The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Free will:no free will

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
External world:skepticism0.227
skepticism not skepticism
no free will
16.9%(19/112)
78.5%(88/112)
free will
3%(21/690)
94.3%(651/690)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.163
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
no free will
71.4%(80/112)
24.1%(27/112)
free will
86.2%(595/690)
11.1%(77/690)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.151
moral anti-realism moral realism
no free will
49.5%(53/107)
43.9%(47/107)
free will
26.6%(183/686)
65.8%(452/686)
Response pairs: 871   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.146
subjective objective
no free will
55.4%(61/110)
34.5%(38/110)
free will
36.2%(245/676)
50%(338/676)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.135
no yes
no free will
25%(28/112)
63.3%(71/112)
free will
18.4%(128/694)
75.9%(527/694)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.098
relativism not relativism
no free will
7.1%(7/98)
77.5%(76/98)
free will
2.7%(17/615)
87.4%(538/615)
Response pairs: 778   p-value: 0.006
Politics:egalitarianism0.097
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
no free will
52%(50/96)
34.3%(33/96)
free will
42.9%(246/573)
41.7%(239/573)
Response pairs: 736   p-value: 0.008
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.096
consequentialism not consequentialism
no free will
48.9%(47/96)
46.8%(45/96)
free will
24.7%(153/618)
61.8%(382/618)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: 0.007
Laws of nature:Humean0.088
Humean non-Humean
no free will
33.3%(36/108)
54.6%(59/108)
free will
25.8%(171/662)
65.5%(434/662)
Response pairs: 839   p-value: 0.01
External world:idealism0.087
idealism not idealism
no free will
4.4%(5/112)
91%(102/112)
free will
4.4%(31/690)
92.8%(641/690)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.009
Logic:non-classical0.084
classical non-classical
no free will
60.5%(63/104)
27.8%(29/104)
free will
68.9%(419/608)
17.7%(108/608)
Response pairs: 776   p-value: 0.019
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.081
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
no free will
10.5%(10/95)
82.1%(78/95)
free will
2.9%(16/547)
80.9%(443/547)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: 0.032
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.081
non-cognitivism cognitivism
no free will
28.5%(30/105)
65.7%(69/105)
free will
18.3%(123/672)
74.1%(498/672)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.017
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.08
contextualism not contextualism
no free will
36.7%(36/98)
47.9%(47/98)
free will
48.9%(301/615)
41.3%(254/615)
Response pairs: 778   p-value: 0.025
Teletransporter:death0.076
survival death
no free will
41.9%(44/105)
44.7%(47/105)
free will
43%(270/627)
35.4%(222/627)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.031
not Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.076
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
no free will
3.1%(3/95)
89.4%(85/95)
free will
15.3%(84/547)
68.5%(375/547)
Response pairs: 697   p-value: 0.044
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.068
naturalism non-naturalism
no free will
70.3%(76/108)
23.1%(25/108)
free will
53.8%(349/648)
31.1%(202/648)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: 0.05
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.064
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
no free will
17.7%(17/96)
78.1%(75/96)
free will
22.6%(140/618)
63.9%(395/618)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: 0.074
Abstract objects:nominalism0.063
nominalism Platonism
no free will
47.3%(53/112)
42.8%(48/112)
free will
38.4%(259/674)
51.9%(350/674)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.064
God:atheism0.063
theism atheism
no free will
9.7%(11/113)
84%(95/113)
free will
16.4%(114/695)
75.5%(525/695)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: 0.06
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.062
yes no
no free will
62.5%(70/112)
35.7%(40/112)
free will
66.5%(463/696)
27.4%(191/696)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: 0.064
Truth:epistemic0.061
epistemic not epistemic
no free will
7.4%(8/107)
87.8%(94/107)
free will
7.6%(50/653)
87.7%(573/653)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: 0.078
not Normative ethics:deontology0.057
deontology not deontology
no free will
20.8%(20/96)
75%(72/96)
free will
32.3%(200/618)
54.2%(335/618)
Response pairs: 779   p-value: 0.111
Mental content:internalism0.053
externalism internalism
no free will
54.6%(59/108)
32.4%(35/108)
free will
60.9%(395/648)
25.6%(166/648)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: 0.127

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Spinoza0.132
Spinoza not Spinoza
no free will
7.8%(9/114)
92.1%(105/114)
free will
1.4%(10/703)
98.5%(693/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.13
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
no free will
15.7%(18/114)
84.2%(96/114)
free will
4.6%(33/703)
95.3%(670/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.128
Quine not Quine
no free will
16.6%(19/114)
83.3%(95/114)
free will
5.2%(37/703)
94.7%(666/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.1
Aristotle not Aristotle
no free will
5.2%(6/114)
94.7%(108/114)
free will
14.2%(100/703)
85.7%(603/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.002
xian:Hume0.079
Hume not Hume
no free will
25.4%(29/114)
74.5%(85/114)
free will
13.9%(98/703)
86%(605/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.017
not xian:Davidson0.068
Davidson not Davidson
no free will
~0.8%(~1/114)
~99.1%(~113/114)
free will
5.9%(42/703)
94%(661/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.041
not xian:Wittgenstein0.067
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
no free will
2.6%(3/114)
97.3%(111/114)
free will
8.8%(62/703)
91.1%(641/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.044
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.066
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
no free will
~0.8%(~1/114)
~99.1%(~113/114)
free will
4.5%(32/703)
95.4%(671/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.047
xian:Nietzsche0.065
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
no free will
7%(8/114)
92.9%(106/114)
free will
1.7%(12/703)
98.2%(691/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.051
not xian:Rawls0.065
Rawls not Rawls
no free will
~0.8%(~1/114)
~99.1%(~113/114)
free will
5.4%(38/703)
94.5%(665/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.051
not xian:Kant0.06
Kant not Kant
no free will
7.8%(9/114)
92.1%(105/114)
free will
13.3%(94/703)
86.6%(609/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.072
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.058
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
no free will
10.5%(12/114)
89.4%(102/114)
free will
16.3%(115/703)
83.6%(588/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.082
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.056
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
no free will
13.1%(15/114)
86.8%(99/114)
free will
8.9%(63/703)
91%(640/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.093
xian:Leibniz0.051
Leibniz not Leibniz
no free will
3.5%(4/114)
96.4%(110/114)
free will
1.4%(10/703)
98.5%(693/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.126
not xian:Hegel0.05
Hegel not Hegel
no free will
~0.8%(~1/114)
~99.1%(~113/114)
free will
2.2%(16/703)
97.7%(687/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.134

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
phd_region:Australasia0.074
Australasia not Australasia
no free will
7.8%(9/114)
92.1%(105/114)
free will
2.8%(20/703)
97.1%(683/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.026
gender:male0.071
male female
no free will
91.5%(97/106)
8.4%(9/106)
free will
80.6%(536/665)
19.3%(129/665)
Response pairs: 849   p-value: 0.038
year_of_phd0.063
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
no free will
53.2%(49/92)
46.7%(43/92)
free will
49%(266/542)
50.9%(276/542)
Response pairs: 698   p-value: 0.096
year_of_birth0.052
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
no free will
54.7%(58/106)
45.2%(48/106)
free will
49.8%(327/656)
50.1%(329/656)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: 0.132
affil:region:Australasia0.05
Australasia not Australasia
no free will
8.7%(10/114)
91.2%(104/114)
free will
5.5%(39/703)
94.4%(664/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.134
not affil:region:Europe0.05
Europe not Europe
no free will
4.3%(5/114)
95.6%(109/114)
free will
7.1%(50/703)
92.8%(653/703)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.134