The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Meta-ethics:moral realism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.562
cognitivism non-cognitivism
moral realism
92.4%(465/503)
3.9%(20/503)
moral anti-realism
41.6%(117/281)
50.1%(141/281)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.411
objective subjective
moral realism
61.2%(313/511)
26.2%(134/511)
moral anti-realism
23.2%(66/284)
61.6%(175/284)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.335
Platonism nominalism
moral realism
54%(269/498)
36.5%(182/498)
moral anti-realism
23.6%(68/287)
66.2%(190/287)
Response pairs: 860   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.329
non-Humean Humean
moral realism
73.7%(365/495)
19.3%(96/495)
moral anti-realism
42.1%(116/275)
45.4%(125/275)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.32
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
moral realism
87.4%(451/516)
8.1%(42/516)
moral anti-realism
63.1%(182/288)
28.4%(82/288)
Response pairs: 874   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:correspondence0.294
correspondence not correspondence
moral realism
64.2%(316/492)
30%(148/492)
moral anti-realism
36.9%(102/276)
57.9%(160/276)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.282
non-naturalism naturalism
moral realism
37.7%(184/488)
46.7%(228/488)
moral anti-realism
17.3%(47/271)
71.2%(193/271)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.242
rationalism empiricism
moral realism
43%(225/523)
35.1%(184/523)
moral anti-realism
24.2%(70/289)
54.6%(158/289)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.24
libertarianism not libertarianism
moral realism
21.3%(109/511)
70.4%(360/511)
moral anti-realism
4.9%(14/285)
88.4%(252/285)
Response pairs: 871   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:deflationary0.239
deflationary not deflationary
moral realism
19.9%(98/492)
74.3%(366/492)
moral anti-realism
42%(116/276)
52.8%(146/276)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.237
invariantism not invariantism
moral realism
45.5%(210/461)
43.1%(199/461)
moral anti-realism
24.8%(63/254)
67.3%(171/254)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:yes0.229
yes no
moral realism
81.4%(425/522)
13.2%(69/522)
moral anti-realism
60.2%(174/289)
30.4%(88/289)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
External world:non-skeptical realism0.215
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
moral realism
89.4%(468/523)
8.7%(46/523)
moral anti-realism
73.6%(212/288)
21.8%(63/288)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.204
yes no
moral realism
72.9%(381/522)
21.6%(113/522)
moral anti-realism
56.5%(164/290)
40%(116/290)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
Moral motivation:externalism0.194
externalism internalism
moral realism
45%(199/442)
39.3%(174/442)
moral anti-realism
27.6%(68/246)
55.2%(136/246)
Response pairs: 756   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.176
theism atheism
moral realism
20.5%(107/521)
72.1%(376/521)
moral anti-realism
8.2%(24/292)
83.5%(244/292)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:skepticism0.167
skepticism not skepticism
moral realism
2.2%(12/523)
95.9%(502/523)
moral anti-realism
9%(26/288)
86.4%(249/288)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.163
physicalism non-physicalism
moral realism
51.5%(268/520)
37.3%(194/520)
moral anti-realism
67.4%(195/289)
24.2%(70/289)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.15
contextualism not contextualism
moral realism
40.3%(186/461)
48.3%(223/461)
moral anti-realism
57%(145/254)
35%(89/254)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.147
A-theory B-theory
moral realism
35.5%(118/332)
41.8%(139/332)
moral anti-realism
22.8%(42/184)
52.7%(97/184)
Response pairs: 562   p-value: < 0.001
Logic:classical0.144
non-classical classical
moral realism
20%(93/463)
65.6%(304/463)
moral anti-realism
31.6%(80/253)
54.9%(139/253)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.13
consequentialism not consequentialism
moral realism
23.4%(109/464)
65%(302/464)
moral anti-realism
36.1%(89/246)
48.7%(120/246)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:epistemic0.129
epistemic not epistemic
moral realism
5.4%(27/492)
88.8%(437/492)
moral anti-realism
10.8%(30/276)
84%(232/276)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:relativism0.128
relativism not relativism
moral realism
1.3%(6/461)
87.4%(403/461)
moral anti-realism
7.4%(19/254)
84.6%(215/254)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:no free will0.113
no free will free will
moral realism
8.8%(45/511)
82.9%(424/511)
moral anti-realism
19.2%(55/285)
74%(211/285)
Response pairs: 871   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:further-fact view0.109
further-fact view not further-fact view
moral realism
18.6%(86/460)
65.2%(300/460)
moral anti-realism
8.1%(21/258)
67.8%(175/258)
Response pairs: 785   p-value: 0.002
not Zombies:inconceivable0.098
inconceivable not inconceivable
moral realism
15.3%(74/481)
74%(356/481)
moral anti-realism
21%(54/257)
64.2%(165/257)
Response pairs: 797   p-value: 0.005
not Free will:compatibilism0.086
compatibilism not compatibilism
moral realism
59.4%(304/511)
32.2%(165/511)
moral anti-realism
65.9%(188/285)
27.3%(78/285)
Response pairs: 871   p-value: 0.011
Mental content:externalism0.076
externalism internalism
moral realism
62.2%(305/490)
25.1%(123/490)
moral anti-realism
58.1%(160/275)
26.9%(74/275)
Response pairs: 831   p-value: 0.028
Epistemic justification:externalism0.074
internalism externalism
moral realism
31.7%(157/495)
51.7%(256/495)
moral anti-realism
36.8%(102/277)
47.2%(131/277)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: 0.031
Normative ethics:deontology0.072
deontology not deontology
moral realism
34.6%(161/464)
53.8%(250/464)
moral anti-realism
25.2%(62/246)
59.7%(147/246)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: 0.045
not Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.071
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
moral realism
3.2%(14/425)
84.9%(361/425)
moral anti-realism
6.3%(14/220)
75.9%(167/220)
Response pairs: 698   p-value: 0.06
Politics:communitarianism0.07
communitarianism not communitarianism
moral realism
20.2%(88/434)
62.4%(271/434)
moral anti-realism
13.1%(31/235)
70.2%(165/235)
Response pairs: 733   p-value: 0.058
not Personal identity:psychological view0.068
psychological view not psychological view
moral realism
38.4%(177/460)
45.4%(209/460)
moral anti-realism
40.6%(105/258)
35.2%(91/258)
Response pairs: 785   p-value: 0.056
not Politics:egalitarianism0.066
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
moral realism
42.3%(184/434)
40.3%(175/434)
moral anti-realism
48.9%(115/235)
34.4%(81/235)
Response pairs: 733   p-value: 0.074
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.065
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
moral realism
29.1%(140/481)
60.2%(290/481)
moral anti-realism
23.7%(61/257)
61.4%(158/257)
Response pairs: 797   p-value: 0.066
Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.061
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
moral realism
24.3%(113/464)
64.2%(298/464)
moral anti-realism
15%(37/246)
69.9%(172/246)
Response pairs: 775   p-value: 0.089

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not xian:Hume0.189
Hume not Hume
moral realism
9.4%(50/527)
90.5%(477/527)
moral anti-realism
23.9%(70/292)
76%(222/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy0.158
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
moral realism
52.8%(66/125)
47.2%(59/125)
moral anti-realism
45.3%(29/64)
54.6%(35/64)
Response pairs: 206   p-value: 0.023
tradition:analytic0.143
analytic continental
moral realism
92.2%(486/527)
2.6%(14/527)
moral anti-realism
82.5%(241/292)
5.4%(16/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Aristotle0.142
Aristotle not Aristotle
moral realism
16.5%(87/527)
83.4%(440/527)
moral anti-realism
5.4%(16/292)
94.5%(276/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.142
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
moral realism
7.7%(41/527)
92.2%(486/527)
moral anti-realism
1.3%(4/292)
98.6%(288/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.132
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
moral realism
2.6%(14/527)
97.3%(513/527)
moral anti-realism
7.8%(23/292)
92.1%(269/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.125
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
moral realism
7.2%(38/527)
92.7%(489/527)
moral anti-realism
15.7%(46/292)
84.2%(246/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Metaphysics0.124
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
moral realism
29.4%(155/527)
70.5%(372/527)
moral anti-realism
21.2%(62/292)
78.7%(230/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.117
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
moral realism
1.1%(6/527)
98.8%(521/527)
moral anti-realism
4.7%(14/292)
95.2%(278/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.117
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
moral realism
2.4%(13/527)
97.5%(514/527)
moral anti-realism
7.5%(22/292)
92.4%(270/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Carnap0.111
Carnap not Carnap
moral realism
3.4%(18/527)
96.5%(509/527)
moral anti-realism
7.5%(22/292)
92.4%(270/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.11
Quine not Quine
moral realism
5.1%(27/527)
94.8%(500/527)
moral anti-realism
10.2%(30/292)
89.7%(262/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Moore0.105
Moore not Moore
moral realism
3.9%(21/527)
96%(506/527)
moral anti-realism
1%(3/292)
98.9%(289/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Kant0.101
Kant not Kant
moral realism
10%(53/527)
89.9%(474/527)
moral anti-realism
15.4%(45/292)
84.5%(247/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.002
xian:Plato0.1
Plato not Plato
moral realism
5.5%(29/527)
94.4%(498/527)
moral anti-realism
1.3%(4/292)
98.6%(288/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.002
AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.095
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
moral realism
8.7%(46/527)
91.2%(481/527)
moral anti-realism
2.7%(8/292)
97.2%(284/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.004
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.093
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
moral realism
3.2%(17/527)
96.7%(510/527)
moral anti-realism
6.5%(19/292)
93.4%(273/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.005
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.092
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
moral realism
1.7%(9/527)
98.2%(518/527)
moral anti-realism
4.1%(12/292)
95.8%(280/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.005
not xian:Nietzsche0.092
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
moral realism
1.3%(7/527)
98.6%(520/527)
moral anti-realism
4.4%(13/292)
95.5%(279/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.005
xian:Russell0.085
Russell not Russell
moral realism
8.3%(44/527)
91.6%(483/527)
moral anti-realism
3.7%(11/292)
96.2%(281/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.01
not xian:Wittgenstein0.078
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
moral realism
6.2%(33/527)
93.7%(494/527)
moral anti-realism
9.5%(28/292)
90.4%(264/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.019
AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.074
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
moral realism
22.7%(120/527)
77.2%(407/527)
moral anti-realism
15%(44/292)
84.9%(248/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.026
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.071
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
moral realism
4.1%(22/527)
95.8%(505/527)
moral anti-realism
8.2%(24/292)
91.7%(268/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.033
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.069
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
moral realism
8.5%(45/527)
91.4%(482/527)
moral anti-realism
12.6%(37/292)
87.3%(255/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.038
AOS:Normative Ethics0.067
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
moral realism
16.5%(87/527)
83.4%(440/527)
moral anti-realism
11.3%(33/292)
88.6%(259/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.044
xian:Locke0.065
Locke not Locke
moral realism
4.9%(26/527)
95%(501/527)
moral anti-realism
2.3%(7/292)
97.6%(285/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.051
AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.061
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
moral realism
2.2%(12/527)
97.7%(515/527)
moral anti-realism
~0.3%(~1/292)
~99.6%(~291/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.067
not AOS:Decision Theory0.061
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
moral realism
2.8%(15/527)
97.1%(512/527)
moral anti-realism
4.7%(14/292)
95.2%(278/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.067
AOS:Philosophy of Law0.06
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
moral realism
3.7%(20/527)
96.2%(507/527)
moral anti-realism
1.7%(5/292)
98.2%(287/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.072
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.06
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
moral realism
4.7%(25/527)
95.2%(502/527)
moral anti-realism
7.8%(23/292)
92.1%(269/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.072
xian:Frege0.057
Frege not Frege
moral realism
8.3%(44/527)
91.6%(483/527)
moral anti-realism
6.1%(18/292)
93.8%(274/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.088
not xian:Hegel0.054
Hegel not Hegel
moral realism
1.3%(7/527)
98.6%(520/527)
moral anti-realism
3%(9/292)
96.9%(283/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.106
not AOS:Metaphilosophy0.052
Metaphilosophy not Metaphilosophy
moral realism
1.5%(8/527)
98.4%(519/527)
moral anti-realism
3.4%(10/292)
96.5%(282/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.119

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not nationality_region:Europe0.128
Europe not Europe
moral realism
8.7%(46/527)
91.2%(481/527)
moral anti-realism
18.8%(55/292)
81.1%(237/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not phd_region:Europe0.072
Europe not Europe
moral realism
3.4%(18/527)
96.5%(509/527)
moral anti-realism
7.5%(22/292)
92.4%(270/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.031
nationality_region:United States0.068
United States not United States
moral realism
54.6%(288/527)
45.3%(239/527)
moral anti-realism
45.2%(132/292)
54.7%(160/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.041
not affil:region:Canada0.062
Canada not Canada
moral realism
7%(37/527)
92.9%(490/527)
moral anti-realism
10.6%(31/292)
89.3%(261/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.063
not affil:region:Europe0.058
Europe not Europe
moral realism
5.3%(28/527)
94.6%(499/527)
moral anti-realism
9.5%(28/292)
90.4%(264/292)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.082