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The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Metaphilosophy:naturalism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mind:physicalism0.488
non-physicalism physicalism
naturalism
13.7%(64/467)
78.3%(366/467)
non-naturalism
57.5%(145/252)
33.3%(84/252)
Response pairs: 846   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.351
atheism theism
naturalism
85.3%(395/463)
8.2%(38/463)
non-naturalism
54.7%(139/254)
36.2%(92/254)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.334
libertarianism not libertarianism
naturalism
5.9%(27/457)
87%(398/457)
non-naturalism
30.7%(76/247)
61.1%(151/247)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.321
nominalism Platonism
naturalism
49.7%(229/460)
38.6%(178/460)
non-naturalism
23.6%(58/245)
72.6%(178/245)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.32
rationalism empiricism
naturalism
24.7%(115/464)
54.7%(254/464)
non-naturalism
54.9%(140/255)
25.4%(65/255)
Response pairs: 847   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.288
moral anti-realism moral realism
naturalism
38.2%(173/452)
52.4%(237/452)
non-naturalism
16.9%(43/254)
78.3%(199/254)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.275
no yes
naturalism
28%(130/464)
64%(297/464)
non-naturalism
9.4%(24/255)
87.4%(223/255)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.257
subjective objective
naturalism
48.7%(221/453)
38.1%(173/453)
non-naturalism
22.8%(57/249)
64.6%(161/249)
Response pairs: 828   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.252
consequentialism not consequentialism
naturalism
36.6%(150/409)
50.6%(207/409)
non-naturalism
16.1%(36/223)
73.9%(165/223)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.245
Humean non-Humean
naturalism
34.7%(154/443)
55.9%(248/443)
non-naturalism
13.8%(34/246)
78%(192/246)
Response pairs: 809   p-value: < 0.001
Time:B-theory0.243
B-theory A-theory
naturalism
55.7%(160/287)
19.8%(57/287)
non-naturalism
40.8%(71/174)
42.5%(74/174)
Response pairs: 546   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.235
further-fact view not further-fact view
naturalism
7.4%(31/416)
73.3%(305/416)
non-naturalism
28.4%(66/232)
54.3%(126/232)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: < 0.001
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.234
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
naturalism
20.9%(89/425)
68.7%(292/425)
non-naturalism
41.7%(94/225)
47.5%(107/225)
Response pairs: 769   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.207
no yes
naturalism
35.4%(164/462)
59%(273/462)
non-naturalism
18.2%(47/257)
78.5%(202/257)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:compatibilism0.206
compatibilism not compatibilism
naturalism
68.2%(312/457)
24.7%(113/457)
non-naturalism
47.7%(118/247)
44.1%(109/247)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.204
non-cognitivism cognitivism
naturalism
25.3%(113/445)
66.7%(297/445)
non-naturalism
12.3%(31/251)
82.8%(208/251)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:psychological view0.2
psychological view not psychological view
naturalism
46.6%(194/416)
34.1%(142/416)
non-naturalism
29.3%(68/232)
53.4%(124/232)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:representationalism0.184
representationalism not representationalism
naturalism
49.3%(184/373)
35.9%(134/373)
non-naturalism
32.3%(65/201)
56.2%(113/201)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:deontology0.173
deontology not deontology
naturalism
25.1%(103/409)
62.1%(254/409)
non-naturalism
43.9%(98/223)
46.1%(103/223)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.169
invariantism not invariantism
naturalism
31.1%(128/411)
59.8%(246/411)
non-naturalism
51.3%(114/222)
36.9%(82/222)
Response pairs: 744   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:externalism0.143
externalism internalism
naturalism
57.9%(256/442)
27.6%(122/442)
non-naturalism
43.5%(105/241)
39.4%(95/241)
Response pairs: 807   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.142
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
naturalism
46.1%(196/425)
43.5%(185/425)
non-naturalism
29.7%(67/225)
59.5%(134/225)
Response pairs: 769   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.122
contextualism not contextualism
naturalism
53%(218/411)
37.9%(156/411)
non-naturalism
34.2%(76/222)
54%(120/222)
Response pairs: 744   p-value: < 0.001
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.105
qualia theory not qualia theory
naturalism
14.2%(53/373)
71%(265/373)
non-naturalism
21.8%(44/201)
66.6%(134/201)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: 0.006
Mental content:externalism0.102
externalism internalism
naturalism
60.6%(264/435)
24.3%(106/435)
non-naturalism
55.4%(133/240)
33.3%(80/240)
Response pairs: 798   p-value: 0.003
not Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.099
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
naturalism
9.6%(36/373)
75.6%(282/373)
non-naturalism
18.4%(37/201)
70.1%(141/201)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: 0.01
Personal identity:biological view0.098
biological view not biological view
naturalism
22.1%(92/416)
58.6%(244/416)
non-naturalism
13.7%(32/232)
68.9%(160/232)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: 0.006
not External world:idealism0.096
idealism not idealism
naturalism
2.6%(12/461)
94.7%(437/461)
non-naturalism
7.8%(20/254)
87.4%(222/254)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: 0.005
Trolley problem:switch0.078
don't switch switch
naturalism
7.4%(33/442)
79.6%(352/442)
non-naturalism
12.1%(29/239)
74%(177/239)
Response pairs: 804   p-value: 0.026
Free will:no free will0.068
no free will free will
naturalism
16.6%(76/457)
76.3%(349/457)
non-naturalism
10.1%(25/247)
81.7%(202/247)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: 0.05
Proper names:Millian0.067
Millian Fregean
naturalism
45.7%(186/407)
37.5%(153/407)
non-naturalism
41.5%(89/214)
46.2%(99/214)
Response pairs: 735   p-value: 0.069
Moral motivation:internalism0.065
internalism externalism
naturalism
48.3%(189/391)
35.2%(138/391)
non-naturalism
41.1%(91/221)
43.4%(96/221)
Response pairs: 719   p-value: 0.081
not Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.054
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
naturalism
3.2%(12/373)
82%(306/373)
non-naturalism
4.9%(10/201)
83.5%(168/201)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: 0.161
External world:skepticism0.053
skepticism not skepticism
naturalism
6.9%(32/461)
90.4%(417/461)
non-naturalism
2.7%(7/254)
92.5%(235/254)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: 0.124

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Hume0.242
Hume not Hume
naturalism
22.8%(107/468)
77.1%(361/468)
non-naturalism
3.5%(9/257)
96.4%(248/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.2
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
naturalism
10.2%(48/468)
89.7%(420/468)
non-naturalism
1.1%(3/257)
98.8%(254/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.193
Quine not Quine
naturalism
10.4%(49/468)
89.5%(419/468)
non-naturalism
1.9%(5/257)
98%(252/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.179
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
naturalism
1.9%(9/468)
98%(459/468)
non-naturalism
10.5%(27/257)
89.4%(230/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.157
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
naturalism
6.6%(31/468)
93.3%(437/468)
non-naturalism
~0.3%(~1/257)
~99.6%(~256/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Kant0.14
Kant not Kant
naturalism
8.9%(42/468)
91%(426/468)
non-naturalism
17.8%(46/257)
82.1%(211/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.131
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
naturalism
24.3%(114/468)
75.6%(354/468)
non-naturalism
14.7%(38/257)
85.2%(219/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Plato0.126
Plato not Plato
naturalism
2.5%(12/468)
97.4%(456/468)
non-naturalism
7.3%(19/257)
92.6%(238/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Husserl0.116
Husserl not Husserl
naturalism
~0.2%(~1/468)
~99.7%(~467/468)
non-naturalism
3.1%(8/257)
96.8%(249/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Moore0.116
Moore not Moore
naturalism
1.4%(7/468)
98.5%(461/468)
non-naturalism
5.8%(15/257)
94.1%(242/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.102
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
naturalism
13.2%(62/468)
86.7%(406/468)
non-naturalism
6.6%(17/257)
93.3%(240/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.102
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
naturalism
1.2%(6/468)
98.7%(462/468)
non-naturalism
5.4%(14/257)
94.5%(243/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.002
tradition:analytic0.101
analytic continental
naturalism
90.3%(423/468)
1.9%(9/468)
non-naturalism
84.8%(218/257)
7.3%(19/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.096
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
naturalism
12.8%(60/468)
87.1%(408/468)
non-naturalism
19%(49/257)
80.9%(208/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.004
not AOS:Metaphysics0.093
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
naturalism
22%(103/468)
77.9%(365/468)
non-naturalism
30.7%(79/257)
69.2%(178/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.006
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.079
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
naturalism
8.1%(38/468)
91.8%(430/468)
non-naturalism
3.8%(10/257)
96.1%(247/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.02
xian:Mill0.077
Mill not Mill
naturalism
6.1%(29/468)
93.8%(439/468)
non-naturalism
2.7%(7/257)
97.2%(250/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.024
xian:Spinoza0.073
Spinoza not Spinoza
naturalism
3.6%(17/468)
96.3%(451/468)
non-naturalism
1.1%(3/257)
98.8%(254/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.032
not xian:Hegel0.071
Hegel not Hegel
naturalism
0.6%(3/468)
99.3%(465/468)
non-naturalism
3.1%(8/257)
96.8%(249/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.037
not xian:Aristotle0.071
Aristotle not Aristotle
naturalism
10%(47/468)
89.9%(421/468)
non-naturalism
15.1%(39/257)
84.8%(218/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.037
xian:Davidson0.07
Davidson not Davidson
naturalism
6.4%(30/468)
93.5%(438/468)
non-naturalism
3.1%(8/257)
96.8%(249/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.04
not xian:Wittgenstein0.069
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
naturalism
5.7%(27/468)
94.2%(441/468)
non-naturalism
9.7%(25/257)
90.2%(232/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.043
not AOS:Metaphilosophy0.068
Metaphilosophy not Metaphilosophy
naturalism
1.7%(8/468)
98.2%(460/468)
non-naturalism
3.5%(9/257)
96.4%(248/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.046
AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.066
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
naturalism
2.7%(13/468)
97.2%(455/468)
non-naturalism
~0.3%(~1/257)
~99.6%(~256/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.053
AOS:Decision Theory0.066
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
naturalism
4.2%(20/468)
95.7%(448/468)
non-naturalism
2.3%(6/257)
97.6%(251/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.053
xian:Lewis0.065
Lewis not Lewis
naturalism
8.7%(41/468)
91.2%(427/468)
non-naturalism
4.2%(11/257)
95.7%(246/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.057
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.061
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
naturalism
3.6%(17/468)
96.3%(451/468)
non-naturalism
6.2%(16/257)
93.7%(241/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.074
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.059
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
naturalism
9.8%(46/468)
90.1%(422/468)
non-naturalism
13.2%(34/257)
86.7%(223/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.084
not AOS:Philosophy of Law0.056
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
naturalism
2.1%(10/468)
97.8%(458/468)
non-naturalism
3.8%(10/257)
96.1%(247/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.101
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.055
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
naturalism
5.9%(28/468)
94%(440/468)
non-naturalism
8.1%(21/257)
91.8%(236/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.108
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.051
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
naturalism
2.9%(14/468)
97%(454/468)
non-naturalism
1.1%(3/257)
98.8%(254/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.136
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.05
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
naturalism
3.2%(15/468)
96.7%(453/468)
non-naturalism
5.4%(14/257)
94.5%(243/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.144

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
nationality_region:Australasia0.099
Australasia not Australasia
naturalism
7.2%(34/468)
92.7%(434/468)
non-naturalism
2.7%(7/257)
97.2%(250/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.003
phd_region:Australasia0.094
Australasia not Australasia
naturalism
4.7%(22/468)
95.2%(446/468)
non-naturalism
1.5%(4/257)
98.4%(253/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.005
nationality_region:Other0.077
Other not Other
naturalism
8.7%(41/468)
91.2%(427/468)
non-naturalism
4.6%(12/257)
95.3%(245/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.024
affil:region:Australasia0.072
Australasia not Australasia
naturalism
6.8%(32/468)
93.1%(436/468)
non-naturalism
3.1%(8/257)
96.8%(249/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.035
gender:female0.069
female male
naturalism
19.9%(88/442)
80%(354/442)
non-naturalism
12.5%(31/247)
87.4%(216/247)
Response pairs: 810   p-value: 0.049
not affil:region:United Kingdom0.067
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
naturalism
17.5%(82/468)
82.4%(386/468)
non-naturalism
21.4%(55/257)
78.5%(202/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.05
not affil:region:Canada0.067
Canada not Canada
naturalism
5.9%(28/468)
94%(440/468)
non-naturalism
11.2%(29/257)
88.7%(228/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.05
not nationality_region:United Kingdom0.06
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
naturalism
15.1%(71/468)
84.8%(397/468)
non-naturalism
18.6%(48/257)
81.3%(209/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.079
affil:region:United States0.053
United States not United States
naturalism
64.3%(301/468)
35.6%(167/468)
non-naturalism
59.9%(154/257)
40%(103/257)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.121