The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Moral judgment:non-cognitivism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.527
moral realism moral anti-realism
non-cognitivism
13.4%(22/163)
82.2%(134/163)
cognitivism
74.1%(463/624)
19.8%(124/624)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.333
subjective objective
non-cognitivism
67%(110/164)
21.9%(36/164)
cognitivism
30%(185/615)
55.6%(342/615)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:non-Humean0.286
non-Humean Humean
non-cognitivism
44.1%(72/163)
47.2%(77/163)
cognitivism
69%(409/592)
21.9%(130/592)
Response pairs: 822   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.249
nominalism Platonism
non-cognitivism
60%(99/165)
28.4%(47/165)
cognitivism
33.7%(205/608)
56.7%(345/608)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.243
empiricism rationalism
non-cognitivism
60.2%(100/166)
20.4%(34/166)
cognitivism
36.2%(227/626)
41.3%(259/626)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.204
naturalism non-naturalism
non-cognitivism
71%(113/159)
19.4%(31/159)
cognitivism
50.2%(297/591)
35.1%(208/591)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.195
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
non-cognitivism
23.7%(39/164)
71.3%(117/164)
cognitivism
9.3%(58/619)
84.6%(524/619)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.195
no yes
non-cognitivism
29.8%(49/164)
62.1%(102/164)
cognitivism
15.4%(97/627)
77.9%(489/627)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.18
consequentialism not consequentialism
non-cognitivism
39%(55/141)
47.5%(67/141)
cognitivism
24.1%(135/558)
64.1%(358/558)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: < 0.001
Moral motivation:internalism0.163
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
24.4%(33/135)
56.2%(76/135)
cognitivism
43.7%(241/551)
41.7%(230/551)
Response pairs: 745   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.156
correspondence not correspondence
non-cognitivism
43.4%(70/161)
52.1%(84/161)
cognitivism
59.3%(349/588)
35.2%(207/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.149
libertarianism not libertarianism
non-cognitivism
4.9%(8/163)
88.9%(145/163)
cognitivism
17.3%(107/618)
74.4%(460/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.147
physicalism non-physicalism
non-cognitivism
67.4%(112/166)
25.3%(42/166)
cognitivism
54.9%(344/626)
33.8%(212/626)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.145
theism atheism
non-cognitivism
7.7%(13/168)
85.7%(144/168)
cognitivism
16.8%(105/623)
74.9%(467/623)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.13
invariantism not invariantism
non-cognitivism
25%(37/148)
64.1%(95/148)
cognitivism
41.3%(228/552)
48.7%(269/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: < 0.001
External world:skepticism0.129
skepticism not skepticism
non-cognitivism
7.8%(13/165)
87.2%(144/165)
cognitivism
3.6%(23/625)
93.9%(587/625)
Response pairs: 862   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:deflationary0.129
deflationary not deflationary
non-cognitivism
38.5%(62/161)
57.1%(92/161)
cognitivism
23.8%(140/588)
70.7%(416/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:inconceivable0.119
inconceivable not inconceivable
non-cognitivism
21.4%(32/149)
62.4%(93/149)
cognitivism
15.7%(90/570)
72.9%(416/570)
Response pairs: 781   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.119
relativism not relativism
non-cognitivism
6.7%(10/148)
82.4%(122/148)
cognitivism
2.1%(12/552)
87.8%(485/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: < 0.001
Time:B-theory0.117
B-theory A-theory
non-cognitivism
52.6%(59/112)
20.5%(23/112)
cognitivism
46.5%(184/395)
31.8%(126/395)
Response pairs: 552   p-value: 0.005
not Normative ethics:deontology0.109
deontology not deontology
non-cognitivism
21.9%(31/141)
64.5%(91/141)
cognitivism
35.1%(196/558)
53.2%(297/558)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: 0.002
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.095
yes no
non-cognitivism
64.4%(109/169)
31.9%(54/169)
cognitivism
67.9%(426/627)
26.3%(165/627)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.005
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.092
contextualism not contextualism
non-cognitivism
56.7%(84/148)
32.4%(48/148)
cognitivism
44.2%(244/552)
45.8%(253/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: 0.011
Free will:compatibilism0.089
compatibilism not compatibilism
non-cognitivism
68.7%(112/163)
25.1%(41/163)
cognitivism
60.1%(372/618)
31.5%(195/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.009
Free will:no free will0.081
no free will free will
non-cognitivism
18.4%(30/163)
75.4%(123/163)
cognitivism
11.1%(69/618)
80.5%(498/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.017
Truth:epistemic0.079
epistemic not epistemic
non-cognitivism
10.5%(17/161)
85%(137/161)
cognitivism
6.9%(41/588)
87.5%(515/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: 0.023
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.078
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
non-cognitivism
7%(9/127)
75.5%(96/127)
cognitivism
3.3%(17/509)
83.8%(427/509)
Response pairs: 684   p-value: 0.041
Logic:non-classical0.072
non-classical classical
non-cognitivism
27.7%(38/137)
62%(85/137)
cognitivism
21.6%(121/560)
63.7%(357/560)
Response pairs: 757   p-value: 0.047
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.064
further-fact view not further-fact view
non-cognitivism
6.5%(10/152)
69%(105/152)
cognitivism
17.9%(100/556)
65.2%(363/556)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.075
Epistemic justification:externalism0.061
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
54.9%(84/153)
26.7%(41/153)
cognitivism
50%(302/603)
33.8%(204/603)
Response pairs: 822   p-value: 0.08
Personal identity:psychological view0.058
psychological view not psychological view
non-cognitivism
42.1%(64/152)
33.5%(51/152)
cognitivism
39%(217/556)
44.2%(246/556)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.107
Mental content:internalism0.055
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
56.2%(86/153)
29.4%(45/153)
cognitivism
62.8%(371/590)
24.7%(146/590)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.117
Newcomb's problem:two boxes0.054
two boxes one box
non-cognitivism
51.2%(63/123)
27.6%(34/123)
cognitivism
44.8%(205/457)
32.6%(149/457)
Response pairs: 632   p-value: 0.175
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.052
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
non-cognitivism
33.5%(50/149)
50.3%(75/149)
cognitivism
43.5%(248/570)
45.2%(258/570)
Response pairs: 781   p-value: 0.146

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Nietzsche0.139
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
non-cognitivism
6.5%(11/169)
93.4%(158/169)
cognitivism
1.2%(8/632)
98.7%(624/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Hume0.138
Hume not Hume
non-cognitivism
25.4%(43/169)
74.5%(126/169)
cognitivism
12.3%(78/632)
87.6%(554/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.119
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
18.1%(115/632)
81.8%(517/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy-0.11
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
non-cognitivism
38.2%(13/34)
61.7%(21/34)
cognitivism
52.6%(79/150)
47.3%(71/150)
Response pairs: 201   p-value: 0.12
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.107
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
non-cognitivism
2.3%(4/169)
97.6%(165/169)
cognitivism
6.6%(42/632)
93.3%(590/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.106
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
non-cognitivism
7.6%(13/169)
92.3%(156/169)
cognitivism
2.6%(17/632)
97.3%(615/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.103
Aristotle not Aristotle
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
94%(159/169)
cognitivism
14.3%(91/632)
85.6%(541/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.002
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.097
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
non-cognitivism
10.6%(18/169)
89.3%(151/169)
cognitivism
4.5%(29/632)
95.4%(603/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.004
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.092
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
non-cognitivism
14.2%(24/169)
85.7%(145/169)
cognitivism
9%(57/632)
90.9%(575/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.006
AOS:Continental Philosophy0.088
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
94%(159/169)
cognitivism
1.7%(11/632)
98.2%(621/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.009
not xian:Moore0.085
Moore not Moore
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
3.7%(24/632)
96.2%(608/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.011
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.083
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
12.6%(80/632)
87.3%(552/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.014
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.082
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
non-cognitivism
2.9%(5/169)
97%(164/169)
cognitivism
7.9%(50/632)
92%(582/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.015
AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.076
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
non-cognitivism
7.1%(12/169)
92.8%(157/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.024
xian:Quine0.073
Quine not Quine
non-cognitivism
8.8%(15/169)
91.1%(154/169)
cognitivism
5.6%(36/632)
94.3%(596/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.03
AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.072
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
non-cognitivism
10%(17/169)
89.9%(152/169)
cognitivism
8.3%(53/632)
91.6%(579/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.033
not AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.067
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
1.8%(12/632)
98.1%(620/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.047
tradition:continental0.064
continental analytic
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
86.3%(146/169)
cognitivism
3%(19/632)
89.2%(564/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.058
xian:Heidegger0.063
Heidegger not Heidegger
non-cognitivism
2.3%(4/169)
97.6%(165/169)
cognitivism
0.7%(5/632)
99.2%(627/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.062
not AOS:Metaphysics0.061
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
non-cognitivism
21.8%(37/169)
78.1%(132/169)
cognitivism
26.8%(170/632)
73.1%(462/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.071
not xian:Marx0.059
Marx not Marx
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
1.8%(12/632)
98.1%(620/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.081
xian:Carnap0.057
Carnap not Carnap
non-cognitivism
6.5%(11/169)
93.4%(158/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.091
xian:Wittgenstein0.054
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
non-cognitivism
7.6%(13/169)
92.3%(156/169)
cognitivism
7.1%(45/632)
92.8%(587/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.11
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.052
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
non-cognitivism
3.5%(6/169)
96.4%(163/169)
cognitivism
2%(13/632)
97.9%(619/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.124
not xian:Rawls0.052
Rawls not Rawls
non-cognitivism
3.5%(6/169)
96.4%(163/169)
cognitivism
5.2%(33/632)
94.7%(599/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.124
not xian:Plato0.05
Plato not Plato
non-cognitivism
2.9%(5/169)
97%(164/169)
cognitivism
4.7%(30/632)
95.2%(602/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.139

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
nationality_region:Europe0.12
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
19.5%(33/169)
80.4%(136/169)
cognitivism
9.8%(62/632)
90.1%(570/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
gender:female0.111
female male
non-cognitivism
24.8%(41/165)
75.1%(124/165)
cognitivism
16.4%(98/595)
83.5%(497/595)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: 0.001
not nationality_region:United States0.109
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
42%(71/169)
57.9%(98/169)
cognitivism
54.4%(344/632)
45.5%(288/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
not phd_region:United States0.107
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
44.3%(75/169)
55.6%(94/169)
cognitivism
56.3%(356/632)
43.6%(276/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
phd_region:Europe0.097
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.004
affil:region:Europe0.083
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
10.6%(18/169)
89.3%(151/169)
cognitivism
5.5%(35/632)
94.4%(597/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.014
not affil:region:United States0.066
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
57.9%(98/169)
42%(71/169)
cognitivism
62.6%(396/632)
37.3%(236/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.05
phd_region:Australasia0.064
Australasia not Australasia
non-cognitivism
5.3%(9/169)
94.6%(160/169)
cognitivism
2.8%(18/632)
97.1%(614/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.058