The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Free will:libertarianism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mind:non-physicalism0.386
non-physicalism physicalism
libertarianism
64%(80/125)
24%(30/125)
not libertarianism
21.1%(144/682)
68.6%(468/682)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.385
theism atheism
libertarianism
50.7%(65/128)
42.1%(54/128)
not libertarianism
8.8%(60/680)
83.2%(566/680)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.343
non-naturalism naturalism
libertarianism
61.4%(75/122)
22.9%(28/122)
not libertarianism
22.3%(142/634)
64.1%(407/634)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.271
B-theory A-theory
libertarianism
18.6%(16/86)
56.9%(49/86)
not libertarianism
52.1%(227/435)
24.5%(107/435)
Response pairs: 571   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.24
moral realism moral anti-realism
libertarianism
85.8%(109/127)
11%(14/127)
not libertarianism
54%(360/666)
37.8%(252/666)
Response pairs: 871   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:further-fact view0.228
further-fact view not further-fact view
libertarianism
38.2%(44/115)
55.6%(64/115)
not libertarianism
9.9%(61/614)
68.5%(421/614)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.199
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
libertarianism
49.1%(57/116)
44.8%(52/116)
not libertarianism
22.4%(139/620)
64.1%(398/620)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:psychological view0.188
psychological view not psychological view
libertarianism
28.6%(33/115)
65.2%(75/115)
not libertarianism
42.3%(260/614)
36.1%(222/614)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.174
cognitivism non-cognitivism
libertarianism
89.2%(108/121)
5.7%(7/121)
not libertarianism
68.7%(451/656)
23.4%(154/656)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.17
consequentialism not consequentialism
libertarianism
9.9%(11/111)
85.5%(95/111)
not libertarianism
31.3%(189/603)
55%(332/603)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.168
subjective objective
libertarianism
17.8%(22/123)
72.3%(89/123)
not libertarianism
42.8%(284/663)
43.2%(287/663)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.162
nominalism Platonism
libertarianism
23.1%(28/121)
74.3%(90/121)
not libertarianism
42.7%(284/665)
46.3%(308/665)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
Politics:libertarianism0.158
libertarianism not libertarianism
libertarianism
23%(24/104)
63.4%(66/104)
not libertarianism
11.3%(64/565)
73.2%(414/565)
Response pairs: 736   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.154
non-Humean Humean
libertarianism
81.6%(102/125)
12%(15/125)
not libertarianism
58.6%(378/645)
31.7%(205/645)
Response pairs: 839   p-value: < 0.001
not Politics:egalitarianism0.151
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
libertarianism
24%(25/104)
62.5%(65/104)
not libertarianism
47.9%(271/565)
36.6%(207/565)
Response pairs: 736   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.14
rationalism empiricism
libertarianism
54.3%(69/127)
29.9%(38/127)
not libertarianism
31.9%(217/680)
44.7%(304/680)
Response pairs: 889   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.139
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
libertarianism
38.7%(43/111)
56.7%(63/111)
not libertarianism
18.9%(114/603)
67.4%(407/603)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:yes0.135
yes no
libertarianism
88.1%(112/127)
7.8%(10/127)
not libertarianism
70.9%(482/679)
22%(150/679)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.135
representationalism not representationalism
libertarianism
28.7%(29/101)
57.4%(58/101)
not libertarianism
44.9%(243/541)
40.1%(217/541)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.132
qualia theory not qualia theory
libertarianism
23.7%(24/101)
62.3%(63/101)
not libertarianism
15.1%(82/541)
69.8%(378/541)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:deflationary0.126
deflationary not deflationary
libertarianism
15.2%(19/125)
80%(100/125)
not libertarianism
28.9%(184/635)
66.4%(422/635)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.124
invariantism not invariantism
libertarianism
51.3%(58/113)
36.2%(41/113)
not libertarianism
34.1%(205/600)
55.6%(334/600)
Response pairs: 778   p-value: < 0.001
Trolley problem:don't switch0.124
don't switch switch
libertarianism
11.2%(13/116)
73.2%(85/116)
not libertarianism
8.3%(54/648)
79.4%(515/648)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.123
yes no
libertarianism
80.1%(101/126)
15%(19/126)
not libertarianism
63.3%(432/682)
31%(212/682)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.109
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
libertarianism
31.8%(37/116)
62%(72/116)
not libertarianism
43%(267/620)
43.5%(270/620)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.097
deontology not deontology
libertarianism
42.3%(47/111)
53.1%(59/111)
not libertarianism
28.6%(173/603)
57.7%(348/603)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: 0.006
Politics:communitarianism0.09
communitarianism not communitarianism
libertarianism
30.7%(32/104)
55.7%(58/104)
not libertarianism
16.6%(94/565)
67.9%(384/565)
Response pairs: 736   p-value: 0.014
Mental content:internalism0.087
internalism externalism
libertarianism
39.3%(46/117)
51.2%(60/117)
not libertarianism
24.4%(156/639)
61.5%(393/639)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: 0.012
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.086
contextualism not contextualism
libertarianism
35.3%(40/113)
52.2%(59/113)
not libertarianism
49.5%(297/600)
40.3%(242/600)
Response pairs: 778   p-value: 0.016
Proper names:Fregean0.082
Fregean Millian
libertarianism
43.1%(47/109)
45.8%(50/109)
not libertarianism
34.4%(201/584)
49.8%(291/584)
Response pairs: 756   p-value: 0.024
not Zombies:inconceivable0.079
inconceivable not inconceivable
libertarianism
12%(14/116)
81.8%(95/116)
not libertarianism
19.3%(120/620)
67.2%(417/620)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.025
External world:idealism0.073
idealism not idealism
libertarianism
9.3%(12/128)
87.5%(112/128)
not libertarianism
3.5%(24/674)
93.6%(631/674)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.029
Truth:correspondence0.067
correspondence not correspondence
libertarianism
64.8%(81/125)
30.4%(38/125)
not libertarianism
54.4%(346/635)
40.9%(260/635)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: 0.053
Teletransporter:death0.064
survival death
libertarianism
38.3%(43/112)
40.1%(45/112)
not libertarianism
43.7%(271/620)
36.1%(224/620)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.07
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.059
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
libertarianism
6.9%(7/101)
79.2%(80/101)
not libertarianism
3.5%(19/541)
81.5%(441/541)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: 0.119
Newcomb's problem:one box0.056
one box two boxes
libertarianism
38.7%(31/80)
40%(32/80)
not libertarianism
29.5%(151/511)
48.9%(250/511)
Response pairs: 644   p-value: 0.155

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.262
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
libertarianism
21%(27/128)
78.9%(101/128)
not libertarianism
2.6%(18/689)
97.3%(671/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Aristotle0.118
Aristotle not Aristotle
libertarianism
23.4%(30/128)
76.5%(98/128)
not libertarianism
11%(76/689)
88.9%(613/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Hume0.111
Hume not Hume
libertarianism
6.2%(8/128)
93.7%(120/128)
not libertarianism
17.2%(119/689)
82.7%(570/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.104
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
7.1%(49/689)
92.8%(640/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Carnap0.104
Carnap not Carnap
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
5.6%(39/689)
94.3%(650/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Metaphysics0.097
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
libertarianism
39%(50/128)
60.9%(78/128)
not libertarianism
23.9%(165/689)
76%(524/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.003
xian:Moore0.088
Moore not Moore
libertarianism
4.6%(6/128)
95.3%(122/128)
not libertarianism
2%(14/689)
97.9%(675/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.008
not xian:Quine0.088
Quine not Quine
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
7.8%(54/689)
92.1%(635/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.008
AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.085
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
libertarianism
4.6%(6/128)
95.3%(122/128)
not libertarianism
1.3%(9/689)
98.6%(680/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.01
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.069
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
libertarianism
3.9%(5/128)
96%(123/128)
not libertarianism
10.5%(73/689)
89.4%(616/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.038
not AOS:Aesthetics0.066
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
4.6%(32/689)
95.3%(657/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.047
not xian:Mill0.063
Mill not Mill
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
5%(35/689)
94.9%(654/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.059
xian:Descartes0.061
Descartes not Descartes
libertarianism
3.9%(5/128)
96%(123/128)
not libertarianism
1.7%(12/689)
98.2%(677/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.067
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.056
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
libertarianism
3.1%(4/128)
96.8%(124/128)
not libertarianism
4.3%(30/689)
95.6%(659/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.093
xian:Leibniz0.055
Leibniz not Leibniz
libertarianism
3.1%(4/128)
96.8%(124/128)
not libertarianism
1.4%(10/689)
98.5%(679/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.099
not xian:Nietzsche0.055
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
2.9%(20/689)
97%(669/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.099
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.055
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
4.7%(33/689)
95.2%(656/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.099
not xian:Davidson0.054
Davidson not Davidson
libertarianism
3.1%(4/128)
96.8%(124/128)
not libertarianism
5.8%(40/689)
94.1%(649/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.105
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.054
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
2.1%(15/689)
97.8%(674/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.105
not AOS:Decision Theory0.052
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
3.9%(27/689)
96%(662/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.119
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.05
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
libertarianism
12.5%(16/128)
87.5%(112/128)
not libertarianism
16.1%(111/689)
83.8%(578/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.134

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not affil:region:Canada0.106
Canada not Canada
libertarianism
2.3%(3/128)
97.6%(125/128)
not libertarianism
9.7%(67/689)
90.2%(622/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.001
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.096
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
libertarianism
25.7%(33/128)
74.2%(95/128)
not libertarianism
14.6%(101/689)
85.3%(588/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.003
not nationality_region:Australasia0.084
Australasia not Australasia
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
6.8%(47/689)
93.1%(642/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.011
not phd_region:Australasia0.071
Australasia not Australasia
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
4.2%(29/689)
95.7%(660/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.033
not affil:region:Australasia0.067
Australasia not Australasia
libertarianism
~0.7%(~1/128)
~99.2%(~127/128)
not libertarianism
6.8%(47/689)
93.1%(642/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.044
not nationality_region:Canada0.062
Canada not Canada
libertarianism
2.3%(3/128)
97.6%(125/128)
not libertarianism
7.6%(53/689)
92.3%(636/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.063
affil:region:United States0.061
United States not United States
libertarianism
69.5%(89/128)
30.4%(39/128)
not libertarianism
59.6%(411/689)
40.3%(278/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.067
not nationality_region:Europe0.06
Europe not Europe
libertarianism
6.2%(8/128)
93.7%(120/128)
not libertarianism
13.7%(95/689)
86.2%(594/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.072
year_of_birth-0.058
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
libertarianism
43.8%(53/121)
56.1%(68/121)
not libertarianism
51.7%(332/641)
48.2%(309/641)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: 0.092
nationality_region:United States0.054
United States not United States
libertarianism
59.3%(76/128)
40.6%(52/128)
not libertarianism
48.7%(336/689)
51.2%(353/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.105
affil:region:United Kingdom0.05
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
libertarianism
25%(32/128)
75%(96/128)
not libertarianism
18.8%(130/689)
81.1%(559/689)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.134