The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mind:non-physicalism0.497
non-physicalism physicalism
non-naturalism
59.3%(143/241)
32.3%(78/241)
naturalism
13.8%(66/478)
77.8%(372/478)
Response pairs: 846   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.36
rationalism empiricism
non-naturalism
57.6%(140/243)
23%(56/243)
naturalism
24.1%(115/476)
55.2%(263/476)
Response pairs: 847   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.343
libertarianism not libertarianism
non-naturalism
31.7%(75/236)
60.1%(142/236)
naturalism
5.9%(28/468)
86.9%(407/468)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.34
theism atheism
non-naturalism
33%(80/242)
58.2%(141/242)
naturalism
6.3%(30/475)
86.9%(413/475)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.294
nominalism Platonism
non-naturalism
24.8%(58/233)
71.6%(167/233)
naturalism
48.5%(229/472)
40%(189/472)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.282
moral realism moral anti-realism
non-naturalism
76%(184/242)
19.4%(47/242)
naturalism
49.1%(228/464)
41.5%(193/464)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:yes0.276
yes no
non-naturalism
88%(214/243)
9.8%(24/243)
naturalism
63.4%(302/476)
28.1%(134/476)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:Humean0.244
Humean non-Humean
non-naturalism
13.6%(32/234)
79%(185/234)
naturalism
34.2%(156/455)
56%(255/455)
Response pairs: 809   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.242
subjective objective
non-naturalism
23.2%(55/237)
64.9%(154/237)
naturalism
47.9%(223/465)
38.7%(180/465)
Response pairs: 828   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.235
B-theory A-theory
non-naturalism
40%(66/165)
41.8%(69/165)
naturalism
55.7%(165/296)
20.9%(62/296)
Response pairs: 546   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.234
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
non-naturalism
42.5%(91/214)
47.6%(102/214)
naturalism
21.1%(92/436)
68.1%(297/436)
Response pairs: 769   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.232
consequentialism not consequentialism
non-naturalism
16.6%(35/210)
74.2%(156/210)
naturalism
35.7%(151/422)
51.1%(216/422)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:further-fact view0.23
further-fact view not further-fact view
non-naturalism
28.7%(63/219)
54.3%(119/219)
naturalism
7.9%(34/429)
72.7%(312/429)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.221
yes no
non-naturalism
78.3%(192/245)
17.9%(44/245)
naturalism
58.8%(279/474)
36%(171/474)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:compatibilism0.208
compatibilism not compatibilism
non-naturalism
47%(111/236)
44.9%(106/236)
naturalism
68.1%(319/468)
24.7%(116/468)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitvism0.199
non-cognitivism cognitivism
non-naturalism
12.5%(30/239)
83.6%(200/239)
naturalism
24.9%(114/457)
66.7%(305/457)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.183
deontology not deontology
non-naturalism
45.2%(95/210)
45.7%(96/210)
naturalism
25.1%(106/422)
61.8%(261/422)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.175
invariantism not invariantism
non-naturalism
52.5%(112/213)
35.6%(76/213)
naturalism
30.9%(130/420)
60%(252/420)
Response pairs: 744   p-value: < 0.001
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.166
representationalism not representationalism
non-naturalism
32.4%(61/188)
55.8%(105/188)
naturalism
48.7%(188/386)
36.7%(142/386)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:psychological view0.155
psychological view not psychological view
non-naturalism
31.5%(69/219)
51.5%(113/219)
naturalism
44.9%(193/429)
35.6%(153/429)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.142
qualia theory not qualia theory
non-naturalism
23.4%(44/188)
64.8%(122/188)
naturalism
13.7%(53/386)
71.7%(277/386)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.134
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
non-naturalism
19.1%(36/188)
69.1%(130/188)
naturalism
9.5%(37/386)
75.9%(293/386)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: < 0.001
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.128
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
non-naturalism
30.8%(66/214)
59.3%(127/214)
naturalism
45.1%(197/436)
44%(192/436)
Response pairs: 769   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:internalism0.121
externalism internalism
non-naturalism
44.5%(102/229)
38.8%(89/229)
naturalism
57%(259/454)
28.1%(128/454)
Response pairs: 807   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.12
contextualism not contextualism
non-naturalism
33.3%(71/213)
54.9%(117/213)
naturalism
53%(223/420)
37.8%(159/420)
Response pairs: 744   p-value: 0.001
External world:idealism0.115
idealism not idealism
non-naturalism
8.6%(21/242)
86.3%(209/242)
naturalism
2.3%(11/473)
95.1%(450/473)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: < 0.001
Trolley problem:don't switch0.089
don't switch switch
non-naturalism
12.6%(29/229)
73.3%(168/229)
naturalism
7.3%(33/452)
79.8%(361/452)
Response pairs: 804   p-value: 0.011
Mental content:internalism0.086
externalism internalism
non-naturalism
55.9%(127/227)
33.4%(76/227)
naturalism
60.2%(270/448)
24.5%(110/448)
Response pairs: 798   p-value: 0.015
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.083
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
non-naturalism
5.3%(10/188)
82.9%(156/188)
naturalism
3.1%(12/386)
82.3%(318/386)
Response pairs: 674   p-value: 0.031
not Personal identity:biological view0.077
biological view not biological view
non-naturalism
13.6%(30/219)
69.4%(152/219)
naturalism
21.9%(94/429)
58.7%(252/429)
Response pairs: 760   p-value: 0.033
not Zombies:inconceivable0.075
inconceivable not inconceivable
non-naturalism
16.3%(35/214)
73.8%(158/214)
naturalism
20.6%(90/436)
68.5%(299/436)
Response pairs: 769   p-value: 0.037
not Free will:no free will0.059
no free will free will
non-naturalism
10.5%(25/236)
81.3%(192/236)
naturalism
16.2%(76/468)
76.7%(359/468)
Response pairs: 830   p-value: 0.089
not External world:skepticism0.058
skepticism not skepticism
non-naturalism
2.4%(6/242)
92.5%(224/242)
naturalism
6.9%(33/473)
90.4%(428/473)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: 0.092
Proper names:Fregean0.052
Millian Fregean
non-naturalism
41.9%(86/205)
45.8%(94/205)
naturalism
45.4%(189/416)
37.9%(158/416)
Response pairs: 735   p-value: 0.159
Politics:communitarianism0.051
communitarianism not communitarianism
non-naturalism
21.8%(46/211)
59.7%(126/211)
naturalism
16.3%(63/385)
69%(266/385)
Response pairs: 702   p-value: 0.177

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not xian:Hume0.237
Hume not Hume
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
22.5%(108/480)
77.5%(372/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.205
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
non-naturalism
~0.4%(~1/245)
~99.5%(~244/245)
naturalism
10.2%(49/480)
89.7%(431/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.19
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
non-naturalism
11%(27/245)
88.9%(218/245)
naturalism
1.8%(9/480)
98.1%(471/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.186
Quine not Quine
non-naturalism
2%(5/245)
97.9%(240/245)
naturalism
10.2%(49/480)
89.7%(431/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Husserl0.151
Husserl not Husserl
non-naturalism
3.6%(9/245)
96.3%(236/245)
naturalism
~0.2%(~1/480)
~99.7%(~479/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.151
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
non-naturalism
~0.4%(~1/245)
~99.5%(~244/245)
naturalism
6.4%(31/480)
93.5%(449/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Moore0.142
Moore not Moore
non-naturalism
6.5%(16/245)
93.4%(229/245)
naturalism
1.2%(6/480)
98.7%(474/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Plato0.136
Plato not Plato
non-naturalism
7.7%(19/245)
92.2%(226/245)
naturalism
2.5%(12/480)
97.5%(468/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.135
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
non-naturalism
14.2%(35/245)
85.7%(210/245)
naturalism
24.3%(117/480)
75.6%(363/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Metaphysics0.117
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
non-naturalism
32.2%(79/245)
67.7%(166/245)
naturalism
21.4%(103/480)
78.5%(377/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Kant0.107
Kant not Kant
non-naturalism
16.7%(41/245)
83.2%(204/245)
naturalism
9.7%(47/480)
90.2%(433/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Normative Ethics0.104
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
non-naturalism
19.5%(48/245)
80.4%(197/245)
naturalism
12.7%(61/480)
87.2%(419/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.1
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
non-naturalism
6.5%(16/245)
93.4%(229/245)
naturalism
13.1%(63/480)
86.8%(417/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.003
AOS:Continental Philosophy0.09
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
non-naturalism
5.3%(13/245)
94.6%(232/245)
naturalism
1.4%(7/480)
98.5%(473/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.008
not xian:Mill0.085
Mill not Mill
non-naturalism
2.4%(6/245)
97.5%(239/245)
naturalism
6.2%(30/480)
93.7%(450/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.012
tradition:continental0.08
continental analytic
non-naturalism
7.7%(19/245)
86.1%(211/245)
naturalism
1.8%(9/480)
89.5%(430/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.019
xian:Hegel0.077
Hegel not Hegel
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
0.6%(3/480)
99.3%(477/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.024
xian:Heidegger0.077
Heidegger not Heidegger
non-naturalism
2.8%(7/245)
97.1%(238/245)
naturalism
0.8%(4/480)
99.1%(476/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.024
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.07
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
non-naturalism
4%(10/245)
95.9%(235/245)
naturalism
7.9%(38/480)
92%(442/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.04
not xian:Spinoza0.068
Spinoza not Spinoza
non-naturalism
1.2%(3/245)
98.7%(242/245)
naturalism
3.5%(17/480)
96.4%(463/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.046
xian:Aristotle0.067
Aristotle not Aristotle
non-naturalism
15.1%(37/245)
84.8%(208/245)
naturalism
10.2%(49/480)
89.7%(431/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.05
not xian:Lewis0.067
Lewis not Lewis
non-naturalism
4%(10/245)
95.9%(235/245)
naturalism
8.7%(42/480)
91.2%(438/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.05
AOS:Philosophy of Law0.064
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
non-naturalism
4%(10/245)
95.9%(235/245)
naturalism
2%(10/480)
97.9%(470/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.061
not xian:Carnap0.063
Carnap not Carnap
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
5.4%(26/480)
94.5%(454/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.065
not xian:Davidson0.062
Davidson not Davidson
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
6.2%(30/480)
93.7%(450/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.069
not AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.062
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
non-naturalism
~0.4%(~1/245)
~99.5%(~244/245)
naturalism
2.7%(13/480)
97.2%(467/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.069
AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.059
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
non-naturalism
5.7%(14/245)
94.2%(231/245)
naturalism
3.1%(15/480)
96.8%(465/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.084
not AOS:Decision Theory0.059
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
non-naturalism
2.4%(6/245)
97.5%(239/245)
naturalism
4.1%(20/480)
95.8%(460/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.084
AOS:Metaphilosophy0.054
Metaphilosophy not Metaphilosophy
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
1.8%(9/480)
98.1%(471/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.114
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.053
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
non-naturalism
14.2%(35/245)
85.7%(210/245)
naturalism
11.4%(55/480)
88.5%(425/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.121
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.053
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
non-naturalism
~0.4%(~1/245)
~99.5%(~244/245)
naturalism
2%(10/480)
97.9%(470/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.121
xian:Leibniz0.051
Leibniz not Leibniz
non-naturalism
2.8%(7/245)
97.1%(238/245)
naturalism
1.4%(7/480)
98.5%(473/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.136

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not nationality_region:Australasia0.091
Australasia not Australasia
non-naturalism
2.8%(7/245)
97.1%(238/245)
naturalism
7%(34/480)
92.9%(446/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.007
not phd_region:Australasia0.088
Australasia not Australasia
non-naturalism
1.6%(4/245)
98.3%(241/245)
naturalism
4.5%(22/480)
95.4%(458/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.01
affil:region:United Kingdom0.079
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
non-naturalism
22%(54/245)
77.9%(191/245)
naturalism
17.2%(83/480)
82.7%(397/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.02
gender:male0.078
male female
non-naturalism
88%(207/235)
11.9%(28/235)
naturalism
79.9%(363/454)
20%(91/454)
Response pairs: 810   p-value: 0.026
not affil:region:Australasia0.064
Australasia not Australasia
non-naturalism
3.2%(8/245)
96.7%(237/245)
naturalism
6.6%(32/480)
93.3%(448/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.061
not nationality_region:Other0.055
Other not Other
non-naturalism
5.3%(13/245)
94.6%(232/245)
naturalism
8.3%(40/480)
91.6%(440/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.108
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.052
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
non-naturalism
18.3%(45/245)
81.6%(200/245)
naturalism
15.4%(74/480)
84.5%(406/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.128
not affil:region:United States0.051
United States not United States
non-naturalism
60%(147/245)
40%(98/245)
naturalism
64.1%(308/480)
35.8%(172/480)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.136