The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: God:atheism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mind:physicalism0.393
physicalism non-physicalism
atheism
68%(458/673)
21.6%(146/673)
theism
25.1%(39/155)
63.2%(98/155)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.37
libertarianism not libertarianism
atheism
7.7%(51/658)
83.5%(550/658)
theism
44.4%(68/153)
49.6%(76/153)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.351
naturalism non-naturalism
atheism
63.2%(395/625)
22.2%(139/625)
theism
25%(38/152)
60.5%(92/152)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:compatibilism0.295
compatibilism not compatibilism
atheism
67.4%(444/658)
23.8%(157/658)
theism
35.9%(55/153)
58.1%(89/153)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Time:B-theory0.224
B-theory A-theory
atheism
50.1%(214/427)
23.4%(100/427)
theism
29.2%(31/106)
53.7%(57/106)
Response pairs: 578   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.218
consequentialism not consequentialism
atheism
32.1%(190/591)
53.1%(314/591)
theism
11.9%(16/134)
81.3%(109/134)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: < 0.001
Trolley problem:switch0.203
switch don't switch
atheism
77.3%(493/637)
9.5%(61/637)
theism
60%(87/145)
24.1%(35/145)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.188
subjective objective
atheism
43.5%(285/654)
41.4%(271/654)
theism
22.4%(35/156)
67.3%(105/156)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:representationalism0.185
representationalism not representationalism
atheism
46.1%(242/524)
38.7%(203/524)
theism
23.2%(29/125)
58.4%(73/125)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: < 0.001
Politics:egalitarianism0.182
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
atheism
48.2%(261/541)
34.7%(188/541)
theism
28.3%(38/134)
56.7%(76/134)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: < 0.001
not Politics:communitarianism0.181
communitarianism not communitarianism
atheism
13.8%(75/541)
69.1%(374/541)
theism
33.5%(45/134)
51.4%(69/134)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.179
moral anti-realism moral realism
atheism
32.7%(213/651)
59.2%(386/651)
theism
15.1%(24/158)
81%(128/158)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:psychological view0.165
psychological view not psychological view
atheism
41.6%(247/593)
36%(214/593)
theism
26.2%(37/141)
60.2%(85/141)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.152
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
atheism
80.9%(536/662)
11.9%(79/662)
theism
69.4%(107/154)
24.6%(38/154)
Response pairs: 893   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.152
empiricism rationalism
atheism
44.9%(301/670)
31.7%(213/670)
theism
30.3%(48/158)
50%(79/158)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:idealism0.149
idealism not idealism
atheism
2.7%(18/666)
94.4%(629/666)
theism
10.7%(17/158)
86%(136/158)
Response pairs: 901   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.143
no yes
atheism
21.6%(145/669)
69.8%(467/669)
theism
11.9%(19/159)
84.9%(135/159)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
External world:non-skeptical realism0.142
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
atheism
86.6%(577/666)
10.5%(70/666)
theism
75.3%(119/158)
21.5%(34/158)
Response pairs: 901   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.138
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
atheism
18.1%(107/591)
67.1%(397/591)
theism
35.8%(48/134)
57.4%(77/134)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.137
further-fact view not further-fact view
atheism
10.2%(61/593)
67.4%(400/593)
theism
32.6%(46/141)
53.9%(76/141)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.129
nominalism Platonism
atheism
42.1%(275/653)
46.4%(303/653)
theism
32.9%(51/155)
61.2%(95/155)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
Newcomb's problem:two boxes0.125
one box two boxes
atheism
28.6%(145/506)
48.8%(247/506)
theism
40.8%(40/98)
31.6%(31/98)
Response pairs: 655   p-value: 0.001
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.121
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
atheism
24.3%(147/604)
62.9%(380/604)
theism
34.2%(49/143)
51.7%(74/143)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.109
non-cognitivism cognitivism
atheism
21.4%(137/638)
71.1%(454/638)
theism
13.3%(20/150)
78.6%(118/150)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.099
Humean non-Humean
atheism
29.5%(185/626)
62.4%(391/626)
theism
16.6%(26/156)
70.5%(110/156)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: 0.003
Mental content:externalism0.096
externalism internalism
atheism
62.2%(390/627)
23.6%(148/627)
theism
52.3%(78/149)
34.2%(51/149)
Response pairs: 846   p-value: 0.005
Personal identity:biological view0.086
biological view not biological view
atheism
20.5%(122/593)
57.1%(339/593)
theism
14.8%(21/141)
71.6%(101/141)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: 0.014
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.085
qualia theory not qualia theory
atheism
14.1%(74/524)
70.8%(371/524)
theism
22.4%(28/125)
59.2%(74/125)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: 0.023
Proper names:Millian0.065
Millian Fregean
atheism
43.9%(252/574)
39.8%(229/574)
theism
39.6%(52/131)
39.6%(52/131)
Response pairs: 772   p-value: 0.071
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.065
no yes
atheism
29.8%(200/669)
65.3%(437/669)
theism
20.6%(33/160)
71.8%(115/160)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.05
Truth:deflationary0.064
deflationary not deflationary
atheism
28.3%(177/625)
66.7%(417/625)
theism
21.7%(33/152)
71.7%(109/152)
Response pairs: 850   p-value: 0.062
not Politics:libertarianism0.063
libertarianism not libertarianism
atheism
11.6%(63/541)
71.3%(386/541)
theism
13.4%(18/134)
71.6%(96/134)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: 0.086
Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.062
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
atheism
42.5%(257/604)
44.7%(270/604)
theism
36.3%(52/143)
49.6%(71/143)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.077
Epistemic justification:externalism0.058
externalism internalism
atheism
52.3%(329/629)
30%(189/629)
theism
48.3%(74/153)
34.6%(53/153)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.09
not Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.057
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
atheism
3.6%(19/524)
81.2%(426/524)
theism
8%(10/125)
73.6%(92/125)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: 0.13
Free will:no free will0.052
no free will free will
atheism
14.1%(93/658)
77.2%(508/658)
theism
8.4%(13/153)
85.6%(131/153)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: 0.121

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.342
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
atheism
1.3%(9/678)
98.6%(669/678)
theism
22.5%(36/160)
77.5%(124/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:analytic0.163
analytic continental
atheism
91%(617/678)
2.2%(15/678)
theism
80%(128/160)
10%(16/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Plato0.16
Plato not Plato
atheism
2.5%(17/678)
97.4%(661/678)
theism
10.6%(17/160)
89.3%(143/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Hume0.141
Hume not Hume
atheism
17.8%(121/678)
82.1%(557/678)
theism
5.6%(9/160)
94.3%(151/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Kant0.125
Kant not Kant
atheism
9.4%(64/678)
90.5%(614/678)
theism
18.7%(30/160)
81.2%(130/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.124
Aristotle not Aristotle
atheism
10.1%(69/678)
89.8%(609/678)
theism
21.2%(34/160)
78.7%(126/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.122
Quine not Quine
atheism
8.4%(57/678)
91.5%(621/678)
theism
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.109
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
atheism
23.1%(157/678)
76.8%(521/678)
theism
11.2%(18/160)
88.7%(142/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.101
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
atheism
7.5%(51/678)
92.4%(627/678)
theism
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.1
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
atheism
1%(7/678)
98.9%(671/678)
theism
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
not xian:Leibniz0.1
Leibniz not Leibniz
atheism
1%(7/678)
98.9%(671/678)
theism
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
xian:Mill0.097
Mill not Mill
atheism
5.7%(39/678)
94.2%(639/678)
theism
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.003
xian:Russell0.095
Russell not Russell
atheism
7.9%(54/678)
92%(624/678)
theism
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.003
AOS:Philosophy of Language0.095
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
atheism
20.2%(137/678)
79.7%(541/678)
theism
11.2%(18/160)
88.7%(142/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.089
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
atheism
5.7%(39/678)
94.2%(639/678)
theism
10.6%(17/160)
89.3%(143/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.007
xian:Carnap0.088
Carnap not Carnap
atheism
6%(41/678)
93.9%(637/678)
theism
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.007
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.087
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
atheism
1.9%(13/678)
98%(665/678)
theism
5.6%(9/160)
94.3%(151/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.008
AOS:Meta-Ethics0.083
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
atheism
11.9%(81/678)
88%(597/678)
theism
5%(8/160)
95%(152/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.011
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.082
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
atheism
5%(34/678)
94.9%(644/678)
theism
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.012
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.078
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
atheism
9.4%(64/678)
90.5%(614/678)
theism
15.6%(25/160)
84.3%(135/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.018
xian:Lewis0.072
Lewis not Lewis
atheism
8.5%(58/678)
91.4%(620/678)
theism
4.3%(7/160)
95.6%(153/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.029
AOS:Epistemology0.07
Epistemology not Epistemology
atheism
18.4%(125/678)
81.5%(553/678)
theism
10%(16/160)
90%(144/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.034
xian:Marx0.059
Marx not Marx
atheism
1.7%(12/678)
98.2%(666/678)
theism
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.074
AOS:Normative Ethics0.059
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
atheism
16%(109/678)
83.9%(569/678)
theism
10.6%(17/160)
89.3%(143/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.074
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.059
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
atheism
3.8%(26/678)
96.1%(652/678)
theism
6.8%(11/160)
93.1%(149/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.074
xian:Rawls0.056
Rawls not Rawls
atheism
5.1%(35/678)
94.8%(643/678)
theism
2.5%(4/160)
97.5%(156/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.09
not xian:Wittgenstein0.051
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
atheism
6.7%(46/678)
93.2%(632/678)
theism
9.3%(15/160)
90.6%(145/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.122
not AOS:Metaphilosophy0.051
Metaphilosophy not Metaphilosophy
atheism
2%(14/678)
97.9%(664/678)
theism
3.1%(5/160)
96.8%(155/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.122
AOS:Decision Theory0.05
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
atheism
3.6%(25/678)
96.3%(653/678)
theism
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.13

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not nationality_region:United States0.1
United States not United States
atheism
48.5%(329/678)
51.4%(349/678)
theism
61.8%(99/160)
38.1%(61/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
nationality_region:Canada0.083
Canada not Canada
atheism
8.4%(57/678)
91.5%(621/678)
theism
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.011
affil:region:Europe0.064
Europe not Europe
atheism
8.1%(55/678)
91.8%(623/678)
theism
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.052
nationality_region:Australasia0.061
Australasia not Australasia
atheism
6.3%(43/678)
93.6%(635/678)
theism
2.5%(4/160)
97.5%(156/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.064
affil:region:Canada0.06
Canada not Canada
atheism
9.5%(65/678)
90.4%(613/678)
theism
5.6%(9/160)
94.3%(151/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.069
not affil:region:United States0.058
United States not United States
atheism
59.5%(404/678)
40.4%(274/678)
theism
68.1%(109/160)
31.8%(51/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.079
phd_region:Australasia0.056
Australasia not Australasia
atheism
3.8%(26/678)
96.1%(652/678)
theism
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.09
affil:region:Australasia0.054
Australasia not Australasia
atheism
6.3%(43/678)
93.6%(635/678)
theism
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.102
nationality_region:Europe0.053
Europe not Europe
atheism
13.4%(91/678)
86.5%(587/678)
theism
8.1%(13/160)
91.8%(147/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.108
phd_region:Europe0.05
Europe not Europe
atheism
5.7%(39/678)
94.2%(639/678)
theism
2.5%(4/160)
97.5%(156/160)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.13