The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: External world:idealism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Science:scientific anti-realism0.282
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
idealism
48.7%(19/39)
46.1%(18/39)
not idealism
9.7%(80/818)
83.6%(684/818)
Response pairs: 891   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:epistemic0.218
epistemic not epistemic
idealism
29.7%(11/37)
64.8%(24/37)
not idealism
6.1%(48/778)
88.4%(688/778)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.191
non-physicalism physicalism
idealism
70%(28/40)
22.5%(9/40)
not idealism
25.5%(211/827)
63.1%(522/827)
Response pairs: 902   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.149
atheism theism
idealism
46.1%(18/39)
43.5%(17/39)
not idealism
75.9%(629/828)
16.4%(136/828)
Response pairs: 901   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.145
B-theory A-theory
idealism
36.8%(7/19)
63.1%(12/19)
not idealism
47.9%(256/534)
27.7%(148/534)
Response pairs: 577   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.144
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
idealism
15.6%(5/32)
78.1%(25/32)
not idealism
3.5%(23/656)
81.2%(533/656)
Response pairs: 709   p-value: < 0.001
Mental content:internalism0.135
externalism internalism
idealism
31.4%(11/35)
54.2%(19/35)
not idealism
61.4%(480/781)
24.8%(194/781)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.12
correspondence not correspondence
idealism
35.1%(13/37)
59.4%(22/37)
not idealism
56.9%(443/778)
37.6%(293/778)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.115
non-naturalism naturalism
idealism
55.2%(21/38)
28.9%(11/38)
not idealism
27%(209/773)
58.2%(450/773)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:internalism0.112
externalism internalism
idealism
28.5%(10/35)
62.8%(22/35)
not idealism
51.8%(409/789)
30.1%(238/789)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.111
deontology not deontology
idealism
55.8%(19/34)
26.4%(9/34)
not idealism
29.4%(214/727)
57%(415/727)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: 0.001
not Personal identity:biological view0.097
biological view not biological view
idealism
~2.7%(~1/36)
88.8%(32/36)
not idealism
20.3%(150/738)
59.4%(439/738)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.005
Laws of nature:Humean0.093
Humean non-Humean
idealism
21%(8/38)
65.7%(25/38)
not idealism
26.2%(205/781)
65%(508/781)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: 0.006
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.09
consequentialism not consequentialism
idealism
~2.9%(~1/34)
76.4%(26/34)
not idealism
28.4%(207/727)
58%(422/727)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: 0.011
Moral motivation:internalism0.087
internalism externalism
idealism
61.7%(21/34)
26.4%(9/34)
not idealism
43.9%(307/698)
39.2%(274/698)
Response pairs: 761   p-value: 0.016
Free will:no free will0.087
no free will free will
idealism
12.8%(5/39)
79.4%(31/39)
not idealism
12.5%(102/811)
79%(641/811)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.009
not Free will:compatibilism0.087
compatibilism not compatibilism
idealism
46.1%(18/39)
46.1%(18/39)
not idealism
62.6%(508/811)
28.9%(235/811)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.009
Trolley problem:don't switch0.081
switch don't switch
idealism
66.6%(24/36)
16.6%(6/36)
not idealism
74.4%(585/786)
11.4%(90/786)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: 0.018
Newcomb's problem:one box0.074
one box two boxes
idealism
27.2%(6/22)
36.3%(8/22)
not idealism
30.7%(186/605)
47.1%(285/605)
Response pairs: 652   p-value: 0.058
Free will:libertarianism0.073
libertarianism not libertarianism
idealism
30.7%(12/39)
61.5%(24/39)
not idealism
13.8%(112/811)
77.8%(631/811)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.029
Politics:communitarianism0.064
communitarianism not communitarianism
idealism
31.4%(11/35)
57.1%(20/35)
not idealism
16.8%(113/672)
65.9%(443/672)
Response pairs: 738   p-value: 0.082
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.064
representationalism not representationalism
idealism
37.5%(12/32)
56.2%(18/32)
not idealism
41.6%(273/656)
43.1%(283/656)
Response pairs: 709   p-value: 0.088
Knowledge claims:relativism0.06
relativism not relativism
idealism
~3.1%(~1/32)
84.3%(27/32)
not idealism
3%(22/727)
86.1%(626/727)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: 0.092
Teletransporter:survival0.06
death survival
idealism
31.2%(10/32)
46.8%(15/32)
not idealism
36.5%(273/747)
42.7%(319/747)
Response pairs: 807   p-value: 0.088
Proper names:Fregean0.058
Millian Fregean
idealism
41.3%(12/29)
44.8%(13/29)
not idealism
42.6%(303/711)
40.9%(291/711)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.107
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.055
qualia theory not qualia theory
idealism
21.8%(7/32)
71.8%(23/32)
not idealism
15.8%(104/656)
68.9%(452/656)
Response pairs: 709   p-value: 0.143
Aesthetic value:objective0.052
objective subjective
idealism
66.6%(26/39)
23%(9/39)
not idealism
45.3%(368/812)
40.1%(326/812)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.122
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.05
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
idealism
32.3%(11/34)
61.7%(21/34)
not idealism
40.9%(308/753)
45.5%(343/753)
Response pairs: 812   p-value: 0.154

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Kant0.203
Kant not Kant
idealism
42.5%(17/40)
57.5%(23/40)
not idealism
10.3%(87/840)
89.6%(753/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:continental0.192
continental analytic
idealism
20%(8/40)
67.5%(27/40)
not idealism
2.6%(22/840)
89.7%(754/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.165
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
idealism
35%(14/40)
65%(26/40)
not idealism
10.3%(87/840)
89.6%(753/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.153
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
idealism
22.5%(9/40)
77.5%(31/40)
not idealism
3.2%(27/840)
96.7%(813/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.117
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
21.6%(182/840)
78.3%(658/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Spinoza0.11
Spinoza not Spinoza
idealism
12.5%(5/40)
87.5%(35/40)
not idealism
1.9%(16/840)
98%(824/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Epistemology0.096
Epistemology not Epistemology
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
18.2%(153/840)
81.7%(687/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.003
AOS:Philosophy of Action0.094
Philosophy of Action not Philosophy of Action
idealism
12.5%(5/40)
87.5%(35/40)
not idealism
4%(34/840)
95.9%(806/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.004
not xian:Locke0.09
Locke not Locke
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
4.1%(35/840)
95.8%(805/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.006
xian:Hegel0.086
Hegel not Hegel
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
1.4%(12/840)
98.5%(828/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.009
xian:Heidegger0.086
Heidegger not Heidegger
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
0.9%(8/840)
99%(832/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.009
AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.083
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
idealism
10%(4/40)
90%(36/40)
not idealism
6.5%(55/840)
93.4%(785/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.012
AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.083
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
idealism
22.5%(9/40)
77.5%(31/40)
not idealism
10.2%(86/840)
89.7%(754/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.012
xian:Leibniz0.082
Leibniz not Leibniz
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
1.5%(13/840)
98.4%(827/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.013
not xian:Lewis0.081
Lewis not Lewis
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
7.7%(65/840)
92.2%(775/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.014
not xian:Frege0.08
Frege not Frege
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
8%(68/840)
91.9%(772/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.015
AOS:Applied Ethics0.077
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
4.1%(35/840)
95.8%(805/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.019
not AOS:Metaphysics0.072
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
idealism
25%(10/40)
75%(30/40)
not idealism
25.2%(212/840)
74.7%(628/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.029
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.068
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
19%(160/840)
80.9%(680/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.039
xian:Nietzsche0.064
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
2%(17/840)
97.9%(823/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.052
xian:Plato0.064
Plato not Plato
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
3.8%(32/840)
96.1%(808/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.052
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.064
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
6.4%(54/840)
93.5%(786/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.052
not AOS:Decision Theory0.06
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
3.6%(31/840)
96.3%(809/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.069
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.058
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
11.7%(99/840)
88.2%(741/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.079
not xian:Carnap0.057
Carnap not Carnap
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
5%(42/840)
95%(798/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.084
xian:Rawls0.055
Rawls not Rawls
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
4.2%(36/840)
95.7%(804/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.096

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
gender:female0.101
female male
idealism
23%(9/39)
76.9%(30/39)
not idealism
17.7%(141/794)
82.2%(653/794)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.002
not nationality_region:Australasia0.075
Australasia not Australasia
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
5.8%(49/840)
94.1%(791/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.023
phd_region:Europe0.065
Europe not Europe
idealism
7.5%(3/40)
92.5%(37/40)
not idealism
4.7%(40/840)
95.2%(800/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.049
nationality_region:Europe0.06
Europe not Europe
idealism
17.5%(7/40)
82.5%(33/40)
not idealism
12.1%(102/840)
87.8%(738/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.069
not affil:region:Australasia0.054
Australasia not Australasia
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
5.9%(50/840)
94%(790/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102
not phd_region:Australasia0.052
Australasia not Australasia
idealism
~2.5%(~1/40)
~97.5%(~39/40)
not idealism
3.3%(28/840)
96.6%(812/840)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.115