The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: God:theism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mind:non-physicalism0.392
physicalism non-physicalism
theism
22.3%(30/134)
65.6%(88/134)
atheism
67.2%(467/694)
22.4%(156/694)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.385
libertarianism not libertarianism
theism
50%(65/130)
46.1%(60/130)
atheism
7.9%(54/681)
83.1%(566/681)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.34
non-naturalism naturalism
theism
62.5%(80/128)
23.4%(30/128)
atheism
21.7%(141/649)
63.6%(413/649)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:compatibilism0.27
compatibilism not compatibilism
theism
35.3%(46/130)
60.7%(79/130)
atheism
66.5%(453/681)
24.5%(167/681)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.219
B-theory A-theory
theism
27.6%(26/94)
56.3%(53/94)
atheism
49.8%(219/439)
23.6%(104/439)
Response pairs: 578   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.202
consequentialism not consequentialism
theism
10.6%(12/113)
84%(95/113)
atheism
31.6%(194/612)
53.5%(328/612)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.178
subjective objective
theism
21.2%(28/132)
68.9%(91/132)
atheism
43%(292/678)
42%(285/678)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.176
moral realism moral anti-realism
theism
79.2%(107/135)
17.7%(24/135)
atheism
55.7%(376/674)
36.2%(244/674)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:further-fact view0.174
further-fact view not further-fact view
theism
36.3%(44/121)
49.5%(60/121)
atheism
10.2%(63/613)
67.8%(416/613)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: < 0.001
not Politics:egalitarianism0.166
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
theism
29.3%(34/116)
57.7%(67/116)
atheism
47.4%(265/559)
35.2%(197/559)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: < 0.001
Politics:communitarianism0.165
communitarianism not communitarianism
theism
34.4%(40/116)
52.5%(61/116)
atheism
14.3%(80/559)
68.3%(382/559)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:yes0.16
yes no
theism
85.9%(116/135)
11.1%(15/135)
atheism
69.1%(479/693)
22.5%(156/693)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.154
rationalism empiricism
theism
50.3%(68/135)
28.8%(39/135)
atheism
32.1%(223/693)
44.8%(311/693)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.149
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
theism
38.7%(48/124)
50.8%(63/124)
atheism
23.7%(148/623)
62.7%(391/623)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: < 0.001
Trolley problem:don't switch0.148
don't switch switch
theism
16.8%(21/125)
68%(85/125)
atheism
8%(53/657)
78.6%(517/657)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: < 0.001
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.147
representationalism not representationalism
theism
25.4%(27/106)
57.5%(61/106)
atheism
44.9%(244/543)
39.5%(215/543)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitvism0.145
non-cognitivism cognitivism
theism
10.2%(13/127)
82.6%(105/127)
atheism
21.7%(144/661)
70.6%(467/661)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.134
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
theism
37.1%(42/113)
57.5%(65/113)
atheism
18.4%(113/612)
66.8%(409/612)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:psychological view0.131
psychological view not psychological view
theism
27.2%(33/121)
58.6%(71/121)
atheism
40.9%(251/613)
37.1%(228/613)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: < 0.001
External world:idealism0.126
idealism not idealism
theism
11.1%(15/134)
85.8%(115/134)
atheism
2.8%(20/690)
94.2%(650/690)
Response pairs: 901   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.12
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
theism
70.4%(93/132)
24.2%(32/132)
atheism
80.4%(550/684)
12.4%(85/684)
Response pairs: 893   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.117
nominalism Platonism
theism
32.8%(43/131)
61.8%(81/131)
atheism
41.8%(283/677)
46.8%(317/677)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.116
non-Humean Humean
theism
70.6%(94/133)
16.5%(22/133)
atheism
60.2%(391/649)
31.5%(205/649)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: < 0.001
Newcomb's problem:one box0.115
one box two boxes
theism
40.9%(36/88)
31.8%(28/88)
atheism
28.8%(149/516)
48.4%(250/516)
Response pairs: 655   p-value: 0.003
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.105
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
theism
76.1%(102/134)
20.8%(28/134)
atheism
86%(594/690)
11%(76/690)
Response pairs: 901   p-value: 0.001
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.102
qualia theory not qualia theory
theism
24.5%(26/106)
58.4%(62/106)
atheism
13.9%(76/543)
70.5%(383/543)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: 0.006
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.086
yes no
theism
74.2%(101/136)
19.1%(26/136)
atheism
64.5%(447/693)
30.4%(211/693)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.009
not Truth:deflationary0.077
deflationary not deflationary
theism
19.2%(25/130)
73%(95/130)
atheism
28.5%(185/647)
66.6%(431/647)
Response pairs: 850   p-value: 0.024
Normative ethics:deontology0.075
deontology not deontology
theism
40.7%(46/113)
53.9%(61/113)
atheism
28.1%(172/612)
57.1%(350/612)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: 0.035
not Personal identity:biological view0.075
biological view not biological view
theism
13.2%(16/121)
72.7%(88/121)
atheism
20.7%(127/613)
57.4%(352/613)
Response pairs: 801   p-value: 0.033
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.074
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
theism
37%(46/124)
52.4%(65/124)
atheism
42.2%(263/623)
44.3%(276/623)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.034
Politics:libertarianism0.069
libertarianism not libertarianism
theism
14.6%(17/116)
72.4%(84/116)
atheism
11.4%(64/559)
71.1%(398/559)
Response pairs: 741   p-value: 0.06
Mental content:internalism0.065
externalism internalism
theism
54.3%(69/127)
31.4%(40/127)
atheism
61.4%(399/649)
24.4%(159/649)
Response pairs: 846   p-value: 0.058
not Free will:no free will0.063
no free will free will
theism
8.4%(11/130)
87.6%(114/130)
atheism
13.9%(95/681)
77%(525/681)
Response pairs: 888   p-value: 0.06
Proper names:Fregean0.059
Millian Fregean
theism
39.6%(46/116)
38.7%(45/116)
atheism
43.8%(258/589)
40%(236/589)
Response pairs: 772   p-value: 0.101
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.057
invariantism not invariantism
theism
44.7%(51/114)
42.9%(49/114)
atheism
35.5%(216/608)
53.1%(323/608)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: 0.109

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.351
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
theism
25%(34/136)
75%(102/136)
atheism
1.5%(11/702)
98.4%(691/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Plato0.152
Plato not Plato
theism
11%(15/136)
88.9%(121/136)
atheism
2.7%(19/702)
97.2%(683/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Aristotle0.142
Aristotle not Aristotle
theism
23.5%(32/136)
76.4%(104/136)
atheism
10.1%(71/702)
89.8%(631/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Hume0.126
Hume not Hume
theism
5.8%(8/136)
94.1%(128/136)
atheism
17.3%(122/702)
82.6%(580/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Kant0.123
Kant not Kant
theism
19.1%(26/136)
80.8%(110/136)
atheism
9.6%(68/702)
90.3%(634/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.122
Quine not Quine
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
8.2%(58/702)
91.7%(644/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Leibniz0.117
Leibniz not Leibniz
theism
4.4%(6/136)
95.5%(130/136)
atheism
0.9%(7/702)
99%(695/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:continental0.107
continental analytic
theism
9.5%(13/136)
83.8%(114/136)
atheism
2.5%(18/702)
89.8%(631/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.103
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
5.1%(36/702)
94.8%(666/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.1
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
theism
11%(15/136)
88.9%(121/136)
atheism
22.7%(160/702)
77.2%(542/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.097
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
theism
10.2%(14/136)
89.7%(122/136)
atheism
20%(141/702)
79.9%(561/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.003
AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.093
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
theism
3.6%(5/136)
96.3%(131/136)
atheism
1.1%(8/702)
98.8%(694/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.004
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.091
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
theism
16.9%(23/136)
83%(113/136)
atheism
9.4%(66/702)
90.5%(636/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.005
not xian:Carnap0.091
Carnap not Carnap
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
5.9%(42/702)
94%(660/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.005
AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.089
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
theism
11%(15/136)
88.9%(121/136)
atheism
5.8%(41/702)
94.1%(661/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.007
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.087
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
7.2%(51/702)
92.7%(651/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.008
not xian:Mill0.086
Mill not Mill
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
5.5%(39/702)
94.4%(663/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.009
not xian:Russell0.08
Russell not Russell
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
7.6%(54/702)
92.3%(648/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.015
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.079
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
11.1%(78/702)
88.8%(624/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.016
not xian:Lewis0.079
Lewis not Lewis
theism
3.6%(5/136)
96.3%(131/136)
atheism
8.5%(60/702)
91.4%(642/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.016
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.072
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
theism
5.1%(7/136)
94.8%(129/136)
atheism
11.6%(82/702)
88.3%(620/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.029
AOS:Philosophy of Action0.068
Philosophy of Action not Philosophy of Action
theism
8%(11/136)
91.9%(125/136)
atheism
3.7%(26/702)
96.2%(676/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.039
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.065
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
7.1%(50/702)
92.8%(652/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.049
AOS:Metaphysics0.064
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
theism
32.3%(44/136)
67.6%(92/136)
atheism
24.3%(171/702)
75.6%(531/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.052
not xian:Descartes0.061
Descartes not Descartes
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
2.5%(18/702)
97.4%(684/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.064
xian:Hegel0.058
Hegel not Hegel
theism
3.6%(5/136)
96.3%(131/136)
atheism
1.4%(10/702)
98.5%(692/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.079
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.054
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
2.1%(15/702)
97.8%(687/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.102
not xian:Marx0.053
Marx not Marx
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
1.7%(12/702)
98.2%(690/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.108
AOS:Asian Philosophy0.051
Asian Philosophy not Asian Philosophy
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
0.8%(6/702)
99.1%(696/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.122
xian:Husserl0.051
Husserl not Husserl
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
0.7%(5/702)
99.2%(697/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.122

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not nationality_region:Canada0.091
Canada not Canada
theism
2.9%(4/136)
97%(132/136)
atheism
8.4%(59/702)
91.5%(643/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.005
nationality_region:United States0.088
United States not United States
theism
61.7%(84/136)
38.2%(52/136)
atheism
49%(344/702)
50.9%(358/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.007
not affil:region:Canada0.086
Canada not Canada
theism
3.6%(5/136)
96.3%(131/136)
atheism
9.8%(69/702)
90.1%(633/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.009
not phd_region:Australasia0.063
Australasia not Australasia
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
3.8%(27/702)
96.1%(675/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.056
not nationality_region:Europe0.057
Europe not Europe
theism
7.3%(10/136)
92.6%(126/136)
atheism
13.3%(94/702)
86.6%(608/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.084
affil:region:United Kingdom0.054
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
theism
22%(30/136)
77.9%(106/136)
atheism
18.5%(130/702)
81.4%(572/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.102
affil:region:United States0.053
United States not United States
theism
68.3%(93/136)
31.6%(43/136)
atheism
59.8%(420/702)
40.1%(282/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.108
not affil:region:Australasia0.052
Australasia not Australasia
theism
3.6%(5/136)
96.3%(131/136)
atheism
6.2%(44/702)
93.7%(658/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.115
not phd_region:Canada0.05
Canada not Canada
theism
~0.7%(~1/136)
~99.2%(~135/136)
atheism
3.2%(23/702)
96.7%(679/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.13
not phd_region:Europe0.05
Europe not Europe
theism
2.2%(3/136)
97.7%(133/136)
atheism
5.6%(40/702)
94.3%(662/702)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.13