian:Aristotle0.051
Aristotle not Aristotle
yes
13.5%(82/607)
86.4%(525/607)
no
9.6%(25/259)
90.3%(234/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.122
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.05
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
yes
6%(37/607)
93.9%(570/607)
no
2.7%(7/259)
97.2%(252/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.129

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not nationality_region:United States0.113
United States not United States
yes
46.9%(285/607)
53%(322/607)
no
58.3%(151/259)
41.6%(108/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
gender:male0.112
male female
yes
84.4%(490/580)
15.5%(90/580)
no
75.8%(185/244)
24.1%(59/244)
Response pairs: 873   p-value: < 0.001
affil:region:United Kingdom0.105
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
yes
23.2%(141/607)
76.7%(466/607)
no
13.1%(34/259)
86.8%(225/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.001
year_of_phd0.098
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
yes
53.7%(251/467)
46.2%(216/467)
no
45%(92/204)
54.9%(112/204)
Response pairs: 713   p-value: 0.008
not affil:region:United States0.082
United States not United States
yes
58.3%(354/607)
41.6%(253/607)
no
65.2%(169/259)
34.7%(90/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.012
nationality_region:Australasia0.07
Australasia not Australasia
yes
6.7%(41/607)
93.2%(566/607)
no
3.4%(9/259)
96.5%(250/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.033
nationality_region:Europe0.068
Europe not Europe
yes
14.3%(87/607)
85.6%(520/607)
no
10%(26/259)
89.9%(233/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.039
not phd_region:United States0.062
United States not United States
yes
50.7%(308/607)
49.2%(299/607)
no
58.3%(151/259)
41.6%(108/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.06
phd_region:Europe0.06
Europe not Europe
yes
5.9%(36/607)
94%(571/607)
no
3.4%(9/259)
96.5%(250/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.068
affil:region:Australasia0.055
Australasia not Australasia
yes
6.7%(41/607)
93.2%(566/607)
no
3.8%(10/259)
96.1%(249/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.095
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.052
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
yes
18.2%(111/607)
81.7%(496/607)
no
13.5%(35/259)
86.4%(224/259)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.114